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}?l BI.I( COTTON (iKAOKKS IN
(By W. F. Welloni.)
During the Beason 1914-1915 Edge
combe was the only county in which
expert cctton grading was done for
the public. Four other counties took
advantage of the public cotton grad
ing work during the season 1915-1916.
Since then the number has rapidly in
creased until on December 1st, 1916,
we had expert cotton graders in
twenty-one counties, as follows:
Beaufort, Cabarrus, Cleveland, Cra
ven, Cumberland, Greene, Halifax,
Lenoir, Mecklenburg, Nash,- North- i
amption, Onslow, Pitt, Robeson,
Sampson, Vance, Wake, Warren,
Washington and Wilson.
The plan of the public cotton grad
ing work of the State is one of co
operation between the Office of Mar
kets of the United States Department
of Agriculture, the Division of Mar
kets of the North Carolina Experi
ment Station, the County Commission
ers of the separate counties, r.nd farm
organizations. If the County Commis
sioners of any one or more counties
will appropriate a sufficient sum of
money to meet the expenses of grad
ing room, clerical help, and printing,
the government will establish a grad
ing office and furnish an expert grad
er, who grades all cotton of the county
or counties sent in to him. The ex
pense of each county depends, of
course, upon the amount of cotton I
graded and the number of counties
using the same grading office. In the
case of two counties joining together
the expense ought not to be more
than from $250 to $.'!00 each.
Sample are mainly received from
the ginners. These are graded at the j
grading office and certificates of
grades are mailed out to the farmers
who own the cotton. The ginners are
furnished with containers, blanks for
labeling samples, tags for labeling
bales in the case of the smaller gins,
nnd franking tag for mailing Ham
pies to the grading office. In this way
everything is made convenient, so that
if a farmer wants his cotton graded
all he has to do is to Request the gin
ner to draw samples for each of his
bales. Most ginners, feeling the edu
cational value o fthe work to the
farmers, furnish samples of all cot
ton they gin.
Hut if the County Commissioners
fail to co-operate with the Division
of Markets for the good of the whole
county, still any* farmers who organ
ize a responsible organization to pool
the sale of their cotton in ten to one
hundred bale lots may arrange to
have their cotton graded by expert
The purpose of the public cotton
grading work is (1) to give the farm
ers a knowledge of the grade and
staple of their cotton, together with
some idea of what these grades and
staples . should bring on the market,
nnd (2) to enable the farmers, when
properly organized, to classify their
cotton according to grade nnd staple
and to sell it directly to the manu
facturers or buyers in general, there
by eliminating the middle man's
Local buyers do not generally take
the trouble of stpling each farmer's
cotton or of being cartful to buy it
according to grade. It\ is easier for
them to pay an average price for all
grades, and they usually do this when
the cotton has not been previously
graded by an expert grader. Such
conditions are poor encouragement
for progressive farmers who exercise
care in cs< d selection and picking, in
order to improve the grade and staple
of their cotton. They simply mean
that either middle-men or manufac
turers reap the benefit of the farm
er's thrift and industry, since all
values, due to superior grades or
staple, above average grade and
staple values, are under such condi
tions a dead loss to farmers and an
unearned gain to middle-men or man
The reader may pet some idea of
the actual loss suffered by individual
farmers or any community of farm
ers who take the care to grow a su
perior prr.de and staple of cotton,
when the grading service is not ren
dered, from the following Uotation
from the Farmer's Market Iiulletin of
April, 1915: "In a section in which the
producers know what staple they
have they are reported to receive
twenty-five points more for 15-1(5
inch staple than for 7-8 inch staple,
phich is the basis; fifty points more
for one inch, one hundred points
r ore for 1 1-16, two hundred fifty
p ?ints more for 1 1-8, four hundred
points more for 1 3-16 inch staple."
These gains range all the way from
I'. .25 to $20.00 per bale.
