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Copyright 1 964 The Daily Tar Heel
Hungry for knowledge
Applications are available for the
second breakfast with
Chancellor Christopher C.
Fordham III. Check the Carolina
Student Fund and page 2 for
Serving the students and the University community since 1893
Volume 92, Issue 84
Tuesday, November 13, 1984
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Baldwin questions identity of whites
By RUTHIE PIPKIN
Americans are caught in a time of
moral terror as they realize blacks aren't
what society prescribed they should be,
author James Baldwin told a crowd of
about 1,500 in Memorial Hall at 8 p.m.
"For the first time, people who think
of themselves as white are being forced
to look in the mirror and they don't
find me (the black), they find them
selves," said Baldwin, who has written
18 books, many dealing with the
anguish of the American black. Born
in 1924, the New York City native and
grandson of a slave came to UNC as
the keynote speaker for Human Rights
Week sponsored by the Carolina Union
and the Campus Y.
"Who is Sambo? Who is a nigger?
Who is Uncle Tom? The question must
come up, who is Scarlett O'Hara?"
"What I'm suggesting is that History
with a capital H is a creation of the
people who think of themselves as
white," he said.
"The people who conquered the
North American wilderness were not
white before they came here, not before
they found me," Baldwin said.
"They were Russian, Turk, Greek and
- , ,h . .ftps y-r
Initials from the past: Brooks indicates one of two doomed beech trees
Council discovers passing a bill
about Nicaragua is no cakewalk
By DAVID SCHMIDT
The controversy surrounding a Cam
pus Governing Council law that antic
ipates a U.S. invasion of Nicaragua has
more sides to it than the Pentagon.
The act outlines certain protests the
CGC Student Affairs Committee will
execute the day after an invasion occurs:
organizing vigils outside state congres
sional offices and requesting that the
chancellor cancel classes, the ROTC
lower its flag to half-mast and local
businesses place notices of solidarity in
Although the law states no Student
Government funds will be used to enact
the measures, some students pointed out
that the CGC operates on student fees
and claimed it violated the Student
Constitution by supporting a political
action. Others said the national issue
is not of campus concern and that the
majority of students dont support the
law. And CGC members questioned
what constituted an invasion while
debating the bill.
"We want the discussion to take
place, and perhaps we've forced it," said
Doug Berger (Dist. I), author of the
Article I, section 6, of the Student
Constitution states, "The Campus
Governing Council shall appropriate no
Student Fees to programs, services, or
events of a political or religious nature."
The legality of the law could be
challenged, according to Tom Terrell,
president of the Graduate and Profes
sional Student Federation and a third
year law student. "Anytime a campus
organization which is funded by student
fees spends its time and energies on
activities of a religious or political
French, but they were not white. They
became white out of the bitter necessity
to justify their crime," Baldwin said.
Europeans pretended the Africans
were waiting to be civilized and justified
slavery by the need to share their
religion, Baldwin said. "It was not true
that I was waiting to be discovered, it
was not true that my discovery was by
Christians who wanted to save my soul,"
said the son of a revivalist minister. "It's
not true that I came here in chains, the
happy darkie; it's not true that I picked
cotton for free out of love."
The black learned to answer what the
white man wanted to hear rather than
what he thought, Baldwin said. "If the
master wanted it raining, I didn't look
at the weather, I looked at the man or
woman's face," Baldwin said. "If he
wanted it to be raining it was, if he
didn't, it wasn't. That's why niggers are
ignorant, shuffling and say 'yes sir,' and
'no, sir,' because they didnt look at the
weather, they looked at the man's face
Baldwin said society's economic
structure caused whites to treat blacks
as less than human.
This attitude caused him to go to
Europe, Baldwin said, where he began
to write. "That's a terrible way to live,"
DTH Nancy London
nature, that could arguably come under
the statute," he said.
Berger said the law wasn't political
in the way the constitution intended.
The CGC is inherently political, he said,
and providing means of protest
wouldn't affect legislation. Besides, he
added, The Daily Tar Heel endorses
candidates for political offices and the
Black Student Movement actively
supports Affirmative Action.
