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Social factors lead
By HELLE NIELSEN
Although the killing of 5,000 Hutu
by the ruling Tutsi in Burundi last
month was called tribal rivalry, the
country's century-long conflict has its
roots in social inequality, experts say.
In pre-colonial times, Tutsi
referred to the ruling class and Hutu
to the servant class, said anthropol
ogist Jan Vensina of the University
of Wisconsin at Madison. But during
the Belgian colonization, Burundians
were permanently identified as either
Tutsi or Hutu for administrative
purposes, Vensina said.
"Tutsi and Hutu refer to social
categories," he said. "What you have
here is a social conflict."
Burundi, whose borders are Zaire
to the west, Rwanda to the north and
Tanzania to the east, is one of Africa's
poorest countries. More than 90
percent of the 5 million Burundians
work in agriculture.
The Tutsi, about 15 percent of the
population, hold most positions of
political and economic power in
Burundi, and the military is exclu
sively Tutsi, Vensina said.
Since Burundi gained independ
ence in 1962 the Hutu revolted
repeatedly "to get a better deal,"
At least 5,000 Hutu were killed in
northern Burundi in August, accord
By ERIK DALE FLIPPO
A legislative study commission is
investigating charges by environmen
tal groups that the N.C. Department
of Human Resources exaggerated
figures in a hazardous waste report
to strengthen its case for a waste
treatment facility, the committee
chairman said Monday.
"We're working through the data
(in the report) to determine what the
state government should do about
hazardous waste treatment," said
Rep. Joe Hackney of Orange County,
House co-chairman of the Hazardous
Waste Study Commission.
- Environmental groups, including
the Clean Water Fund and Lee
Chatham Concerned Citizens, have
charged that the government inflated
figures in its hazardous waste pro
duction report by as much as 25
percent to better plead its case for
a state waste incinerator.
A prepared statement released by
the groups said some waste that was
shipped off-site for treatment was
counted twice, significantly inflating
the final figures.
While inadvertent double-counting
of some waste, shipped off-site for
treatment is certainly possible, it is
the homeless problem, Hoppe said.
He looked worst when discussing
why he has suggested appropriating
$ 1 billion for research on the Strategic
Defense Initiative, which he once
referred to as "a fraud," Smith said.
Dukakis got his lowest ratings of
the evening when he criticized Bush's
plea for volunteer solutions to med
ical problems, Meyer said.
Bush was most effective at painting
Dukakis as more liberal than the
voters want their president to be,
"' According to Beyle, Dukakis' note
that Bush never used the Pledge of
Allegiance in his seven years of
' presiding over the Senate embar
. Reese called the pledge an "irrele
. vant issue," and said the vice president
. looked foolish" on the point.
Bush was on the defensive and
relied too much on "inside the
, 3eltway language" to defend his
. positions, Smith said. Most observers
said Bush was not specific enough.
... Meyer said Bush's biggest negative
ratings came on his criticism of
Dukakis' educational proposal.
. . . The observers were divided on the
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ing to government estimates, when
the military attacked the area with
helicopters after violence erupted
between Hutu and local Tutsi
"The government intervened in
order to establish order," said Simon
Findano, counselor of cultural affairs
at the Burundian embassy in
Washington, D.C. "It is unfortunate
that when something like that
happens innocent are killed."
Findano said Burundi Hutu living
in Rwanda incited local Hutu to riot.
According to wire service reports,
violence erupted after two Tutsi
police killed a Hutu at a marketplace,
and Hutu retaliated by killing the
police officers, Vensina said.
The Chinese press agency, Xin
Hua, estimated that 24,000 Hutu were
killed, Vensina said. "That may be
a bit high, but it has some
The United Nations said an esti
mated 60,000 Burundians have fled
over the border to Rwanda since the
massacre, he said.
"I think fear of another revolution
is why the army was so savage,"
In 1972, a Hutu uprising led to a
civil war in which 100,000 to 200,000
Burundians, or 5 to 6 percent of the
population, were killed.
Following that war, Hutu with
nowhere near the amount the
environmental groups are charging,
a waste management spokesman said.
"Their numbers are way off base,"
said Stephen Reid, public informa
tion officer for the Solid Waste
Management Section. "We are not
exaggerating figures to support the
need for a treatment facility."
