The Smithfield herald. (Smithfield, Johnston Co., N.C.) 188?-current, December 06, 1901, Page 2, Image 2
THE MESSAGE What the President Says on Important Subjects. TRUSTS AND RECIPROCITY How He Would Deal With These Problems. He Declares Publicity Is uf Present the Only hare llemcdy Against ICvils uf Combinations?While Op poslnit Any General Tariff Change. He I pholds the Principle of Keel* proclty ? Ad voeates deduction of Doty on Cuhnn Imports Into This Couutry ? Importance of nulldiiiit the Isthmian < mini nntl tin* I'aciUe t able I reed?The Philippines aid Other Insular Questions. Washington, Deo. 3.?Tiio president In his annual message to congress ?ay*: The congress nssoinldos tills year un der the shadow of a great calamity. On the Oth of September ('resident Mc Klnley was shot liy an nnnrelilst while attending the I'an-Ameriean exposi tion at P.uffalo and died in that city on the 1-tth of that month. Of the last seven elected president* be is the third who has been murdered, and the bare recital of tills fact Is ?uC)clout to Justify grave alarm among nil loyal American oltlnotis. Moreover, the circumstances of this, the third ns na.ssluntlon of an Amerienii president, liave a peculiarly sinister a ignition nee. Ilotli President l.lneolu and President Onrfleld were killed by assassins .of tVlHN IMlfllPl II II I I I'l V tlllf 11 IK ?( r I I :'f tl ? ill I" ? ? ? "?* history. President Lincoln hilling u victim to tbo terrible passions aroused by four yearn of civil war and Presi dent (iartteld to the revengeful vanity of a disappointed ollice seeker'. Presi dent McKinley was killed by an utter ly depraved criminal belonging to that body of criminals who object to all governments, good and bad alike, who are against any form of popular lib erty if It Is guaranteed by even the most Just and liberal laws and who are as hostile to the upright ex|>oneut of a free people's sober will as to the tyrannical and irres|ionslble despot. Anarrhr and A n? reh lata. The president continues with a eulogy of Mr. MeKlnley. then turns to the subject of anarchy, denouncing Its doctrines and preachers. lie says: I earnestly reeommeml to tlieeongress that in the exercise of Its wise discre tion it should take Into consideration the coming to this country of anarch ists or persous professing principles hostile to all government and Justlfy lng the murder of those placed In au thority. Such individuals as those who not long ago gathered la open meeting to glorify the murder of King Hum bert of Italy irerpetrate a crime, and the law should Insure their rigoroua punishment. Theyand those like then should be kept out of this country, and If found here they should be promptly deported to the country whence they came, and farreaching prov Ision should be made for the punishment of those who stay. No matter calls more urgently for the wisest thought of the congress. A Subject For Federal Conrtl. The federal courts should be given Jurisdiction over any man who kills or attempts to kill the president or any man who by the constitution or by law is in line of succession for the presidency, while "the punishment for an unsuccessful attempt should lie pro portioned to the enormity of the of fense against our institutions. Anarchy is a crime against tlie whole human race, and all mankind should band against the anarchist. His crime should be made an offense against the law of nations, like piracy and that form of man stealing known as the ?lave trade. I ue president next considers busi ness conditions, which he finds highly satisfactory. He continues: The tremendous and highly complex Industrial development which went on with ever accelerated rapidity during the latter half of the nineteenth cen tury brings us face to face at the be ginning of the twentieth with very serious social problems. The old laws and the old customs which had almost the binding force ot law were once quite sufficient to regulate the ac cumulation and distribution of wealth. Since the Industrial changes which have so enormously increased the pro ductive power of mankind they are us longer sufficient. Trade Comliltinl tens. The growth of cities has gone on he yond comparison faster than the growth of tie country, and the up building of tl.e great Industrial centers has meant a startling Increase not merely in tie aggregate of wealth, but In the number <>l very large Individual and especially or very large corporate fortunes. TU* creation of these great i corporate fi .tunes has not been due to the tariff ttor to any other govern mental actle-i. but to natural causes in the buslnt world, oiierating in oth er countries as they operate In our own. The procv.t I i aroused much an tagc sin. a great part of which is wholly without warrant. It is not true ' that as the rich have grown richer the