Investigations mcde by the Divist
ion of Markets of North Carolina
during the season 1915-16 substan
tiate the above statement and show
that there is an utter disregard of
t as length of staple by most local
huyprs. A comparison was made of
the average prices paid for the same
grades and staples on the same dates
in eleven of the primary markets of
t. e Cestui Main > ction. It was found
that the average length of staple at
a town has no apparent bearing up
on its relative merit as a market. For
example, Ahoskie with an average
length of staple of less than 7-8 of
inch paid an average of 27 points,
or |1.35 per hale, more than Clinton
with an average length of staple of
Again, the fact that a superior
staple is produced in the vicinity of
New Bern is evidently not known to
the producers, as they are content to
accept a low average for their cotton
and insist on no distinction being
made betwten different lengths of
staple. Investigations showed that
cotton only 7-8 of an inch in length
of staple in every instance brought
as much as cotton 1 1-8 and 1 3-16
inches in length of staple, although
the difference in value is from $10 to
$15 a bale.
Another example of the abuses
which the classing service might
hope to correct was observed in
Mecklenburg County. One producer
had been growing a superior staple
of cotton of one and one-eighth inches
length for six years, but had never
before received more than average
staple prices. The first year he sav
ed $20 per bale or $400 for his en
tire crop by having his cotton graded.
At this rate he had suffered a loss
of $2,000 during the live previous
years that he had been growing this
variety of cotton.
Although classing cotton is within
itself a well paying proposition to the ,
farmers, yet it is meant to be only
the first step, and should be supple
mented with selling organizations if
the full benefits of classing are to be
realized. Organization makes farmers
independent of the monopoly of local
Markets' and gives them a wide range (
?.* markets. 'I hey can now have their i
cotton graded and stapled and sell it
in large lots directly to manufactur- i
ers, thus eliminating the expense of (
traveling buyers and the profits of
local merchants. Almost all of the -
tMllla i.f U ( n ( <> <1 ?!. . tit!11in>* 4-.. l.no
in 1 1 in in*: ? j ta i v an* wining tvj nuy |
thfir cotton from financially responsi
ble organizations of producers, when i
it is graded l>y export government '
graders; so farmers are in their own |
light if they do not take advantage of \
this opportunity. i
The results of the public cotton (
grading work everywhere it has been i
tried have been very encouraging.
Our State Agricultural Commissioner j
estimator that the public cotton grad- i
ing service has beeiv worth $25,000
to the farmers of Edgecombe alone. ?
During the 1915-16 season a compar- ]
ison was made of the relative merit
of fourteen of the primary cotton mar
kets of the Costal Plain section,
three of which had the classing ser
vice. It was found that prices receiv- <
ed in the three towns where classing ]
work was done averaged 30 points, ]
?1 "(? per bale, highi r than prices re- ]
ceived in the eleven towns at which (
cotton was not classed before sale, i
Basing our conclusions on this inves- ]
ligation, it apper.rs that had all the \
cotton in the Costal Plain section (
been classed before sale, the produc- i
ers would have received approxi- |
mately $1.50 per bale, or a total of 1
$800,000 more than actually was re
ceived. The gain that would have
been realized in the Piedmont section (
is estimated at $200,000, which would
have meant a total gain to the farm
ers of the State of $1,000,000.
It seems to me that Mr. Wm. R.
Camp struck the key note to the sit
uation when he said: "Even were
there no economic gain to the produc
ers as a whole in having their cotton
classed before sale, the fact that
many individuals would receive more
nearly that to which they are justly
entitled is ample renson for render- (
ing classing service."
MILL ('KEEK NEWS.
Miss Hrttie Adams, of Rocky
Mount, is spending a vacation at
Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Barficld, of
Goldsboro, spent last week in this
Mrs. Alice Rhodes, of Four Oaks,
and Mr. W. A. Rose, of Rocky
Mount, spent Saturday and Sunday
with their mother, Mrs. Sallie Rose.
Miss Elsie Cole, of Wilmington, is
making i n extended visit to relatives
in our section.
The pastor, Rev. O. Mattox, assist
ed by Rev. W. C. Jordon, of Ten
nessee, brought a very successful re
vival to a close at Mill Creek last
Sunday. One addition to the church
Mrs. Willie Taylor and her little
trirl, Mamie Rose, of Roanoke, Va., is
?visiting her brother, Mr. K. A. Rose.