John Nicholson (Dist. 17) said he
tried to break quorum before the CGC
approved the bill because the council
shouldn't have addressed an issue of
"IVe received a lot of flak about what
I (indirectly) helped do," Nicholson
said. "We're speaking for all the
students, and I know that's not how
"I cant think of anything that's more
of a student issue than the specter of
drafting students and sending them off
to war," Berger said. He said his
constituents supported the law.
In addition, he said, progressive
movements traditionally have begun on
college campuses. "I think Jimmy
Carter hit it on the head (in his Oct.
30 lecture at UNC), and we need to do
it again. I see it as a very positive thing
that students got this country out of
Berger defined "invasion" in this case
as an act of aggression within Nicara
The ultimate decision rests with the
entire Student Affairs Committee. Four
of its seven members, including Berger,
are members of Students Effectively
Establishing a Democratic System, a
See COUNCIL or page 3
a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants.
Whites defaced themselves when they
reduced the value of the black to a
commercial value, Baldwin said. "When
I was reduced to a thing, so was the
man who owned me," he said. "When
I was reduced to a commercial value,
so was the man who owned me reduced
to a commercial value.
"The people who have done this to
others have done this to themselves,"
Baldwin said. During the civil rights
movement of the '60s, the white man
realized he'd fallen into the trap laid
for the black, Baldwin said. "According
to me, the civil rights movement was
one of the last slave insurrections," he
Baldwin responded to questions for
about 20 minutes after his speech.
This marks the second year of
Human Rights Week at UNC. "Last
year a group of students at the Y who
were and are concerned about human
rights issues wanted to bring those issues
to the attention of the campus," said
Carol Holcomb, director of the Campus
Y. "Because there are so many human
rights advocate groups in the commun
ity and on campus, we invited those
groups to present information regarding
their human rights concerns."
Holcomb said more than 20 groups
will be cut
By GUY LUCAS
Two 80-year-old beech trees, covered
with initials carved by decades of Tar
Heels, will soon be cut down and
removed from the University's Arbore
tum, according to Curtis Brooks,
supervisor of the Arboretum.
Brooks said an inventory was taken
of all diseased and dying trees to be
cut down. All but the two beeches and
an incense cedar have already been cut,,
but because those trees are the largest
and, therefore, the hardest to remove,
they were left until last.
Some people, including alumni, want
to preserve the tree trunks with the
initials or transplant the trees.
Brooks said there was no reason to
Reagan 's success failed to
By JOAN CLIFFORD
State after state lit up for President
Reagan on the evening news maps last
Tuesday, carrying him to victory and
sweeping Walter Mondale away.
Despite the magnitude of his victory,
however, Reagan failed to lift his party
to major gains in Congress.
Congressional results indicate that '
Reagan may not be able to revive the
working majority that took control of
the House in 1980. Republicans picked
up only 15 seats little more than half
the 26 seats they lost in 1982, and the
Democrats retain control. Some of the
Republican winners only replaced
conservative Democrats who had fre
quently voted with Reagan on much of
his legislation. As a result, the actual
shift, with the 15 additional Republican
seats, is slim, the Democrats claim:
perhaps only six to 10 seats.
Besides keeping a majority in the
House, Democrats stole two Senate
seats, reducing the Republican edge
By ANDY MILLER
A UNC graduate student gave a
speech last week that could have landed
him in jail for at least five years
in his home country of South Africa.
Jimmy Ellis, a UNC graduate student
in sociology, spoke in favor of Univer
sity divestment, or the removal of UNC
Endowment investments from compan
ies that do business in South Africa,
at a rally in the Pit.
In South Africa, his speech would be
considered treason, which carries a
maximum penalty of death. At UNC,
it became another flame in the fiery
campus debate over divestment. The
Black Student Movement, the Campus
Governing Council and other student
organizations have renewed their call
for total University divestment because
of South Africa's apartheid govern
ment, which segregates the races and
discriminates by law and custom.