poor have gtown poorer. On the con trary. never before has the average man, the wageworker, the farmer, the ?nmll trader, been so well off nt In this country and nt the present time. There have I en abuses connected with the accumulation of wealth, yet It remains true that a fortune accumulated In | legitimate business can bo accumulate e<l liy tlx- person specially benefited only on condition of conferring Im mense Incidental benefits upon oth ers. Successful enterprise of the type wlilcl) benefits all mankind can only exist If the conditions are such as to oITcr great prizes us the rewards of iucccss. tteasons For Caution. Ti e president adds that there are many reasons for caution In dealing with corporations. He says: The same business conditions which have produced the great aggregations of corporate and individual wealth have made tlietu very potent factors In International commercial competition. Moreover, it cannot too often he pointed out that to strike with Ignorant violence at the interests of one set of nun almost Inevitably endangers the | Interests of all. The fundamental rule J In our national life the rule which un derlies all others- Is that, on the whole and in the long run. we shall go up or ! down together. | The mechanism of modern business | Is so delicate that extreme care must ! be taken uot to Interfere with It In | a spirit of rashness or Ignorance. In dealing with business Interests, for the government to undertake by crude and ill considered legislation to do what may turn out to be bad, would be to Incur the risk of such farrcttch ing national disaster that it would he preferable to undertake nothing at all. The men who demand the impossible or the undesirable serve its the allies of the forces with which they are nom inally lit war. for they hamper those who would endeavor to find out In ra tional fashion what the wrongs really arc ai.d to what extent and In what manner It is practicable to apply reme dies. I to xv to Correct the kvllt. All this Is true, and yet it Is also true that there are real and grave evils, one of the chief being overcapitaliza tion because of Us many baleful con sctptences. and a resolute and practical effort must be made to correct these evils. II is do limitation upon property j rights or freedom of contract to re- J quire ttint when men receive from gov ernniein the privilege of doing busi ness under corporate form, vvlilcb frees tlicin from Individual responsibility and enables them to call into their en- j tcrprises the capital of the public, they shall do so upon absolutely truthful representations 114 to the vnltie of the property in which the capital Is to be Invested. Corporations engaged In In terstate commerce should be regulated If tbe.v are found to exercise a license working to the public Injury. It should be as much the aim of those who seek for social betterment to rid the busi uess world of crime* of cunning as to rid the entire Itody politic of crlmea of violence, tlreat coritorations exist only because they are created and safe guarded by our institutions, and It la therefore our tight ami our duty to see that tltey work In liartnony with these institutions. I'u Illicit? the First Fssentlnl, The tirsc essential in determining how to deal with the great industrial combinations Is knowledge of the facts ?publicity In the interest of the pub lic the govetunieiit should have the right to Inspect and examine the work lugs of the g-ent corpora I ion* engaged in interstate business. Publicity is the only sure remedy which we can now invoke. What further remedies are ncctred In the way of governmental regulation or taxation can only lie de termined after publicity lias liecu ob taiucd by process of law and Ib the course of administration. The tlrst requisite is knowledge, full and com plete?knowledge wbieb may lie made public to the world. ArtItielal tiodies. such as corporations and joint stock or other associations, depending upon any statutory law for their existence or privileges should he subject to proper governmental super vision. and full and accurate informa tion as to their operations should lie , made public regularly at reasonable iuicrvuls. The large corporations, commonly called trusts though organized lu oue stale, always do business in many states, often doing very little business ; in t ,e state where they are incorpo i rated There 1. utter lack of uniform ity it) the stale laws about them, anil, as no state has any exclusive interest j in or power over their acts, it lias in practice |?roveil lni|)Osslble to get ade i|uate regulation tlirougli state action. Therefore, in the interest of the whole people, tlie nation should, without In terfering with the power of the states in the matter itself, also assume |>ower of supervision and regulation over all