Rev. and Mrs. Whitley Langston,
accompanied by their two sons, Whit
ley and Warren, arrived last Satur
day at the home of Mrs. Sallie Rose
for a few days' visit. Rev. Mr. Lang
ston is Presidinp Elder of the Val
dosta District of the South Georgia
You arc liable to an attack of
Bowel Complaint and should provide i
yourself with the best known Remedy, i
Or SETH ARNOLD'S BALSAM.
Warranted by HOOD BROS., Smith
field, N. C.? -Adv.
FOUR OAKS ROUTE THREE.
Mr. r.nd Mrs. Billie Dunn, of Hazel
hurst, Ga., have returned to their
home, after spending several days
with relatives in this section. They
made the trip on a Ford car.
Mr. Thos. A. Creech and family are
spending thi week with Mr. Creech's
brother, Mr. John Creech, near Coats.
Mr. Clarence Hall, of Elevation, was
i visitor in these parts last week.
Mr. W. L. Wallace began teaching
a six weeks' summer school at Stew
art school house Monday.
M'fsrs. L. C. and Jesse Keen, who
live near Four Oaks, Sundayed in this
Misses Etta Parker and Minnie Pol
U'rd, of Smithfield, pent Sunday in
Mr. and Mrs. Ira Allen, of Golds
boro, visited in this section last week.
Why Germany Suggests l'eace.
Whenever Germany obtains a tem
porary advantage she is prompt in
sending up peace kites. The situa
tion in Galicia, resulting in German
l^ains, offered an excellent opportuni
ty for Chancellor Mchaelis and the
puppet foreign minister of Austria to
issue one more of their sham peace
overtures. This move was clearly
foreseen by the allied governments,
and even somo of the arguments ad
vanced by Michaelis were outlined in
advance by allied diplomats.
Setting aside the cock-and-bull sto
ry of French designs on German ter
ritory, which was put out by Michaelis
in the hope of deluding the Russians
into thinking they were dupes of
France, the substance of both Micha
I'lis' and Czernin's statements is that
both Germany and Austria are ready
for peace "by means of an under
standing," a peace "without con
rr*L .a a i a % r* ? *-? *
i ne recent siaiemem oy Mr tui
ward Carson that pcace with Ger
many would come when the German
lines were back of the Rhine appears
to have stirred up a hornet's nest,
rhe German rulers are trying their
best to convince the German people
that the Englishman's words were
mere hoastfulness; that there is no j
Jangcr of the crumbling of the Ger
Germany is badly winded. She sees
innumerable dangers ahead unless
she can make peace. Another twelve
months will find her grappling with
in entirely new enemy, more power
ful and resourceful than any she has
yet faced. This enemy knows noth
ing of boundaries, and cares less. No
bribe, no threat, no offer of "read
justment" can keep this enemy off
the back of Germany. The quarrel
between Germany and the United
States goes deeper than any Euro
pean question. It affects human lib
erty. The nature of the struggle
makes it impossible for the United
States to desist until the danger that
threatens self-government is forever
destroyed. No promise by Germany
will suffice. No compromise is possible
between liberty and tyranny. One or
the other will die.
Is it any wonder that the kaiser's
new mouthpiece should make peace
offers? Is it remarkable that he
should try to stir up a quarrel be
tween France and Russia? It is as
tonishing that the kaiser's tools in
Vienna should try to deceive the al
lies with sham proposals of peace.
"Peace without conquest" comes
sweetly from the German freebooters
who are now looting northern France,
Belgium, Serbia, Poland, Courbind,
Galicia and Rumania. Having made
enormous conquests before the allies
could meet German preparedness,
Germany naturally is anxious to call
off her enemies before they drive her
out of invaded territory and compel
her to pay for the property she has
The peace proposals from Germany
are as insulting to the intelligence as
they arc to the sense of justice of the
allies. It is humiliating to see the
Germans persist in the notion that
the allies are gullible enough to
cease fighting and talk peace while
the Burglar is in the house packing
his booty. This low estimate of the
intelligence of the allies constitutes
proof of the unconquerable stupidity
of the Germans in international mat
ters, and emphasizes the necessity
for dealing with Germany with bul
lets instead of negotiation.