Ellis said in a recent interview that
corporate involvement in South Africa
was the same as involvement in apar
theid. "If you deplore apartheid and
(do) not withdraw your funds from
these companies, you are taking the
clout out of your condemnation," he
The white-controlled apartheid gov
ernment has forced the black popula
Treated as less than human: Baldwin
with history carved in
down in Arboretum
transplant the trees, because both will
die within two years. He added that the
trees were too big to be transplanted.
"I think once they (the alumni) take
a look at it, they'll change their minds,"
he said. One diseased tree is leafless and
"essentially dead," and the other is bent
and crooked, he said.
Brooks said, however, that there
would probably not be any problem
keeping the trunks preserved, as long
as they were kept indoors and dry.
He said people who wanted to
preserve the trunks would have to
decide whether they were worthy
because of the historical value of the
initials. He said old initials were often
from 55-45 to 53-47. The results
weakened the leverage of the GOP
Democrats are challenging the scope
of Reagan's mandate, saying that his
win was one of personal popularity
rather than one of economic, social or
military policies. Merle Black, associate
professor of political science, supports
"Reagan had more popularity than
his party. He may have swept the
nation, but his coattails weren't long
enough. The Republicans didn't gain
much at all."
How successful Reagan is at pushing
his programs through Congress may
determine how successful his "four more
years" are. Since Republicans failed to
gain enouigh seats to make up for their
tion, which constitutes 72 percent of the
total population of South Africa, to live
on 13 percent of the land. These
"homelands" are the worst areas in the
country, according to Julius Nyang'oro,
visiting professor of African Studies at
Under apartheid, blacks are barred
from voting for, or being members of,
the ruling parliament. In 1975, blacks
in South Africa received $175 in per
capita income, compared to $2500 for
whites. Per capita spending on educa
tion in 1978-79 was $833 for whites and
$82 for blacks. And, because of the
inequities in medicine under apartheid,
blacks have a much higher infant
mortality rate than whites 94 out of
1,000, vs. 14.9 out of 1,000.
The Black Student Movement and 12
other student organizations sponsored
the divestment rally last week to protest
the investment policy of the Endow
ment Board of Trustees. In a April 1983
policy statement, the board said it
deplored apartheid as "repugnant and
inhumane" but said divestiture was
inconsistent with the board's primary
obligation "to maximize risk-adjusted
investment returns for the charitable
purposes of the University community."
Chancellor Christopher C. Fordham
said Thursday that the . Endowment
Board, by holding extensive debate and
U. ml is I
DTH Nancy London
told 1 ,500 his views on race relations
"The legible initials are probably 10
years (old) or less," he said.
The two beeches are part of a cluster
of three. Brooks said the third beech
is the strongest of the cluster, and it
would become stronger after the other
two are removed, because it would not
have to compete with them.
He said the purpose of an Arboretum
was to display as many different plants
in the best health. He said the healthy
tree would be a better specimen after '
the competing trees are removed.
All three beeches, as well as others
in other parts of the Arboretum, have
No date has been set for the trees
to be cut down.
deliver working majority
1982 loss, it will probably be more
difficult for Reagan to put together the
winning alliances he had in 1981.
The possibility of moderate biparti
san coalitions on some issues remains,
"In the House, since the (Republi
cans) did gain some seats, they could
probably pull through with economic
matters. They might sway Southern
Democrats." But Black said Republi
cans could not win on many of the big
issues, "nothing like religion or abor
tion; that's too tender."
Some upcoming Congressional votes,
on continuing production of the MX
missile, which was close before, and
sending aid to rebels fighting in Nica
ragua, which Democrats opposed, will
test the support of Congress for Rea
The president has also proposed a tax
simplification plan which includes a
trade-off of lower tak rates in return
for the elimination of deductions and
exemptions. On this issue there could
UNC students continue to encourage
University divestment from South Africa
a public hearing on the issue, had given
divestment serious consideration. "One
may criticize the result, but it's hard to
criticize their effort," Fordham said.