I corporations doing an interstate busl i uess. Anirnd Constitution If \rcrNNarr. When the constitution was adopted, at the end of the eighteenth century. t:o human wisdom could foretell the sweeping changes, alike lu Industrial and political conditions, which were to take place liy the beginning of the i wenlietb century. At that time it was accepted as a matter of course that the several states were the proper authorities to regulate, so far as was then necessary, the comparatively in significant and strictly localized cor porate I todies of the day. The condi tions are now wholly different, and wholly dlffereul action is called for. I lielleve that a law can Is' framed which will enable the national govern ment to exercise control along the lines nlsive indicated, profiting hy the expe rience gained through the passage and adtuitilstiat "ti of the Interstate coin mene ad. If. however, the Judgment of the congress Is that it lacks ti e con stitutional power to (kiss such an act, i flu a a constitutional amendment should be submitted to confer the power. i There should be created a cabinet of ficer, to be known as secretary of commerce and industries, as pro\: led i tn the bill Introduced at the Inst ses (Ion of the congress. It should be his province to deal with commerce in Its broadest sense. Including among many other tblugs whatever concerns intuit and all matters affecting the great business corporal Ions and our iner chant marine. I.a bur, The president declares that he re fards It necessary to re-enact the Chi nese exclusion law. In regard to labor he says that the government should provide in its contracts that all work should he done under "fair" conditions and that all night work should he for hidden fer women ami children as well as excessive overtime, lie coutinues: Very great good has been and will he accomplished by associations or unions of wageworkers when managed v. th forethought and when they combine in slstenee upon their owu rights with law abiding respect for the rights of ethers. The display of these qualities in such bodies Is a duty to the nation no less than to the associations them selves. Finally, there must also in many cases l>e action by the govern meut In order to safeguard the rights and Interests of all. l.'uder our consti tution there Is much more scope for sueh action by the state nnd the munic ipality than tiy the uatlon. Hut on points sueh as those touched ou above the national government can act. He asserts that the Immigration laws are unsatisfactory and that a law should l>e enacted to keep out not otdy anarchists, but persons of a low moral tendency or of unsavory reputation and those who are below a certain standard of economic fitness to enter our Industrial field as competitors with American labor. The Tariff and Reciprocity. The president declares that nothing could he more unwise than to disturb the business Interests of the country by any general tariff change at this time, lie adds: * Yet it is not only possible, but emi nently desirable, to combine with the stability of our economic system a sup plementary system of reciprocal bene fit ami obligation with other nations. Such reciprocity Is an incident and re suit of the firm establishment and preservation of our present economic policy. It was specially provided for in the present tariff law. Reciprocity must be treated as the handmaiden of protection. Our first duty Is to sec that the protection grant ed by the tariff lit every case where it is needed i* maintained, and that reci procity iie sought for so far as it can safely he done without Injury to our home industries. Just how far this is must lie determined according to the Individual ease, remembering always that every application of our tariff pol icy to meet our shifting national needs must tie conditioned upon tlie cardinal fact that the duties must never be reducer! Ix-lew the point tluit will cover tile difference between the labor eost here ami abroad. The well tx'lng of tlie wageworker is a prime considera tion of ohi entire policy of economic legislation. Need For Wider Markrta. Subject to tills pioriso of tlie proper protection necessary to our industrial well being at home, the principle of reciprocity must command our hearty support. Tlie phenomenal gi-ewtb of our e.v|H?rt trade emphasizes the ur gency of the need for wider markets and for a liberal policy in dealing with foreign nations. Whatever is merely petty and vexatloue In tlie way of trade restrictions should tx' avoided. The customers to whom we dispose of our surplus products iu tlie long run. directly or Indirectly, purchase those snr|ilus products by giving us some thing in return. Their nbility to pur chase our products should as far as possible Ixi secured by so arranging our tariff as to enable us