The days of peace with Germany
are over. Germany will have peace on
ly when the allies decide to give it to
her, after she has been rendered in
capable of breaking it. ? Washington
Post. \ 1
A Special Work Day.
Friday, August 10th, has been
set apart for a work spell to clean
out the old Webb Graveyard at Piney
Grove church. All persons are invited
to attend, especially those who have
peopk> buried then. Brinir your din
ner, stay all day. Please bring tools
to work with.
MRS. W. R. WILKIN'S.
Four Oaks, N. C.
"Nothing Slow About This Fire!"
"The kettle s boiling already ? breakfast will be done in a jiffy."
The New Perfection cooks fast or slow as you like.
1 he flame is always visible, always Ask your dealer to show you the re
steady. It's the Long Blue Chimney versible glass reservoir ? a new and
insuring perfect combustion that exclusive feature.
does ALADDIN SECURITY OIL
f or hot weather comfort, coolc on a a superior kerosene, always clean and
New Perfection. clear-burning, is most satisfactory.
STANDARD OIL COMPANY
Washington, D. C.
Charlotte, N. C.
Charleston, W. Va.
Charleston, S. C.
Books at Bargain Prices
We have a few books, slightly Shelf worn, which
we are offering at prices that should be attractive. Any
book in the following list for
15 Cents, or 4 for 50 Cents
The Boy Scouts with the Motiot
The Boy Scouts of the Flying Squad
The Boy Scouts with the Geologic*;
The Motormaniacs. by Osborne
Chimes from a Jester's Bell.
Four in Family.
The Fifth String, by Sousa.
Eccentric Mr. Clark.
Four Years of Fighting.
Flower Fables, by Alcott.
Camping Out, by Stephens.
Wood's Natural History.
The Water Babies, by Kingslev.
Greek Heroes, by Kingsley.
Coming Back with the Spitb&ll.
Poor Boys' Chances, by John H?b
The Young Editor.
Folly in Fairyland, by Carolyn Wells
Hospital Sketches by Alcott
Adventures in Frozen Seas.
Loft on Labrador.
Merle's Crusade by Carey
The Boy Geologists. .. .by Houston
Story of John G. Paton.
The Story of Livingstone.
The War Lords.
A Book of Golden Deeds.
Charlie Codman's Cruise.
See Kings and Naval Heroes.
Friends Though Divided Henty.
The Lion of St. Mark Henty
Through the Fray... Henty.
Endurance Test; or How Clear Grit
Won the Day.
Under Canvas; or The Hunt for th?
Her Senator, by Gunter.
Under Two Flags, by Onida.
The Rivals of the Trail.
Chums of the Campfire.
The Chouans, by Balzac.
Hans Brinker; or the Silver Skate*.
Mr. Potter of Texas, by Gunter.
The Schonberg-Cotta Family.
Larry Dexter in Belgium.
Larry Dexter and the Stolen Bey.
Tales From Shakespeare.
Dora Thome, by Braeme.
The First Violin.
Any Book Listed Below for 20c-- Any Three for 50 cts.
The Pioneer by Cooper
The Deer Slayer by Cooper
The Last of the Mohicans, by Cooper.
Barrack Room Ballads, by Kipling.
Louise deValliere by Dumas.
Memoirs of a Physician, by Dumas.
Toilers of the Sea by Hugo.
The Boy Allies with the Terror ol
The Boy Allies at Liege.
The Boy Allies with the Cossacks.
Our Young Aeroplane Scouts in
The Boy Scouts on Belgian Battle
The Boy Scouts with the Allies in
The Boy Scouts at the Panama
The Boy Scouts on Sturgeon Island.
The Boy Scouts on the Trail.
The Boy Scouts Through the Big
The Boy Scouts in the Maine Woods.
The Boy Scouts First Camp Fire.
The Boy Allies on the North Sea
The Boy Allies with the Flying
Cast Up by the Sea by Baker.
These Books Are Great Bargains
THE HERALD BOOK STORE
Smithfield, N. C.