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The Daily Tar Heel Tuesday, March 7, 19893
F i soji ires " n mi dl n cate coollm U.S
By CRYSTAL BERNSTEIN
Tuition rates at public and private
universities across the country will
continue previous trends and rise for
the-1989-90 academic year.
College Board figures predict the
average tuition for public four-year
colleges will increase from $1,420 to
$1,483, while that for private four
year institutions will rise from $5,934
to . $6,457, said Gail Raiman, vice
president for public affairs for the
National Association of Independent
1 Colleges and Universities in Washing
I Although the UNC-system Board
of Governors has not recommended
a tuition increase for in-state students,
it has recommended an 8.5 percent
increase in out-of-state student tui
tion, said Felix Joyner, vice president
for finance at the General Adminis
tration. The General Assembly will
review these recommendations before
setting the tuition rate in late summer,
Out-of-state tuition has been
increased each year since 1985, when
a statute was established to make
UNC out-of-state tuition compatible
with tuitions for out-of-state students
at other universities across the
country, Joyner said.
"Tuition here for out-of-state
students is much less than it is
anyplace else," said Sam Barnard,
Tuition for in-state students
increased 5 percent in the 1987-88
school year but has not been raised
Officials at other public universi
ties, like the University of Virginia
at Charlottesville, also anticipate an
increase in out-of-state tuition.
At the University of Maryland at
College Park, the tuition for all
undergraduates will increase 8 per
cent, with an additional 8 percent
increase in the non-resident fee, said
David John, director of budget
operations for the university. Tuition
rates for the 1988-89 school year were
increased 9 percent, he said.
"The escalating, overall cost of
education nationwide is enabling
state schools across the country to
improve their faculty situations, but
it's costing dollars," said Parke Muth,
assistant dean of admissions at
Virginia. "This is a nationwide
Tuitions at private schools are
increasing as well. A 7 percent
increase for 1989-90 is expected at
Duke University, said Richard Steele,
director of undergraduate
Tuition at Harvard University will
increase 6.3 percent, the same as last
year, said Margery Heffron, associate
director for the Harvard news office.
Officials at Stanford University are
increasing next year's tuition by 8
percent, a jump from the 4 percent
to 5 percent increases of previous
years, said Joy Parker, assistant
registrar and recorder at Stanford.
Tuitions at small private schools
are also increasing. An 8.9 percent
increase will be implemented for next
year's tuition at Bryn Mawr College
in Pennsylvania, said Debra Thomas,
director of public information.
Though tuition increases may
pi amis prompt concern
By GLENN O'NEAL
: Environmentalists from around
the country are concerned about the
possible environmental impacts of
exploratory drilling off the Outer
Banks of North Carolina, despite
reassurances from Mobil Oil and the
U.S. Department of the Interior.
; "The Outer Banks are based on
tourism and commercial and recrea
tional fishing," said Dorrie Smith, an
louter continental shelf campaigner
; "It is one of the few areas on the
Eastern Seaboard that is non
industrial," she said. "It needs pro
tection from this development. It is
also the largest estuary bay system
an the world that deserves special
There are special environmental
risks involved in drilling of any type,
: Offshore drilling produces drilling
muds and cuttings that contain heavy
minerals dangerous to marine life,
"The Outer Banks area is known for
itsi.deep water, unpredictable currents
and underwater canyons a situa
tion an oil company has never
encountered before, she said.
Mobil acquired the lease for the
drilling site in a lease sale in August
1981, said Mike Kimmitt, public
affairs manager for Mobil Explora
tion and Production.
. "What we have proposed to do here
is to get the companies that have
leases in that area to form a unit to
share costs of drilling," he said.
- An ancient coral reef in the area
is believed to contain approximately
5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas,
Kimmitt said. This natural gas is
equivalent to about I billion barrels
of crude oil, he said.
The area w here the drilling will take
cotes 1 iram
From Associated Press reports
WASHINGTON An Air Force
retiree who helped supply the Nica
raguan Contras testified Monday that
he;also got involved in the Iran arms
deals through an Oliver North asso
ciate the first mention of Iran in
North's month-old trial. '
The testimony by Richard Gadd
brought a quick reaction from U.S.
District Judge Gerhard GeselL.who
reminded lawyers in the case, I asked
you not to go into the hostage
Charges concerning the diversion
to the Contras of profits from the Iran
arms deals were dropped earlier after
the administration on national secur
ity grounds said North could not use
classified documents that the judge
had said the former White House aide
would need for his defense.