to take from tlietn those products which we can use without harm to our own industries and labor or the use of which will he of marked Ixmeilt to us. It Is most important that we should maintain the high level of our present prosperity. We have now reached the point iu the development of our lu te: c-ts where we are not only able to supply our own markets, hut to pro duce a constantly growing surplus for which we must find markets abroad. To secure these markets we can utll Ize existing duties in any ease where they are no longer Deeded for the pur pose of protection, or in any case where the article Is not produced here and the duty Is no longer, necessary for revenue, as giving us something to offer In exchange for what we ask. The cordial relations with other na tions which are so desirable will nat urally be promoted by the course thus required by our own Interests. The natural line of development for a policy of reciprocity will be In conneo tion with those of our productions which no longer require all of tile sup port oiks' needed to establish them uiKin a sound basis and with those eth ers where either because of natural or of ecotn.-mie causes we are beyond the reach of successful competition. I ask the attention of the senate to lite reciprocity treaties laid before It by my predecessor. Tin* Merchant Marine. The condition of the American mer chant marine Is such as to call for im mediate remedial action by the con gress. It Is discreditable to us as a nation that mir merchant marine should be utterly Insignificant iu com parison to that of other nations which we overtop in other forms of business. We should not longer submit to condl tions tinder which only a trifling por tion of our great commerce Is carried In our own ihjps. To remedy this slat" rif things would not merely serve to hulld tip our shipping Interests, lint It would also result iu benefit to all who are Interested In the permanent estab llsbracnt of a wider market for Ant r lean products and would provide an auxiliary force for the navy. Ships i work for tbrlr own countries just as railroads work for their terminal points. Shipping lines, if established to the principal countries with which we hnve dealii :s. would l.e of |>olltleal us | well as commercial In netlt Prom ev er) statu! ut it Is tmv.i e for the I'll led Steles to cci'tilioe lo rely upon the sld|:a i f eo-:.pel:. : nations for tile dlsti Mint oil ' f otl" !t'" -Is It should he iiiaile mi vantage..us i > curry American food* la Atucl anil i ' ill villps. At |>res. in A e. slopping Is un der t it . o i. it dis-i 'v.u'a-jes when put In cs :.tj?-r;. tm with tile shipping of foreign comitr e ? Many of the fast foreign steiimsliips. ill a speed of four teen knots or above. are subsidized, and nil our ships, sailing vessels and steamers alike, cargo carriers of slow speed nud mall curriers of high speed, have to meet the fact that the original eoet of building American ships is i-renter than Is the ease abroad: that the wages paid Amor lean ollicers and sea men an' very much higher than those paid ttie officers ami seamen of foreign competing countries, and that the standard of living on our ships Is far superior to the standard of living on the ships of our commercial rivals. Our government should take siieli action as will remedy these ine<p:afities. The American merchant marine should be restored to the c ell n. Finn nolal. The passage of the act establishing gold lis the standard money has. it Is declared, been shown to he I . cly u::d judicious. The pr< s.d< in adds: In many respect* t-ke national Imnk I ing law furulslies sutiii i iit I:hotly for j the proper exercise o: the banking j function, but there Ml ,:s i,) he need | of better sufi guards - -: Ike do- I rnngiug Inliueme of c. ... . reial crises , and financial pau us Moreover, the ; currency ot the c; y ..: >::ld lie j made respens ve to Ike d. :. ids of our ? dome: tie trade and en: - lee. Economy in cxpcu<llti;n's is urged. > Aiucnduu'iit of ilie* interstate commerce i act is adv .?> itisti c the cardinal : provisions ?? i' i ].;11 a<*t. The work car- j ried on by the d '|m< i:t of agricul* j ttire is u -\i cutis d? d aud* praised ( highly The pusideiit then turns to, fori'st pt " erva ion ami irrigation of j arid lands, say.ug that both are highly | uecessa: \ lie \.cuid | i all the work in conneetiou with i!: forest reserves in charge of the bureau of forestry. i I rrt?H (ton. Tlio president continues by tracing the connection hi twivu the forest re nerves ami the water supply. He says: The forests are natural reservoirs. By restraining the si reams In flood anil replenishing them in drought they make possible the use of waters other wise wasted. They prevent the soil from washing and so protect the stor age reservoirs from filling