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2The Daily Tar HeelWednesday, November 15, 1989
World and Nation
Brazil faces presidential elections
By WAGNER DOTTO
Brazil, the third most populous
democracy in the world behind India
and United States, holds its first direct
presidential election in 29 years today
amid its worst economic crisis in recent
The vote is mandatory for all Brazil
ians 18 years old and older and is op
tional for those between 16 and 18
years old. Eighty-two million people,
more than the entire combined popula
; rjon of East and West Germany, are
expected to choose among 22 candi
dates who represent communist, so
cialist, environmentalist and other "ist"
views. Almost 70 percent of the voters
are illiterate, semi-illiterate or have not
completed the sixth grade, according to
a recent government report.
Inflation has reached about 1,300
From Associated Press reports
WINDHOEK, Namibia The black
. nationalist movement that fought South
African rule for 23 years won a solid
majority Tuesday in national elections
but will have to bargain with rival par
ties in drafting a new constitution.
The leftist South-West Africa
People's Organization (SWAPO) won
.384,567 votes, or 57 percent of 670,830
ballots cast, according to results an
SWAPO's leaders had predicted their
, movement would easily win the two
.' thirds majority that would have en
! abled it to single-handedly write the
; The Democratic Tumhalle Alliance,
: a multiracial coalition that favors a
capitalist economy, finished second
; with 191,532 votes, or 29 percent.
; Thousands of SWAPO supporters
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percent a year, an all-time record, and
the minimum wage in September of
about $150 a month corresponded to
only 13.2 percent of its 1940 value,
when it was established for a family of
four and its basic necessities. Income
distribution, on the other hand, has
become one of the worst in the world,
according to World Bank figures. From
1 960 to 1 980, the wealthiest 1 0 percent
of the population increased its partici
pation in the national wealth from 39.6
percent to 5 1 percent.
Like other countries in Latin Amer
ica, Brazil has a huge informal sector in
the economy that has grown out of the
government control. According to re
cent estimates, this sector generates a
filled the streets of Windhoek, the
capital, waving flags, singing and honk
ing horns throughout the day.
The celebration carried on into the
ni ghr in Katutura, the main black neigh
borhood on the edge of Windhoek.
"We struggled all the years for this
day,,; said SWAPO President Sam
South African President F.W. de
Klerk said his government was "grate
ful thai the election proceeded peace
fully, and thus accepts the outcome."
Namibians voted from Tuesday
through Saturday for a 72-member
assembly that will draft a constitution
and declare independence for Namibia
after 74 years of South African rule.
SWAPO will hold 41 seats in the
assembly, and the Democratic
Tumhalle Alliance 21 seats.
The United Democratic Front will
now through the
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total of $176 billion annually. If cor
rect, that estimated value would repre
sent half of the gross national product
and millions in taxes that the govern
ment is unable to collect.
To make things worse, Brazil is the
largest debtor in the Third World, owing
about $ 1 10 billion to foreign banks.
Fernando Collor de Mello, a pro
business politician from Brazil's sec
ond smallest state who almost over
night became a national figure, is the
leading candidate, according to several
polls taken last week. He has ties with
the military that ruled Brazil from 1964
to 1984, and defends the privatization
of many state-owned companies.
In second place is Luis Inacio Lula
da Silva, a trade union leader candidate
backed by a leftist coalition that in
cludes one of the two Brazilian Com
munist parties. Da Silva is slightly ahead
movement wins bi
have four seats, followed by the con
servative, all-white Action Christian
National, with three. The Federal Con
vention of Namibia, National Patriotic
Front and the Namibia National Front
each won a single seat.
The assembly's decisions must be
backed by at least 48 members.
"In spite of the difficulties, in spite
of all the odds placed in our way to
victory, the liberation movement has
won," said senior SWAPO spokesman
The election result was seen as prom
ising for a peaceful transition to inde
pendence for the sparsely populated
region of southern Africa.
Some observers feared that if
SWAPO won a two-thirds majority, it
might have written a constitution lean
ing heavily in its favor.
Had the organization won less than
50 percent of the vote, it may have
challenged the results and accused
South Africa of trying to prevent a
The chairman of the Democratic
Tumhalle Alliance, Dirk Mudge, said
West Germany set to help East Germany rebuild
n a -k a. it j:j a. . M7i r i: - t ..,:u
From Associated Press reports
West Germany on Tuesday pledged
massive financial aid in the style of the
post-war Marshall Plan to rebuild East
Germany's economy, but demanded
political, and economic reforms the
communists have so far rejected.
