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2The Daily Tar Heel Thursday, November 17, 1988
World audi Nation
From Associated Press reports
TALLINN, Soviet Union The
Estonian parliament debated an
outright break with Moscow on
Wednesday through a "declaration of
sovereignty" and a constitutional
amendment requiring local ratifica
tion of new Soviet laws.
The declaration stops short of
calling for complete independence for
the republic, but demands negotia
tion of a treaty with Moscow "to,
determine the further status of
Estonia in the composition of the
Even if the proposals are defeated
in the ethnically divided Estonian
parliament, their public discussion by
a government body is an unprece
dented act of defiance in the Soviet
Union, which is still feeling its way
through President Mikhail
Gorbachev's policy of glasnost, or
The proceedings, which began at
noon in the 18th-century pink Toom
pea Palace, were televised live in the
From Associated Press reports
TUCSON, Ariz. Arizona's
Board of Pharmacy has asked R.J.
Reynolds Co. to voluntarily with
draw its "smokeless cigarette" from
test-marketing in Phoenix and Tuc
son pending a detef mination of
whether it is a drug.
The agency acted after the Amer
ican Medical Association petitioned
the board and Missouri's Health
Department, arJfSftng the Premier
cigarette is a "new, hazardous" drug
that should be banned by the Food
and Drug Administration.
R.J. Reynolds attorney Jack La
Sota had asked the board to delay
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The proposals apparently are
supported by the leadership of the
Estonian government and Commu
nist Party. They were presented by
the ruling government body, the
Presidium, and speakers said the
principle of sovereignty had been
supported at a meeting of the party's
policy-making Central Committee.
The hours of debate in the Estonian
parliament, or Supreme Soviet, were
serious and restrained. Deputies read
explanations of Estonia's need to
control its land, factories and laws,
saying centralized control from
Moscow has been ruinous for both
the economy and the environment.
Deputies also argued for a reso
lution opposing a series of amend
ments to the Soviet Constitution
proposed by Gorbachev, saying they
would shift power from the country's
15 republics to the central govern
ment in Moscow.
The Soviet amendments, which
also remove the republics right to
to. recall smokeless.
any . action on Premier cigarettes,
which are also being test-marketed in
St. Louis, until the FDA makes its
own determination of the tobacco
He said a decision is expected by
tfte end of this year.
The Premier is low in smoke and
ash because the tobacco is warmed,
not burned. The cigarette also con
sists of a tobacco flavoring capsule.
Like conventional cigarettes, the
Premier also contains nicotine.
For that reason, the medical
association has called it a "drug
delivery system" that falls under the
jurisdiction of the FDA.
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secede, are scheduled for adoption
Nov. 29, and authorities have shown
no sign of backing down, despite
opposition in Estonia and the other
Baltic republics,' Latvia and
Estonian radio reported Wednes-
day that 2.6 million people in the
three republics have signed petitions
opposing the boviet amendments.
That would represent nearly a third
of the republics' combined popula
tions of 7.7 million people.
Deputies from largely Russian
speaking region's and factories in
Estonia complained of haste in-the
proposals for Estonian sovereignty
and pleaded for delay more often than
outright defeat of the measures.
"They have been proposed behind
our backs," complained Vladimir
Andreyev, a Russian power plant
mechanic from Narva.
"We are seeking parliamentary
solutions " said Mariu Lauristen, a
leader of Estonian People's Front, a
broadly backed grassroots political .
Timothy Agan, an assistant attor
ney general, said the board's enforce
ment options, if it were to determine
that the product is a drug, would
include seeking an injunction against
its sale, as the AMA requested
The board would have to go to
court because only the FDA has the
power to. declare a product a drug
and regulate it, he said.
La Sota left immediately after the
board decision and was unavailable
Ruth Iliff, a spokeswoman for the
Arizona Cancer Center, read a letter
from the center's director, Dr. Sydney
Salmon, calling the effort to intro-
organization that backs the changes.
She said Lithuania's parliament will
tackle similar resolutions of sover-
eignty and opposition to the Soviet
Lauristen said that if the central
Soviet government ignores Estonians'
parliamentary moves, they will con
front "the same problem in different
The republic of 1.6 million people
is by no means united behind the
measures. A competing movement
called the "Internationalists" has been
telling Russian speakers that the
Estonian nationalist mood will lead
to discrimination against them.