up with silt. Forest conservation is. therefore, an essential condition of water conser vation. The forests alone cannot, however, fully regulate and conserve the waters of the ark! region. Great storage works are necessary to equalize the flow of stream* and to wive ttie flood waters. Their construction lias been conclu sively shown to he an undertaking too vast for iirtvme effort. Nor can it he host accomplished by the individual stales acting alone. The government should construct and maintain these reservoirs a* it does other politic works. ! Whore their porpose Is to regnlate tlio flow of streams, the water siionid lie turned freely into the channels In the dry season to take the same course under tile same laws as the natural flow. The reclamation of the unsettled arid public lands presents a different pro Is leui. Heiv It is not enough to regulate the flow of streams. The object of the government is to dispose of the land to settlers wl o will build homes upon It. To accomplish this object water must Is- tiron.ht v. itiiln their reach. The ple.nei r settlers on the arid pub lic domain chase their homos along streams from which they could them selves divert the water to reclaim their holdings Such op!)ortu::ltios are prac tically gone There remain however, vast areas o' public land which can lie made available for homestead settle ment. but only by reservoirs and main line canals impracticable for private enterprise. i nese irrigation works should lie built by the national govern ment. The binds reclaimed by tbein should be reserved by the government for netual settlers, and the cost of con struction should, so far as possible, lie repaid by the land reclaimed. The dis tribution of the water, the division of the streams among Irrigators, should bo left to the settlers themselves Id conformity with state laws and with out Interference with those laws or with vested rights. The declaration is made that In the arid states the only right to water which should tie recognized is that of use. The president says that the doe trine of private ownership of water apart from land cannot prevail without causing wrong. Issnlnr Problems. Insular questions iv next treated. 1 In Hawaii our aim nut a le t > develop the territory on the tra lib >i;.11 Amer ican lines. Porto Itico is declared to be i thriving as nevei .suae. The atten tion of ei "arise is called o 1! c need of i legisbiti :t 1 o;:ei i" !"g the island's pub lic lands In 1 I'a ll I- stated that much pri re.* has lean III ? le toward putting t e i de'.H'iideht i eminent of 1 the Island open n firm in I It Is declared that In lependet ee v ill lie nn accomplished fact. 1 lie president adds: Klscw! ere I ! -red 1 the ques tion of reclpr 'Ity. In ' i if i n- j lia, however, th re are we ? 1 reasons of moralily and of e '.a ,ii interest why the policy shotfld lie held to have a peculiar nppllcat'i n. rod I most ear- 1 nestly ask your attention to the wis- j dom. Indeed to the vital need, of pro- ! Tiding for a substantial reduction In , the tariff <lutlej ou C'uLau Inn arts Into the United States. In dealing with tlie Philippine peo ple we must show both patience and strength, foils'?ranee and steadfast res olution. Our aim is high. We do not desire to do for the Islander* merely what has elsewhere been done for trop ic peoples by even the best foreign governments. We hope to do for them what has never before been done for any people of the tropics?to make tbem tit for self government after the fashion of the really free nations. The only fear is lest In our overanx iety we give them a degree of Inde pendence for which they are unlit, thereby Inviting reaction and disaster. As fast as there is any reasonable hope that In a given district tlie |s'ople can govern themselves self government has been given in that district. There Is not a locality fitted for self govern ment which has not received it. Ilut It may well be that lu certain cases it will have to la- withdrawn because tlie Inhabitants show themselves unfit to exercise It; Bucii Instances have already occurred, lu other words, there Is uot the slightest chance of onr falling to show a sufficiently humanitarian spirit. The danger conies in the opposite direc tion. Troubles Ahead Yet. There are still troubles ahead in the islands. The Insurrection lias become an affair of local banditti and maraud ers, who deserve no higher regard than the brigands of portions of the cU world. Kucourngemcut. direct or Indirect, to these lusurrectos slands on the same footing as encouragement to hostile Indians lu the days when we still had Indian wars. The president declares that the time has eouie for additional legislation for the Philippines. Ue says: It is necessary that the congress should pass laws by, which the re sources of the Islands can he developed. ;o that franchises (for limited tortus or years) can ho granted to companies do ing business in them and every encour agement be given to the Incoming of business men of every kind, it is ur gently necessary to enact suitable laws dealing with general transportation, mining, banking, currency, homesteads and tlie use and ownership of the lands and timber These laws will give free play to Industrial enterprise, and the commercial development which will surely follow will ufford to the people of the Islands the best proofs of the sincerity of our desire to aid them. The Cnhle nnd the Cannl. 