North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.
Vol. 83, No. 133
Chepel Hill, North Carolina, Thursday, April 17, 1975
Founded February 23, 1833
NoCo Moms deffesite Eqmial
by Helen Ross
Following two hours of debate Wednesday, the
North Carolina House of Representatives defeated the
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) by a final vote of 62
57. The House gave the amendment tentative approval
by slim margins in its first two readings. Tuesday.
After the ERA was defeated, the legislators denied
an attempt to allow the measure to be reconsidered
later in the session.
The second vote Tuesday could have ended in a 59
59 tie but Rep. Ronald E. Mason, D-Carteret,
changed his negative vote to give a preliminary victory
to the ERA. He later said he switched his vote to
prevent Speaker James C. Green from having to break
House rules state that the speaker does not have to
vote to break a tie. If the speaker chooses not to vote,
the matter before the House is defeated. Speaker
Green has not publicly expressed his sentiments on the
In the vote Wednesday, however. Mason voted
against the amendment. Two other legislators
changed their vote and another, who was absent
Tuesday, voted against the measure.
The ERA must be ratified in 38 states by 1979 to
become part of the Constitution.
Following its defeat in the N.C. House, the ERA is
pending this year only in the legislatures of Florida,
Missouri and Illinois. The Texas General Assembly is
considering a measure which would rescind its support
of the amendment, granted in 1972.
Spectators filled the House gallery for Wednesday's
debate on the ERA. Most wore badges to display
either their support or opposition to the measure.
Rep. Herbert L. Hyde, D-Buncombe, began the
debate by urging his colleagues to listen to the
opinions of the 13 female legislators.
Trish Hunt, D-Orange, said, "1 am expected to
represent the liberated woman, the radical Chapel
Hillian. I am not." She urged passage of the measure
to firmly establish in the Constitution the status of
"The only legitimate issue warranting discussion is
the draft," Hunt said.
Women who might be inducted into the military
under interpretations of the ERA, Hunt said, would
be able to seek deferrments just as men can.
Hunt said Congress already has the power to draft
women and that nurses were almost drafted in World
"Extend to me the dignity of equality. I do not need
your paternalism. Let me stand on my own merits,"
It took North Carolina 51 years to ratify the 19th
Amendment which gave women the right to vote. Rep.
Thomas Gilmore, D-Guilford. said as he urged
prompt passage of the ERA.
Rep. Frances Setzer, D-Catawba, said other
representatives should "vote for others as you would
have them vote for you." She urged the legislators to
look beyond county lines to what is right for all North
Marilyn R. Bissell, R-Mecklenberg, read a telegram
she received Wednesday morning from Betty Ford.
The telegram expressed the First Lady's gratitude for
Bissell's support of the ERA Tuesday.
Before he quoted a statement Sam Ervin had
written in opposition to the ERA. Rep. Bobby Wayne
Rodgers, D-Henderson. said. I would rather read
him (Ervin) than quote Ms. Ford. .
"I. for one, think a woman should be held on a
pedestal. 1 do not apologize for this." Rogers said.
Rep. Addison Ncal Smith. D-Rowan. said he
supports equal rights but added. "The amendment is
"I would challenge you as lawmakers." Smith told
the House members, "to begin changing laws where
you believe discrimination is existing. I would caution
you, though, about changing the Constitution."
Rep. Joy Joseph Johnson. D-Robeson. said.l can
assure you if the ERA becomes law it will not bring the
world to an end."
Morals, privacy, respect and dignity will still prevail
and "that great institution, the family, will not
disintegrate," Johnson said.
by final ERA defeat
by Vernon Loeb
" Prominent women from the Chapel Hill
area expressed disappointment Wednesday
after the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
was defeated in Raleigh by a close 62-57 vote
on the final reading.
"It's an enormous disappointment to me,"
Chapel Hill Alderman Alice Welsh said of
the defeat. "It's just a delay of what will
eventually become a reality. The need for
equal rights is here today, and it was here
Welsh's colleague, Alderman Shirley
Marshall, expressed similar feelings. "I'm
very disappointed, but I'm not surprised that
we had a defeat. Had we not seen that string
of five defeats earlier this year, North
Carolina would have passed the
M arshall also said that when the new state
legislators are elected in 1976, a new
favorable attitude towards the ERA will be
dominant. Many opponents of the ERA, she
-said, will be defeated at election time.
Cricket Ussery, chairperson of the
Association of Women Students (AWS),
said, "I was terribly disappointed, especially
since the vote was so close yesterday. If we
could have swayed just a few more people we
would have made it."
Ussery also said she originally felt the
delay in the third vote would have increased
ERA's chance of passage, but added, "I
guess I thought people were more logical
than they are." The amendment was
approved in its first two readings Tuesday.