With that issue settled, Gesell
called lawyers to the bench and then
said bringing up Iran and the hostages
would unnecessarily extend the trial.
However, defense attorney Bren
dan Sullivan continued to dwell on
the Iran issue in his questioning.
Gadd testified he was brought into
the Iran deals by former Mai. Gen.
Richard Secord, who told him, "This
could lead to the release of the
hostages in Lebanon."
"General Secord asked me to assist
injhe transportation of arms to Iran,"
Gadd, a retired Air Force lieuten-
i 11 it .
am coionei, neipea nanaie tne covert
effort to ship arms to the Contras in
early 1986 when official U.S. military
aid, was barred and ran flights with
humanitarian aid when that was legal.
Secord told him, Gadd said, that
flights "must leave from the United
States, no one must know the cargo.
and, no one must know the ultimate
destination. It could not land in
Europe and could not go through
customs. And he said it was possible
the aircraft and crew could be
detained in Iran and not released."
Gadd testified Secord became
impatient while he was trying to
figure a way to meet the requirements.
He quoted the former general as once
saying, "You must figure this out.
Yqu must convince Southern Air
Transport to do the job. This could
place is 47 miles northeast of Cape
Hatteras. The four leases that Mobil
acquired cost approximately $200
million, he said.
The offshore drilling will bring very
little revenue and few jobs to the state,
he said. Most of the employees and
the equipment will be brought in from
out of state, he said.
Doug Rader, a senior scientist for
the N.C. Environmental Defense
Fund, said several factors were
involved in deciding whether the
drilling was justified. "Probably the
most important questions to ask are
the long-range impacts to the state
as opposed to the short-term effects
of drilling," he said.
The safety record of exploratory
drilling is actually fairly good, Rader
said. It's the production stage that will
have the greatest effect.
"The production will stimulate
growth in an area that is extremely
limited for growth," he said. A lot
of community development accom
panies oil production, and the devel
opment will change the way the
coastal economy is supported. The
economy will change from one based
on tourism to one based on industry,
The Environmental Defense Fund
requested an updated environmental
impact study to examine the indirect
impacts as well as the short-term
impacts of offshore drilling. This will
enable the people of the state and the
local governments on the coast to
decide what action they wish to take,
The drilling conducted by Mobil
is virtually free of risk, said Bruce
Weetman, the Atlanta regional direc
tor within the. U.S. Department of
Of all the exploration wells drilled
in the United States, a barrel of oil
has never been lost due to an accident,
Kimmitt admitted that the drilling
would have some environmental
impact, but he said the benefits would
outweigh the drawbacks.
appear drastic, the trend to increase
tuition is not a new one, said Ted
Bracken, director of federal relations
for the Consortium on Financing
Higher Education in Washington,
"The phenomenon is nothing new,"
he said. "It's been going on for
Between 1948 and 1973, college
tuition increased at an average annual
rate of 5.3 percent, while the consu
mer price index increased at an
average rate of 2.7 percent annually.
The average rate of annual tuition
increase was 9.8 percent between 1974
and 1986, comparing with a 7.3
percent average annual increase in the
consumer price index for the same
years, Bracken said.
A number of factors spur, tuition
increases. One is the contest to
employ well-known scholars who
demand high salaries. Nationally
ranked institutions are bidding high
for important professors, Muth said.
"We need to attract the best
scholars we can find," Heffron said.
Because the education industry is
so labor-intensive, 80 percent of
education costs go to pay salaries.
Bracken said. When salaries increase,
tuition must be increased as well to
pay for them.
Maintaining college buildings is
"The labs that were good 20 years
ago are no longer acceptable by
today's standards," John said.
Universities need funds to keep up
in the race for cutting-edge technol
ogy, pay the high costs of subscribing
to limited-edition periodicals and
continue to provide financial aid for
This year, private institutions will
spend $407 million in grant aid for
students, compared to a $145 million
10 years ago, Bracken said.
Private colleges are making up for
shortfalls in federal aid by increasing
tuitions, especially shortfalls in the
area of financial aid, Thomas said.
"Ten years ago, federal aid paid
about one-third of the cost; now it
pays less than one-fourth," she said.
Tuition costs are expected to
continue rising in the near future.
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l III INI l""
The right choice.
lead to the release of the hostages.