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nificent Display of the South in U ti 3 ) 5 1 ; iLi ) i
and rts of the World
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ina Inter-State anci West Indian Exposi
ents Great andUnique Features that
vttractThousands of Visitors.
Its purpose Is to add to former efforts
and to inaugurate new Industries and
commerce, to enter upon a truly Twen
tieth Century of Advancement in all the
arts of peace, to develop the American
cultures of silk and tea, to promote the
manufacture in the South of cotton and
iron, to extend the commercial import
ance of Charleston by showing the value
of new steamship lines, to present to the
world the resources and attractions of a
most prolific country and have the Cap
tains and Privates of Industry to learn
that Charleston is '. the connecting link
between the producers of the Southeast
ern States and the Mississippi 'Valley on
i of the Spring Time
1 in Cfcaileston, the
j by Its Pioneers in
Thick Presents Un-
i . ...
j) Draw the People
iGaze Upon One of
gia, Colorado,' Dakota, Missouri a, rc
Carolina, some" of ' the eerpentjwtid
variegated marble Xrom Colorado being
made into exquisite designs. The geo
logical exhibit of the United States Gov.
eminent is a magnificent one and attracts
great attention. ... -
Tassing eastward from the building
there is next the : f
PALACE OF COMMERCE.
This la one of the three Palaces, con
nected in semi-circular form by coionades,
their" grouping thus forming the impos
ing back ground for the Court of Palaces,
the Cotton Palace in the centre, arid the
Palace of Agriculture, at the bppositd end.
Within its walls is the ' Liberal " Arts
display, covering 43.000 square feet of
magnificent .live oaks, from whose out- floor-space, where are , exhibited tho
stretched limbs there hang in shadowy manufactured products of various sorts,
and gracefur pendants the streamers of except textiles, displays of foods' 'and
long, grey Spanish moss', .wn59 nature , their acce'ssdries, ordnance and munitions
alone presents as an attraction." In place of war, ceramics, gold ami silver ware,
of dusty walks there are here beautiful ethnological and archaeloglcn I exhibits,
groves and green slopes, providing a per- ; The manufacturers of many articles for
feet background for the architect and table use here have their exhibits, samples
landscape gardener, whc.e artistic fancy of which are served daily to visitors, who
has evolved a ' dream of ' beauty. The find many toothsome articles t,o be en
grounds, skirt the edge of a beautiful joyed, "without money and without
river,' which adds its y shimmer- and price." There are over GO concessionaries
sparkle as another jewel of beauty in a having exhibits In this' biiildlng , and
erown of naught but those of brilliant souvenirs are on every sWel .
lustre. (- , I Passing from this building entrance is
Tliis section 'of the "grounds which bor- I had into the coionades ' leading to the
der upon the river provides for what is ' magnificent Cotton Palace. These
es of the Centnry,
I" Es creeps into the
nature and in the
lines of the build
Night is coming on
tnd the scene is
s wand. A twinkle
here, then a flash
orious spectacle of
ivt- it is- i:naries-
jblaze of electricity.
hts dream trans-
parks and plazas,
gush in prismatic
htains, and, where
ny lakes duplicato
ue Dicture of tran-
i of Southern Ex
i.ched in Charles
ition is now in a
I. r -v
here have been
South, but this
rlcans and At-
1 court and h?xl
s remained for
pse them all in
s:io but a few
andeiir of the
: - '
MAJ. J. C. HEMPHILL,
Exposition Director and Manager
Department Promotion and
one hand, and all the great markets of
the world on the other. , :
THE MEN AT THE HELM.
Tho men who built the Exposition are
a strong body of workers. Its first sug
gestion tame from Col. John A. Averill,
the Director General, and it is to his en
ergy, executive ability and never tiring
industry that the success of the under
taking is in a great measure due. But
the one man of ail men who made , the
Exposition possible . is Captain, F. W.
Wagener, the president of tho company.
Once enlisted in the eause he has ; not
spared time nor money. His means have
been pledged for its success and it is said
unhesitatingly that but for him the Ex
position could not have been as great as
it Is. . '
The olher. officers of the company, to
each of whom high praise is duo, are W.
II. Welch, vice president; Samuel H.
Wilson, treasurer; A. M. Wheeler, as
sistant director general, and John F.