1 call your attention most earnestly to the crying need of a cable to Hawaii and tho Philippines, to he continued from the Philippines to points In Asia. We should not defer a day louger than necessary the construction of such a cable. It is demanded not merely for commercial but for political and mili tary considerations. Either tlie con gress should Immediately provide for the construction of a government ca ble or else an nrrungemeut should t>e made by which like advantage* to those accruing from a government ca ble may be secured to the government by contract with a private cable com pany. No single great material work which remains to be undertaken on this con tinent Is of such consequence to the Amertcan people as the building of a canul across the Isthmus connecting North and South America. Its Impor tance to the nation Is by no means lim ited merely to its material effects upon our business prosperity, and yet with a view to these effects alone It would be to the last degree Important for us Im mediately to Us.'In It While Its bene ficial effects would perhaps be most marked upon the Pacific coast and the gulf and South Atlantic states. It would also greatly benefit other sections. It Is emphatically a work which it Is for the Interest of the entire country to be gin and complete as soon as possible. I ain glad to be able to announce to you that our negotiations on tldfc sub ject with Great Britain, conducted on both sides in a spirit of friendliness and mutual good will, have resulted In my being able to lay before the sen ate a treaty which, if ratified, will en able us to begin preparations for an Isthmian canal at any time and which guarantees to this nation every right iuai 11 utio r t ci asuru III CUIIIIfCUUU with tlic canal. It specifically pro vides that the United States alone shall do tlie work of building and assume the responsibility of safeguarding the 1 canal and shall regulate its neutral use by nil nations on terms of equality without the guarantee or interference of any outside nation from any quarter. The Monroe Doctrine. Ttie Monroe doctrine should be the cnrdit.nl feature of ttie foreign policy i of all the nations of the two Americas, as it is of the United States. The Mon roe doctrine Is a declaration that there must be no territorial aggrandizement by any non-American power at the ex pense of any American power on Amer ican soli. It Is in nowise intended as hostile to any nation In the old world. Still less Is It intended to give cover to nny aggression by one new world power at the expense of any other. It is sim ply a step, and a long step, toward as suring the universal |>eace of the world by securing the possibility of perma nent peace on ttils hemisphere. Iturlug the past century other Influ ences have established the permanence and Independence of the smaller states of Europe. Through the Monroe doc trine we hope to be aide to safeguard like independence nnd secure like per manence foe the lesser among the new world nations. This doctrine has nothing to do with the commercial relations of any Amer ican power save that It in truth allows each of them to form such as It desires. In other words. It Is really a guarantee of the commercial Independence of the Americas. We do not nsk under this doctrine for any exclusive commercial dealings with nny other American stale. We do not guarantee any state (gainst punishment if it misconduct* its. if. provided tlmt punishment doe* not take the form of the acquisition of territory by any lion-American power. Our attitude In Cuba Is a sufficient guarantee of our own good faith. We have not the slightest desire to secure any territory at the expense of uny of our ucighhors. The Navy. The president devotes considerable space to the navy, the upbuilding of which, lie says, should be steadily con tinued. The navy offers us. It Is deciar. ed. the only means of Insisting on the Monroe doctrine, and a strong navy is the best guarantee agaiust war. He recommends that provision be made not only for more ships, but for more men. Four thousand additional sea men and 1.000 additional marine* should be provided, us well as an In crease in officers. After Indorsing the naval