Jamie Ellis, Usseiy's predecessor as AWS
chairperson, expressed different feelings
about the delay. "If the third vote had come
Tuesday, it would have passed. 1 just can't
believe they wouldn't pass it. The defeat was
a real shock," she said. Political pressure, she
said, caused three representatives to change
their vote Wednesday.
Miriam Slifkin, President of the Chapel
Hill chapter of the National Organization of
Women (NOW), said the vote was very
unfortunate. "I'm tired of being protected
out of everything 1 own," she said.
"Everyone thinks men should go to war to
fight for their rights while women should sit
back and let the state take care of theirs."
Marsha Mann, UNC's Ail-American
basketball star, said although she was not -j;;
familiar with all the provisions of the
amendment, she was disappointed that the
amendment's main provisions equal
wages and equal protection under the law
s M f - r v
A change "of face
United Press International
The International Red Cross in Geneva
said Wednesday night the Cambodian
government offered to surrender but exiled
Prince Norodom Sihanouk in Peking
rejected the five-point proposal.
The report of the proposal and Sihanouk's
response came as Khmer Rouge insurgents
battled to within 1,000 yards of the
abandoned American embassy in Phnom
Penh. The capital city apparently was near
final collapse under a barrage of rockets and
artillery and a push by the Communist-led
rebels across the United Nations bridge
toward the U.S. embassy.
"He gave a negative answer," Red Cross
Information Chief Alain Modoux said in
Geneva concerning Sihanouk's reply. But he
refused to comment other than to say the
initiatives on what they want to do."
The International Red Cross said earlier it
relayed a Cambodian government offer to
surrender to Sihanouk and the Khmer
Rouge rebel forces moving into Phnom
In announcing that the offer had been
made, Modoux said that the proposal
contained five points but that it was "up to
the parties involved to divulge the details."
The Yugoslav national news agency, in a
dispatch from Peking earlier, quoted
Sihanouk sources as saying. "Sihanouk has
rejected the offer of the Quislings in Phnom
Penh which was signed by the president of
the supreme committee, Sak Suthsakhan.
which he received through the International
Red Cross in Geneva."
Tanjug said Sihanouk sent a reply to the
Red Cross calling the proposal
reply had been sent to Phnom Penh. -unacceptable ana aavismg tne memDers oi
ed me puppet supreme commmcc 10 icave
As the 62-57 defeat of the Equal Rights Admendment is announced, opponents of
the admendment (foreground) react with jubilation and supporters of the measure
(background) remain solemn in the House gallery. The ERA had passed two initial
votes Tuesday afternoon, but lost the third and final vote.
Modoux said the Red Cross had acted
only as an intermediary in the matter. "We
were used only as a means of transmitting the
proposal. We didn't participate," Modoux
said. "It is now up to the parties to take
Condie: 'not a frivolous matter'
Pie-throwing streaker sentenced
Stiff photo toy Gary Lobraico
C.B. Gaines, who pleaded guilty to
charges of throwing a pie in Dr. James
Condie's face, was censured by the
Undergraduate Honor Court Tuesday
by George Bacso
, C.B. Gaines pleaded guilty Tuesday night
to the charge of "running nude through a
meeting held in the Carolina Union.. .and
assaulting Dr. James Condie (director of
University Housing) by throwing a pie at
him at the same meeting." The
Undergraduate Court censured Gaines.
A censure is an official reprimand
notifying a student that any further violation
of the Code of Student Conduct will carry
heavier penalties because of this first
violation. The penalty remains a part of a
student's disciplinary record, but is not
recorded on his transcript.
Gaines interrupted a housing complaint
session on February 18 when he streaked
into the room, uttered the words, "Nothing
personal," and threw a pie at Condie. The pie
missed Condie but splattered his coat and
hair. Condie immediately left the meeting,
which ended soon afterward.
The charges against Gaines were brought
by Assistant Dean of Student Life Frederic
Schroeder. Neither Schroeder nor Condie
was available for comment Wednesday.
Gaines' original plea of not guilty was
changed to guilty on the advice of his
counsel, Joe Swain, after Swain's request for
dismissal of the charges was denied.
Swain's request for dismissal was based on
the belief that his client's actions were "of a
frivolous and comic nature and done with no
malice, while these resulting charges are very
Condie could not attend the trial because
of previous commitments, Kathy Flanagan,
an investigator for the Attorney General's
oifice, said. She read a material statement
written by Condie which said, "This is a
serious matter, not a frivolous onc.and in
my opinion.. .Gaines acted in an obscene
Flanagan said Condie took the matter as a
personal embarrassment and as an affront to
a University figure.
Testifying in his own behalf, Gaines said,
"I thought it (throwing a pie at someone) was
a good idea and that Dr. Condie deserved it
for his housing decisions. 1 made a pie and
took it to the meeting. Then 1 thought my
actions would have more of an impact if 1
Gaines waived his right to a closed trial so
that the Daily Tar Heel and a few personal
lriends could observe the proceedings.