The data used for the report is open
to conflicting interpretations because
of the way it is collected, he said.
"Everyone who deals with it has
to report it," Reid said. Waste
shipped off-site is reported by the
generator, the transporter, the storage
facilities and the treatment facilities,
"Like income tax, it is self
reporting, so the numbers would tend
to be on the conservative side," he
Hackney agreed, saying there was
"a great deal of confusion (about the
At the committee meeting Friday
evening, two members of the govern
ment's waste management board
explained the interpretation of the
data and the various types of toxic
waste, Hackney said.
"The raw data produced by the
hazardous waste branch is just that
from page 1
overall importance of the evening.
"Historically, debates don't matter
very much," Smith said. But in this
race "they have a potential to be
influential," due to the closeness of
The questions raised about Dan
Quayle's competency might make the
vice presidential debate more impor
tant, Balthrop said.
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more than a grade school education
were killed in an effort to deny Hutu
, positions in government, the military
and other institutions, Vensina said.
The Tutsi government also
expelled missionaries and prohibited
local churches from organizing rural
economic development urograms,
arguing that the churches were
inciting riots, Vensina said.
"Burundi's upper class has been
interested in how the white upper
class in South Africa has managed
to suppress all the rest (of the
population)," he said.
President Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi
who came into power after a military
coup in September 1987, has tried to
ease tensions in the country, and the
churches have been allowed to resume
their development projects, Vensina
"The new military government
proposed to try to relax the situation
more," he said. "Not by allowing
Hutu into the government, but by
allowing more freedom."
When Buyoya took over the
government, he wanted to ease
tensions and establish an understand
ing among all Burundians, Findano
"One of the means ... is to open
a spirit of dialogue between the
leaders and the people they admin
ister," he said.
with altering report
raw data, which is subject to a
great deal of interpretation," he said.
The department did make changes
to its figures after the charges sur
faced, Hackney said.
"The branch did amend their
report to some extent," he said. "If
it was shipped twice, it may have been
A spokesman for the Clean Water
Fund said the meeting Friday showed
the government had finally acknow
ledged the problem with the reports.
"It's going to make the state answer
some questions," said Chip Hughes,
Water restrictions still in
By LARRY STONE
Voluntary water measures are still
in effect in Orange County, and the
outlook for more rain is not too
bright, according to an Orange Water
and Sewer Authority (OWASA)
Students who sat in soggy Kenan
Stadium may not believe that Satur
day's rain wasn't much help for the
drought situation in the area.
Pat ' Davis, assistant to the exec
utive director of OWASA, said there
was some increase in the level at
University Lake, the area's prime
"We received about .66 inches of
rain over the weekend and that did
give us some improvement," Davis
said, "but not to the point where we
can lift the voluntary measures."
It may seem like it rained a lot more
than that, but the rain occurred over
a relatively short period of time,
Davis said. For that reason, the lake
level increased only about an inch
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Although the Buyoya government
plans to hold elections, no date has
been set, Findano said.
"He is trying to work it out,"
Findano said. "It will take a while,
but it will happen. (Buyoya) has to
put up a new order." '
A U.S. State Department spokes
man, who declined to be identified,
said the United States urged the
Buyoya government to work toward
"We have been talking to the
government constantly," the spokes
man said. "We have urged the
government to be open about the
events and get back on track toward
national reconciliation. Buyoya has
perhaps the best chance to do it."
Burundi has no strategic impor
tance for the United States, and U.S.
relations with Burundi have focused
on economic development programs,
The European Economic Com
munity, which includes 12 West
European countries, threatened to
withhold its economic aid to Burundi
unless changes are made in the Tutsi
government, Vensina said.
"The United States could do that,
too," he said. "Those countries that
have some influence should all put
pressure (on the Burundi govern
ment). They can do that only through
the group's spokesman. "The state
has to go back to thinking about what
it really needs."
The commission presents its find
ings to the 1989 state legislature in
January, he said.
Until then, the government cannot
proceed on a site selection process for
its waste treatment facility, Reid said.
The state needs a treatment facility
to comply with Environmental Pro
tection Agency standards for waste
disposal and remain eligible for
federal funds for toxic waste site
cleanup, he said.
over the weekend.