The new communist premier said
the Berlin Wall must remain standing
to keep AIDS, crime and other Western
problems out of his country. He prom
ised a coalition government but didn't
say whether the opposition could join
And West Berlin Mayor Walter
Momper warned that the sudden open
ing of East Germany's borders was
creating traffic jams, currency prob
lems and other economic questions that
the two governments must resolve.
West German Economics Minister
Helmut Haussmann announced a six
point East German recovery plan that
would include investments and joint
ventures, as well as revamping the
nation's dilapidated communications
and transport systems.
dated by the enormous power of the
destroyers. We need to legitimize life
and the earth."
Aspirations need to be raised. Envi
ronmentalists can no longer be content
with small decreases in harm to the
environment, he said. People need to
demand sweeping changes in the treat
ment of the environment to make a
difference, instead of accepting reduc
tions. The government is doing very little
to protect the environment, Grossman
said. "Virtually nothing" in the Clean
of former Rio de Janeiro Gov. Leonel
Brizola, a socialist, and has defended a
strong state intervention in the econ
omy. The main concern in Brazil the last
few days has been how the undecided
voters will cast their ballots today. One
of the polls published last Sunday by
Folha de S. Paulo, a major Brazilian
newspaper, showed that 26 percent of
the voters are still undecided, after at
least six months of electoral campaign
ing that included free air time on televi
sion for all parties.
If no candidate gets 5 1 percent of the
votes today, a second-round election is
scheduled for Dec. 17, when the two
top vote-getters will compete against
each other. A very polarized second
round is expected, with two candidates
representing two complete divergent
plans of government.
his organization had no plans to align
itself with another party, but "if SWAPO
comes with a (constitutional) proposal
we can live with, we will support it."
The assembly is to meet within a
week, and the 1,500 South African
troops in Namibia are to withdraw
shortly. U.N. peacekeepers are sched
uled to leave Namibia at the end of
The top U.N. official in Namibia,
Martti Ahtisaari, said he expected
Namibia to achieve independence be
fore then. Ahtisaari, who certified the
election results, said Namibia"has given
the whole world a shining lesson in
U.N. Secretary-General Javier Perez
de Cuellar said he was confident the
various parties would be able to work
through their differences and adopt a
constitution "with the same degree of
enthusiasm and patriotism that they
displayed during the course of the elec
In addition to the U.N. monitors,
dozens of private groups observed the
Haussmann did not set a figure for
the proposed aid, and said the plan
would be useless if East Germany failed
to carry out a "thorough change" in its
centrally directed economy.
Haussmann compared his proposal
to the Marshall Plan, brainchild of U.S.
Secretary of State George C. Marshall,
which sent more than $12 billion in
American aid from 1948-51 to help
war-devastated Europe return to pros
perity. East German authorities have re
jected the idea of adopting a completely
New East German Premier Hans
Modrow, a leading reformer in the
communist ranks, says he wants "step
by step" economic changes. He seems
to be looking to streamline the bureauc
racy, but has given no indication he'll
urge sweeping changes such as those in
Hungary or Poland.
Modrow was quoted in Tuesday's
editions of West Germany 's Bild news
paper as saying the Berlin Wall can
remain open to travel but must remain
from page 1
Air Act, now under consideration by
the Congress, will have a significant
impact on the environment, and Gross
man joked at President Bush's claim
that he is an environmentalist.
He pointed to Amnesty International
as a model for environmentalists to
follow. They asked for definite change
from the government and had a success
rate of 25 percent last year, he said.
Grossman will conduct a workshop
about corporatelabor cooperation and
the environment at 3 p.m. today in 21 1
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Bush praises rapid changes
in communist Eastern Bloc
From Associated Press reports
Bush declared his confidence Tues
day that "Europe will some day be
whole and free," saluting a decision
by Czechoslovakia to ease travel
restrictions as just one more sign.
Bush said he was not concerned
about the dizzying pace of change
sweeping Eastern Europe. "I don't
think it's moving too fast and I don't
know of anybody in my administra
tion that feels that it's moving too
The White House said the admini
stration was reviewing developments
in Eastern Europe with an eye toward
"changing relationships and new
policies and programs."
"There are large issues of East
West relations, of the NATO-Warsaw
Pact's future, of the status of the
Soviet empire as these countries
change their relationship with the
Soviet Union," White House press
secretary Marlin Fitzwater said.