"We took this as a very serious matter
which could not be condoned, although Mr.
Gaines, his friends and his defense did not,"
Undergraduate Court Chairperson Kathy
McArthur said Wednesday.
"Because Gaines is a senior and will
graduate in three weeks, we felt a censure
would be strong enough, since probation
would probably keep him from graduating,"
McArthur said. "In a case of someone who
was not a senior, however, the court
probably would have sentenced stronger."
However, Gaines said he is withdrawing
from UNC and traveling to San Francisco.
Phnom Penh before the final battle because
they had earned only the right to be hanged.
President Ford said in Washington the
United States will "help in any way we can to
further those negotiations."
Ford said he had just received word that
the Phnom Penh government "will work
with the Khmer Rouge to try to negotiate a
settlement." But he added he had received
indications that Sihanouk "is in no position
to achieve nor accomplish the results we
want namely a negotiated settlement
and that is an unfortunate situation."
Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield,
a long-time acquaintance of Sihanouk, said
he "would devoutly hope" that Sihanouk
would accept the request announced today
by the Red Cross.
Mansfield said that he received a
cablegram from Sihanouk about 10 days ago
that indicated his forces were holding off an
attack at the Phnom Penh airport to allow
Americans to evacuate.
But Mansfield said he has received no
indication whether Sihanouk would be
willing to accept a surrender offer and
declare a cease-fire.
Other members of Congress reacted as if
surrender were an accomplished fact. Sen.
George McGovern, D-S.D.. of the Foreign
Relations Committee, said. "For some time
now, today's action has appeared to be
Committee will recommeed
women's tadie cMrricuilMm
by Bruce Henderson
A student-faculty committee will
recommend a new interdisciplinary
curriculum in women's studies to the Faculty
Committee member Margaret O'Conner,
an assistant English professor, said the
recommendation is for an undergraduate
curriculum, not a department or degree
The 1 5-member committee was
established by Chancellor N. Ferebee Taylor
at the request of the Faculty Council.
The curriculum will probably consist of
three core courses, O'Connor said, adding
that women's courses already are offered in
the history, English and psychology
"This will be a curriculum that would
increase the options for those students
interested in women's roles in history," she
said. "Women have played strong roles in
history, literature and psychology; this
aspect has been overlooked.
"This program will be offering courses for
general education as well as for those who
want to major in it," O'Connor said. She
added that its courses will be open to men
The committee's recommendations will go
to the Chancellor for further consideration.
Another new curriculum was established
last September. An undergraduate degree
program in Latin American studies was
created in response to an active interest in the
subject, Federico G. Gil, director of the
Institute for Latin American Studies, said.
He said that until last year, those
interested had to major in international
Forty-four courses are now offered in the
Latin American curriculum, including four
Latin America courses. Most are cross-listed
under political science, history, Romance
languages, anthropology, geography,
sociology and economics.
Undergraduate majors are required to
take a Portuguese or Spansih foreign
language option and a core course, Latin
American 47, while in the General College.
U pperclassmen then decide between
concentrations in the humanities (including
history and language-literature sequences)
and the social sciences (including political
science or anthropology-geography-economics-sociology
honors courses are available.
The program will feature as many outside
instructors as possible, Gil said. This year
two prominent Latin Americans, economist
Ricardo Lagos Escobar and Argentine
historian Roberto Etchepareborda, are
Kenan Visiting Professors of Latin
Most students of Latin America, Gil said,
either go into government service or business
after they graduate. He said many jobs are
available in different branches of
government, including the State
Gil said the Latin American curriculum is
needed since the strength of the United
States' relations with Latin America, now
weak, is becoming increasingly important.
"The Third World nations are now
playing a more important (world) role," he
said. "They have grown economically now.
They have a more independent voice in
International cooperation is needed with a
worldwide shortage of raw materials, he
said. Ecuador and Venezuela, both members
of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries, are among the world's leading oil
, 4 vA'rfA,fs3$n 5i fix Ah i ( "vA ,V y& lyt U :ii
r ih s4 iv' iu ir-1 n a iv- '' Mm V J
'Vj V '.
f?-y. - .-. y -- .
fcsr: x,.&?.wi&.- sxj .v. ;'.
Stall pttoto by ChwlM Hardy
Scottish troops invade McCorkle Place
Members of the North Carolina Bicentennial Brigade reenact
the battle for Culloden Moor on McCorkle Place Wednesday
afternoon. The battle was fought in 1746 between Scottish
Highlanders and English troops supported by the Campbells
of Argoyle. The reenactment was held In Chapel Hill as part of
state-wide bicentennial activities.