Politburo member Viktor Che
brikov, who concluded a four-day
visit to Estonia on Monday, did not
mention the sovereignty proposals in
his speeches. Activists said he seemed
to temper his earlier criticism of
Estonian politics on the final days of
duce Premier in Arizona "an insi
dious attack" on public health.
Salmon's letter said billing the
product as a cigarette is "an effort
to escape from just regulatory and
When the AMA filed its petitions,'
RJ. Reynolds said Premier "is a
cigarette ... not a drug-delivery
system," and "substantially reduces
many of the chemical compounds
that the critics of smoking have been
something of an example," he said.
Violence would have been inevit
able in the civil rights movement,
Young said, if it hadn't been for
Martin Luther King Jr.'s leadership,
the free press and the free judiciary.
He said the struggle for equality
is far from over in this country,
although progress has been made
"There is something about human
frailty that (makes people) more
secure with people who are like
ourselves and who don't challenge
us," he said.
However, he said, "The fact that
we have been able to achieve the level
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From Associated Press reports
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil
Leftists surged ahead for control
of major cities as ballots were .
. counted Wednesday from nation
wide voting that indicated Braz
ilians' dissatisfaction with Presi
dent Jose Sarney's government.
Sarney's right-center Brazilian
Democratic Movement Party, the
dominant party since 1964, was
taking a beating from both the
right and left in early returns from
Tuesday's municipal elections.
The results showed dissatisfac
tion with record 1,000 percent
annual inflation, political corrup
tion, reduced buying power of the
cruzado and nearly constant
strikes, political analysts in Brazil
Pakistan holds open elections-
Voters casting ballots Wednesday
in Pakistan's first open election in
more than a decade chose between
populist Benazir Bhutto or the
conservative heirs of the general
who had her father hanged.
If elected, Bhutto would be the
first woman to lead the1 Islamic
Thousands of police and sold
iers were on patrol and no major
violence was reported in the
contest between Bhutto's Pakistan
People's Party and a nine-party
alliance that includes supporters of
Mohammed Zia ul-Haq, the mil
itary president who died in a plane
crash three months ago.
of understanding that we have
achieved is probably far more signif
icant than we are prone to imagine."
Freedom is a constant struggle,
both in the United States and world
wide, he said.
It is very hard to quantify the
difference in racial equality today as
opposed to before the civil rights
movement, he said.
"We're never going to have a world
free of what I prefer to call ethno
centrism," he said. "Everyone will
always see the world as they have been
brought up to see it."
Young said that when people are
imprisoned because of a matter of
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News in Brief
In the last open election in 1977,
Bhutto's father, Prime Minister;
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, won by a!
landslide and prompted a coup by
Zia. Mr. Bhutto was convicted of
complicity in a murder conspiracy;
and hanged in 1979.
About 48 million of Pakistan's
107 million people were eligible
and unofficial estimates said
slightly more than half voted.
Canadians fear U.S. power
TORONTO The free trade
pact with the United States has
dominated the election campaign,
making Monday's voting a refer
endum on an agreement that feeds
recurring Canadian fears of being
swallowed up by the juggernaut to
Opponents say the United,
States, with 245 million people and '
huge economic clout, would out
weigh this nation of 26 million to r
the point of endangering its idenj :
tity and even sovereignty. .
Perhaps no single image has -been
more dramatic than the
opposition Liberal Party's televi-
1 sion commercial depicting a map ;
and a hand erasing the border.
An astonishing Liberal revival '
in the polls coincided with use of
the ad, bringing the party from far ,
behind to a dead heat with the
incumbent Conservatives of Prime ;
Minister Brian Mulroney.
from page 1
conscience, the real prisoners are theirl
"Nelson Mandela is probably trje "
only free man in South Africa," he
said. t '
Mandela is a member of the
African National Congress and ah '
anti-apartheid activist who has beeij '
jailed in South Africa since the 1960s. '
The struggle in South Africa will
never be resolved until Mandela is'
released and a new constitution is '
written that provides for equal rights
of the black majority and the white
minority, he said. . j
"We're going to see that happen
in our lifetime he said. j
,He said that in spite of the negative
use of the-JKOld "liberal" by George
Bush in the recent presidential cam-
paign, a liberal philosophy has mads i
progress in human rights possible. j
" 'Liberal' is really making change
possible without violence and without ;
overthrow," he said.
CONTACT MICRO USER
to schedule an appointment
for Monday, Dec. 5th
Form No. 1351-988