Walesa seeks investment
WASHINGTON Lech Walesa,
weeping with joy at his hero's wel
come to America, said Tuesday his
native Poland needs massive West
ern investment to "make her way to
the shore of freedom."
"I know that the pioneer spirit
which made this country big and free
is still around," Walesa told a con
vention of the AFL-CIO labor fed
eration. "I would like you to trans
plant this spirit to Poland.
"If you engage in any activity in
our country, others will emulate your
example. The world is awaiting your
signal, it is watching you. Do not let
the world and us wait any longer."
Walesa, weeping after a 15-min-ute
standing ovation that welcomed
him to the convention hall, thanked
the American people, the labor group
and the government for proving "to
be our most steadfast allies in the
trade union struggle for human free
"In our country there is little crimi
nal activity ... cases of AIDS and drugs
are virtually unknown. Our people are
asking themselves why they shouldn't
just leave that as it is," he was quoted
The government is considering open
ing part of the wall near the Bran
denburg Gate as yet another passage
between East and West Berlin, accord
ing to the official East German news
The gate, a huge columned monu
ment, is close to the wall in East Berlin
and is one of the city's best-known
Before East Germany opened its
borders Thursday, the gate had been a
major rallying point for demonstrators
seeking freedom to travel to the West.
Hundreds gathered there Tuesday in
hopes a hole would be opened.
A leader of East Germany's biggest
opposition group, New Forum, said the
movement could work with a revamped
Communist Party but that naming
Modrow premier was not enough.
Other than their own resistance strate
gies, Gvirtz said he felt the media's
coverage of the uprising had helped to
control some of the violence of the
"The press is what I call a public eye
"When the Israelis start doing some
thing bad in the occupied territories,
they are less likely do something if they
know the media are watching. If no
body was there, I'd be even more afraid
of what the Israeli government might
News in Brief
Groups report on cholesterol
NEW ORLEANS The nation's
top public and private heart organiza-.
tions released "overwhelming evi
dence" on cholesterol Tuesday that
they said "more than justifies" the,
campaign to change the way Ameri-;
The American Heart Association;
and the National Heart, Lung and,
Blood Institute prepared "The Cho-;
lesterol Facts" in reaction to an ar-;
tide in September's Atlantic Monthly;
called "The Cholesterol Myth. ' '
The article's author, Washington;
writer Thomas Moore, analyzed a
variety of research to make his point,
that the cholesterol scare has been,
The organizations marshaled the
same studies and many more to reach
the opposite conclusion: Americans
should cut down on saturated fat and
cholesterol in their diet to minimize
their risk of heart disease.
Retail sales fall in October
WASHINGTON Retail sales
fell a full 1 percent in October, driven
down by a slumping auto market, and
industrial production dropped 0.7
percent in its steepest fall in more
than three years, the government said
But some analysts said the reports
were not as pessimistic as they would
appear. They noted that except for
autos, most other sales categories rose
and that the drop in industrial output
was due largely to an aircraft strike
and factory disruptions after the Cali
The Commerce Department re
ported that retail sales dropped to a
seasonally adjusted $144.5 billion,
the first decline since a 0.4 percent
drop last February. Sales had rise 0.7
percent in September and 0.9 percent
T can imagine cooperating with a
reformed Communist Party," said
Jiirgen Tallig, the spokesman for Neues
Forum in Leipzig, the heart of the pro
democracy movement. ;
"But there are still too many people
in top positions with whom dialogue is
not possible," he said in a West Ger
man radio interview.
More sweeping change could come
at an emergency party congress in East
Berlin on Dec. 15-17. The congress,
which has authority to change the en
tire party leadership, set policy and
alter party statutes, was called late
Monday by the party Central Commit
tee. Modrow, named premier on Mon
day, has called for a coalition govern
ment but gave no indication the oppo
sition will take part in it, despite wide
spread protests pressing for an end to
the communists' 40-year monopoly on
He said he would seek broader coop
eration with the four small parties that
have been aligned with the Communist
from page 1
Gvirtz also said that in order for
there to be peace, the resistance could
not back down.
"There is a big difference between
peace and resignation."Gvirtz said there
could not be peace as long as the Israeli
government tried to keep control over
As part of Human Rights Week,
Gvirtz and Assailey will present a pro
gram titled "Prospects for a Peaceful
Solution" on Wednesday at 6:30 p.m.
in Gerrard Hall. The Carolina Associa
tion for Palestinian Human Rights is
sponsoring the talk.
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