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2The Daily Tar Heel Thursday, October 13, 1988
World and Nation
From Associated Press reports
WASHINGTON The Supreme
Court was urged Wednesday to
uphold a key 1976 civil rights decision
and not retreat in the fight to
eliminate "the badges of slavery" in
Julius LeVonne Chambers of the
NAACP Legal Defense and Educa
tion Fund said the court's 12-year-old
ruling conforms with a law
Congress passed in 1866 to ensure
recently freed slaves all the rights of
"Congress had egregious conduct
to correct" after the Civil War,
From Associated Press reports
JERUSALEM Soldiers blew up
four Palestinian homes and sealed
five others Wednesday in reprisal for
the murder of Arabs who collabo
rated with Israel. Palestinians hurled
a grenade at a troop bus but missed.
Noting an increased use of guns
and grenades by Palestinian activists,
Israeli defense minister Yizhak Rabin
suggested there had been a shift in
Palestinian tactics from stones to
Defense attorneys also called
Maurice Geiger, a lawyer and former
U.S. Department of Justice employee
who spent more than 150 days in
Robeson County since 1983 investi
gating the county's justice system.
Geiger could have given the jury an
objective view of conditions in
Robeson County which led Jacobs
and Hatcher to take over the Robe
sonian, defense attorneys said, but his
testimony was denied.
"(Hatcher's and Jacobs1) state of
mind derives from the conditions
existing in Robeson County," defense
attorney Lewis Pitts said.
Boyle denied Geiger's evidence
because it fell within the scope of the
necessity defense, which he ruled
invalid Monday, he said.
Defense attorneys hoped to invoke
the little-used necessity defense to
show Hatcher and Jacobs had to act
to save Hatcher's life.
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Chambers said. And he continued,
"Congress meant to reach the type
of conduct" at issue in Wednesday's
Chambers is representing a North
Carolina woman who accused her
former employer, McLean Credit
Union, of racial harassment.
The justices are deciding whether
they mistakenly ruled in 1976 that the
1866 law authorizes suits against
private citizens accused of discrimi
nation, and are expected to announce
their decision next year.
; Roger Kaplan, a New York lawyer
representing McLean Credit Union,
more sophisticated weapons.
"Once they shift from civilian
violence to terror for me is proof that
they failed to achieve their goals by
what they call the intefadeh," Rabin
said, using the Arabic word for
Rabin, speaking to a Foreign Press
Association luncheon, noted Wed
nesday's incident was the third time
grenades had been hurled in recent
days and that a village leader had
By outruling this defense, Boyle
barred most evidence pertaining to
the alleged corruption and violence
by Robeson County officials.
Testifying to Boyle while the jury
was excused from the courtroom,
Geiger said many of the Robeson
County people he interviewed said
Stone was involved in drug dealings
"They said, 'If you cross Kevin
Stone you are dead,' " Geiger said.
Geiger's investigation of the Robe
son County justice system revealed
violations of bail statutes and little
investigation by officials into local
deaths, making county residents feel
powerless, he said.
"Most of us feel that if we're caught
there are remedies," Geiger said. "But
(such) remedies are not available
there in the perception of the people
or in reality."
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said the 1866 law "would not reach
private acts of discrimination" and
the court in 1976 interfered with the
will of Congress in extending the
reach of the old statute.
Kaplan received sharp questioning
from the justices when he said the
proper course now for the court was
to abandon precedent and reverse its
Justice Antonin Scalia said Kaplan
must come up with something more
than the argument that the 1976
ruling interfered with congressional
"If that's all you have, I'm afraid
been shot to death with an assault
rifle by PLO enforcers.
He said terror attacks had declined
in the occupied lands in the past. 10
months as Palestinian activists
focused on large-scale demonstra
tions and stone-throwing
Palestinian sources said Yasser
Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organ
ization was not involved, and prom-
His checks of 270 felony cases and
about 1,000 misdemeanors in Robe
son County showed arrest resistance
in 75 percent of those cases, although
the people being arrested were "really
resisting assault," Geiger said.
, "There is a high level of police
brutality in Robeson County," he
said. "If you are a citizen and you
get on the wrong side of the power
structure, they rough you up."
Defense attorney Gayle Korotkin
said Geiger's testimony should have
defense present their evidence.
After the court hears the evidence,
it discusses the case privately. It
determines whether the charged party
is guilty or not, and if the defendant
is found guilty the court decides on
Fountain said the goal is to make
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it's nothing," Scalia said.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, the
court's newest member and poten
tially a decisive swing vote in the case,
asked Chambers where the court
should draw the line in applying the
Chambers said the law would apply
if the use of the epithet demonstrated
an intent to discriminate and was not
an isolated occurrence.