"The board works carefully and
unselfishly in giving their time and effort
to the University," he said. "From time
to time they have to make some
More than 20 U.S. colleges and
universities have divestment policies,
according to Anne Newman, a research
analyst at the Investor Responsibility
Some institutions, such as the Uni
versity of Maine and Michigan State
University, have policies of total
divestiture in the 350 American com
panies doing business in South Africa.
Other institutions, such as Harvard
College and Ohio State University, have
policies of monitoring corporate prac
tices in South Africa according to the
These principles, formulated by the
Rev. Leon Sullivan of Philadelphia in
1976, promote equal pay and oppor
tunity in the companies' factories in
South Africa. They have been accepted
by 130 U.S. companies.
Sherrod Banks, president of the
BSM, said Thursday that his organi
zation had asked the Black Faculty and
Staff Caucus for its support on the
Gen. Omar Bradley
By LISA SWICEGOOD
If You Love This Planet, a documen
tary by Dr. Helen Caldicott that
describes the medical and biological
consequences of a nuclear war will be
shown today as part of Human Rights
The film's sponsors, Physicians for
Social Responsibility, are doctors
devoted to spreading medical fact
concerning nuclear war.
"The film hopes to arouse people
against nuclear war," said Dr. Daniel
Young, professor at the UNC Medical
School and a member of PSR.
The film shows a speech given by
Caldicott, the national president of PSR
"It is very appealing," Young said.
"It's saying that if you love this planet,
then get out and do something to
prevent if from being destroyed."
"Caldicott is a very effective speaker.
Her audiences really get wrapped up in
what she says," said Dr. Norman
Coulter, PSR president.
The film, which won an Oscar for
best documentary in 1982, was once
declared by the U.S. State Department
as seditious. Any organization that
showed the film was required to register
with the State Department.
"It's really ridiculous," Young said.
"It's just showing that our behaviour
is likely to destroy us. The only
propaganda is that against our current
nuclear military policy."
Because the film was processed in
Canada, the State Department declared
the film to be foreign propaganda.
Young said the film tried to show that
there was a better way to organize the
world than by annihilating everyone.
Coulter said the film presented the
terrible consequences of war from a
medical standpoint. "The injuries of the
blast effect, heat and radiation are
devastating. In Hiroshima, about 90
percent of the doctors died. There would
be no way the medical profession could
Coulter said the film's sponsors
hoped to gain a "greater awareness on
the part of students and other faculty
of the problem we are facing in the
See DOCUMENTARY on page 3
be conflict, Black said, because "it's
optimum for the people of America, but
it will put a lot of businesses out."
The biggest GOP breakthroughs in
Congressional battles were in North
Carolina and Texas, where Republicans
saved two Senate seats and picked up
seven House seats, three of which were
in North Carolina.
Reagan's landslide victory is being
compared to Richard Nixon's 1972 re
election landslide over George McGov
ern: Nixon won with 47 million votes
to McGovern's 29 million, but voters
elected Democratic majorities to both
the Senate and the House, although
North Carolina's Jesse Helms rode in
with Nixon's coattails. (North Carolina
gave Reagan a 62 percent majority in
1984, and Nixon a 70 percent one in
"In 1972 Nixon swept the nation but
didn't bring many Republicans with
him. That's just like another Reagan,"
"We have picked up support from just
about every student organization,"
Banks said. "It needs to be a joint effort
from students and faculty."
In September, the CGC voted to
withdraw Student Government's
$13,000 investment from the Trust
Fund Office and place the money into
the Self-Help Credit Union in Durham,
which does not invest in companies that
do business in South Africa.
Paul Parker, student body president,
said the transfer was spurred by a 1983
student referendum, which supported
divestment by a vote of 3,313 to 1,891.
The $13,000 had been invested in
Treasury Bonds and not in corpora
tions, Parker said. But the CGC moved
the surplus funds, he said, to "dissociate
with the University's policy of investing
in South Africa."
"The second step is to get the
University to divest its own money," he
Nyang'oro, who is originally from
Tanzania, compared the repression in
South Africa to that in Nazi Germany
during the 1930s. "South Africa repres
ents the most repressive regime in the
world," he said. The U.S. government
stresses human rights in Poland, the
See DIVESTMENT on page 5