Fall tends to be the driest time of
year in North Carolina. That gives
OWASA officials no way of being
sure they will be able to lift the
voluntary measures, he said.
For now, students and the public
are still being asked to conserve water
b Take four-minute showers
instead of long showers or baths.
. B When brushing teeth, shaving or
rinsing dishes, do not let faucets run.
B Operate dishwashers and clothes
151 E. FRANKLIN ST.
The Daily Tar
Chapel Hill Police Roundup
B The attendant at the munic
ipal parking lot at the corner of
Columbia and Rosemary streets
was robbed at gunpoint Saturday
night. According to police reports,
the thief demanded money and
"presented a gun to convince her
of his seriousness." An undeter
mined amount of cash was stolen.
B A breaking and entering
occurred at Dickinson Garden
Suppiy at 1510 E. Franklin St. on
Sunday. Sometime between 12:50
p.m. and 3 p.m., someone went
into the store and stole $3,160.40
a An employee at the Bread
Shop at 411 W. Franklin St.
reported Sunday that someone
came into the store, went into the
office and took a bank bag out
of a backpack: The thief then left
without being noticed. An unde
termined amount of cash was
B A police officer saw a 1983
Chevette explode in the parking
lot at Northampton Plaza early
Saturday. When the officer arrived
at the scene of the explosion, the
vehicle was engulfed in flames. No
one was near the vehicle, and the
fire department responded to the
B A resident of Avery Resi
dence Hall reported Friday that
on Sept. 17, someone entered her
room and took her wallet while
she was in the shower.
B Two incidents of vandalism
to cars parked at the NCNB
parking deck were reported Sun
day. The windshield of a 1988
Mazda was broken, and damage
was estimated at $200. The rear
window of a 1983 Mercedes was
also broken, and damage was
estimated at $150. A BB gun was
apparently used in both incidents.
b A Greensboro man was
arrested and charged with assault
with a deadly weapon and careless
and reckless driving Sunday after
he allegedly tried to hit a police
effect despite recent rain
washers only with full loads.
Peter Robinson, associate profes
sor of geography, said history has
dictated that' fall is usually a dry
"Over the last couple of decades
we have seen a pattern for fall
surface," Robinson said. "We do not
experience many summer thunder
storms and winter storms have not
really started, so our rainfall sources
"Obviously, this summer was a bit
hotter and drier than usual, but it was
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Heel Tuesday, September 27, 19883
officer with the car he was driving.
Jacklord Chijindu Umesi, v 25,
was stopped for suspicion of
impaired driving in the Hill Hall
parking lot. According to the
arrest report, as the officer got out
of his car, Umesi turned his car
around and attempted to get away
by trying to hit the officer with
The officer avoided the car and
was not injured. Umesi was
stopped by another officer at the
corner of Franklin and Henderson
streets and was arrested.
B A Chapel Hill woman was
cited for concealing merchandise
after a security officer at Fowler's
Food Store at 301 W. Franklin
St. saw someone, conceal a fifth
of Gallo Cream Sherry. The sherry
was valued at $2.69.
B A Cary man was arrested and .
charged with driving while
impaired Saturday after he was
found passed out behind the
steering wheel of his car.
Chapel Hill police received a
report of a car off the road at
Raleigh Road and U.S. 15-501,
with the driver slumped over the
wheel. The car had not made
contact with any object.
When police reported to the
scene, they found Guillermo Fer
nando Arana, 23, behind the wheel
of the car. The car's lights were
on and the engine was running.
Arana was taken to N.C. Memor
ial Hospital and kept there until
he regained consciousness.
B Several bike thefts were
reported to police this weekend,
including two bikes stolen from
Someone reported a bicycle
stolen from the Pi Kappa Phi
fraternity house on Friday. There
was no suspect information.
A UNC student who lives on
Cameron Avenue also reported a
stolen bicycle Friday. The bike was
stolen from the porch area.
compiled by Will Lingo
Susan Yeaman, a meteorological
technician for the National Weather
Service in Raleigh, said the outlook
for rain over the fall period is normal.
"The 30-day outlook through mid
October shows, a slightly above
normal chance of rainfall with some
what above normal temperatures,"
However, she pointed out that this
combination can account for an
increased evaporation of the rain that
942 - 0127