The court, in a 5-4 vote, sent shock
waves through the civil rights com
munity last April when it announced
it would use the credit union case to
reconsider the 1976 precedent.
inent Palestinians said they were not
aware of any change in PLO policy.
"I don't think a few such cases
signals any change in policy. But
whoever is behind such acts is
definitely not on the same track as
the PLO," said Jonathan Duttao, a
Palestinian human rights activist.
PLO leaders have said Palestinian
protesters had access to weapons but
had been instructed not to use them
in confrontations with Israelis.
from page 1
been allowed before the jury. His
evaluation is relevant, she said,
because his findings illustrate what
affected Jacobs' and Hatcher's state
of mind before the takeover.
"The judge agreed to instruct the
jury about what the intention of the
defendants had to be to be found
guilty," she said.
Closing arguments are scheduled
for Thursday morning, and the jury
should begin deliberations by early
from page 1
sure the defendants are treated fairly.
Last year, 44 cases were tried. Of
those 44, 12 pleaded not guilty and
were found not guilty, 14 pleaded not
guilty and were found guilty and 18
entered pleas of guilty, Hyman said.
Plagiarism was the charge brought
most often, and cheating was second.
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New premier takes office
as Czech leadership shifts
From Associated Press reports
Premier Ladislav Adamec and his
Cabinet were sworn in Wednes
day, one day after the most
sweeping leadership changes since
a Soviet-led invasion ended Alex
ander Dubcek's liberal "Prague
spring" of 1968.
Adamec replaces Lubomir
Strougal, 64, who resigned Mon
day after 18 years as premier and
also gave up his party seat held
since Dubcek was ousted.
In his acceptance speech,
Adamec appeared to confirm
expectations that he would not
have StrougaTs enthusiasm for the
kind of economic and social
reform being promoted by Mik
hail Gorbachev in the Soviet
House passes lobbying limits
WASHINGTON The House
on Wednesday approved the first
ever restrictions on lobbying by
former members of Congress as
part of a general tightening of
federal, rules against influence
peddling by top officials.
The measure, approved on a
374-19 vote, was sent to the
Senate, which already has passed
its own more sweeping version.
Rep. Barney Frank, D-Mass., the
author of the bill, gave it a 90
percent chance of adoption before
Congress adjourns for the year.
The bill covers not only lobby
ing, but any communication done
for pay to influence government
decisions, including writing letters,
filing motions or grant requests,
and the like.
EPA revises pesticide rules
WASHINGTON The Envir
onmental Protection Agency said
Wednesday it will permit the use
of cancer-causing pesticides whose
residues on foods are increased
during processing if the risk of
cancer is negligible.
The agency so far has inter
preted the so-called "Delaney
clause" barring cancer-causing
food additives as requiring it to
refuse new pesticide licenses for
The reversal of policy is in line
with one of the recommendations
, of a National Academy of Sciences
panel last year.
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News in Brief
Mathematical stumper solved
CHICAGO The hunt crossed
three continents and required
hundreds of computers, but a team
of researchers captured a prize few
thought possible the prime
factor of the 100-digit number on .
mathematicians "most wanted"
"Why did we go after it?"
University of Chicago computer
scientist Arjen Lenstra said Wed
nesday. "Because people compile
The breakthrough could have
important implications for
governments and banks, which use
large-digit -numbers in security
systems on the assumption they
provide a code too difficult to
"Ten years ago, everybody
suggested 80 digits were safe.
Nowadays, that's trivial," Lenstra
Psychologically healthy cities
NEW YORK The best place
to live in the United States, in
terms of psychological well-being,
is State College, Pa.; the worst is
Reno, Nev., according , to a
researcher writing in Psychology
Robert Levine, a psychologist at
California State University in
Fresno, ranked 286 metropolitan
areas based on rates of crime,
suicide, alcoholism and divorce
Levine said he was surprised
that "the West and South, known
for their mild climates and easy
living, ranked highest and second
highest respectively on all four
types of pathology."
Dow Jones average slips
NEW YORK The Dow
Jones average of 30 industrials fell
30.23 points to 2,126.24.
Declining issues outnumbered
advances by nearly 3 to 1 on the
New York Stock Exchange, with
386 up, 1,103 down and 445
unchanged. Big Board volume
totaled 154.84 million shares,
against 140.90 million in the
previous .sessionC-;, 'PJS