militia forces the president says; But in addition we should at once provide for a national naval restive, organized and trained under the direc tion of the navy department and sub ject to the call of ti e chief executive whenever war tiecoiiies Imminent. It should be n real auxiliary to the naval seagoing peace establishment and offer material to be drawn 011 at once for uiauuiug our ships In time of war. The Aruiy. It Is uot necessary to Increase our army Ix-yond Its present size at this time, but it is necessary to keep it at the highest point of efficiency. The In dividual units who as officers und en listed men compose this army are, we have good reason to believe, at least as efficient as those of uny other army in the entire world. It is our duty to see that their training Is of a kind to in sure the highest possible expression of power to these units when acting in combination. A general staff should be created, rrouiotlous should be made solely with regard to the good of the service.. Congress ought to provide, the presi dent adds, for field exercises. He con tinues: Action should be taken in reference to the militia and to the raising of vol unteer forces. Our militia law Is ob solete and worthless. The organization and armament of the national guard of the several states, which are treated as militia in the appropriations by the congress, should be made identical with' i those provided for the regular forces. The obligations and duties of the guard, in time of war should oe carefully de fined and a system established by law under which the method of procedure of raising volunteer forces should be prescribed In advance. The Merit Syntera. The president Indorses the merit sys tem of making appointments and says: 1 recommend the passage of a law which will extend the classified serv ice to the District of Columbia or wilt at least enable tbe president thus to ex tend It. In my Judgment ull laws pro viding for the temporary employment of clerks should hereafter contain a. I provision that they be selected UDder tire civil service luw. It Is Important to have this system obtain at home, but it is even more Im portant to have it applied rigidly In our Insular possessions. The importance of improving the consular service by the jsissoge of r.ew laws Is emphasized. The president then turns to the In dian ipit-stion. He sa.vs: We should now bctsik up tbe tribal! funds, doing for them what allot ment ooes for the tribal lauds ? that Is, they should l>e divided Into Individ ual holdings. There will be a transi tion [s-riod during which the fund* will iu many cases have to be beld it? trust. This Is the ease also with the lands. A stop should l>e put upon the Indiscriminate permission to Indians to lease their allotments. The effort should Is* steadily to make the Indiat* work like any other man on his own ground. The marriage laws of the In dians should be made the Ramp as those of the whites. In the schools the edu cation should be elementary and large ly Industrial. Cordial support from congress andi people Is asked fcr the St. Isittis expo sition. The Charleston exposition is commended to the good will of the people. The work of the I'am American exposition Is praised ii is reoommeumsi mat mo census oliice as now constituted should be made a permanent government bureau. The font it I tifrvlce. A tribute is paid to the postal service, and the extension of free rural delivery is commended. The postollice depart ment should tie sustained, the president says. In its efforts to remove the abuse* in connection with second class mail matter. Much attention is |>nid to tlie situa tion in China, and the progress toward the establishment of peace there is re eupltulnted. Stress is la d on ttie im portance of our continuing to advocate moderation In the dealings with China. The preside't concludes Ids message a* follows: The death of Queen Victoria caused tile people of the Culled States deep end heartfelt sorrow, to which the gov ernment gave full expression. When President McKluley died, our uatloo itx turn received from every quarter of tin British empire expressions of grief and sympathy no less sincere. The death of the Empress Cottager Frederick of Germany also aroused the genuine sym pathy of the American people, and tills sympathy was cordially reciprocated hy ticrman.v when the president was assassinated. Indeed, from every quar ter of the civilized world tve teceivetf nt the time of the president's death as surances of such grief unil regard as to touch the hearts of our people. In the midst of ottr nfllletiou tve reverently thank the Almighty that we are at pence with the nations of mankind, and tve firmly Intend that our policy shall l?e such as to continue imlirokeis theSe International relations of mutua> respect nnd good will.