Fieken, general counsel. The Board of
Directors, whose admirable conduct of
the Exposition deserves all praise, has on
Lit in addition to the president and vice
president Messrs. Samuel Lapham, a
prominent manufacturer; J. C. Hemphill,
editor of the Charleston News and Cour
ier, anc! also chairman of the Department
of Publicity; J. L. David, a leading cloth
ier; C. S. Gadsden, president of the Char-
known as the ''Natural Section,' and th j
river frontage gives it a' most graceful
charm. Here are to be seen numbers of
the spreading live oak trees and clusters
of Cherokee rose bushes, whose beautiful
flowers are soon to be in abundance.
This part of the grounds once formed
part of the magnificent estate of -William
Lowndes, a diplomat and statesman
of the days of Calhoun. ., It is now the
property of Capt. F. W. Wagener, but by
a' recent act of the City Council of Char
leston will be purchased and made a per
manent park for the city. To it will be
moved many of the Exposition buildings,
which will be located as a permanent
souvenir of the Charleston Exposition.
A PICTURE OF BEAUTY.
The "Natural Section" has on it many
buildings, but the beautiful work of na
ture done on its grounds have needed
little addition. This is but half the
grounds, which by a happy accidental
shaping of the irregular tract on which
the Exposition has been located has
given rein to the fancy of the architect,
who has used two distinct methods, one
emphasizing the natural features, whilo
art itself makes lip the other half.
BY CAR AND STEAMER.
The Exposition grounds are easy of
access from the city. Private convey
ances there are to be had In abundance
or a quick trip can be made by the elec
tric cars. To those who prefers a tripby
railroad over either the Southern or At
lantic Coast Lino will land visitors on
the east side of the grounds, or if by
steamboat then a pleasant half hour ride,
begun at the city wharves on the Cooper
river front, swinging around by the Bat
tery and then up the Ashley river will
spacious colonnades,' on either side of the
Cotton Palace; contain the magnificent
exhibit made by tha National Govern
ment. ' : ' .'" ' ' " ' '
THE GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT.
No appropriation from Congress came
to aid Charleston In her stupendous un
dertaking but by the aid of Presi
dent McKlnlQj', President Roosevelt, their
Cabinets and the heads of Departments
a full exhibit was obtained, and these
placed in, the long colonnades and In the
beautiful exedrae. , one, of which Is tho
kest Exposition .
1 f excellence'
osition, and in I
5 and charms
al touch with
i found is to be
i question of
fer is much of
1 WWW -mi lblk
COL. J. H. AVERILL,
i Director General of the Exposition.
THE ADMINISTRATION BUILD-
ING. . '
I leston and Savannah' and Atlantic Coast
J Line 'railroads; John "F. Ficken, attorney
and ex-Mayor of Charleston; Francis K.
j Carey, of Baltimore, and Wilie Jones, of
i Columbia. A,
Tiie architect of the beautiful "Ivory
City" i a maker of expositions, Mr.
Bradford Lee Gilbert,' of New . York,
whose work in Chicago and Atlanta have
betn no much admired, and who brought
exrcrieni-ed ability, taste and enthusiasm
to hi.s task. The' result has been only
what might be expected, and it in a poem
in, buildings to which his brain gave
The men,"! he means, the architect am
assembled and now the place upon which
these forces 'are to be centered, so as to
runic a magnet that will draw all people
A FAIRYLAND FOUND.
Ixrosition."' - It found, and it is a 'beautiful spot
upo'j tne casttrn panns -vi me Asnicy
river, cxceedlii ' cn hundred and sixty
withln tho rity limits and
Ida ns to prc
j ttuir State
o nil proplo
- S Ml
acrfi in size
about two ana a half miles from the
business centre of tho ci'.y. Thf; supervis
ing architect, with all his experience.
did nnt hcHitafo to call the spot an ideal
li-t; i site for tho fairyland on palaces and tow
tho ! rrs and gardens whlcfX, have arisen as
nod j if by t!i::.i'
. .ysb-- A WA s
COL. C. S. GADSDEN,
; Exposition' Director..
West Indian Post Office,1 the other con
taining the Post Office exhibit.
Besides these the department exhibits
come from the War, the Navy, the Ag
ricultural, the Treasury and the different
Bureaus of the State Department.
The National Museum has a, magnifi
cent exhibit and it is under the direction
of the Smithsonian Institute. . It com
prises the most select specimens from the
wonderfully rich collection of the Govern
ment at Washington, and the entire ex
hibit made at Buffalo from the Philip
pines. This last exhibit is one that is
studied and re-studicd with increasing in
terest as it is a revelation to the sight
seer of the greatness and diversity of tho
production of the islands ' and advance
ment of the Filipinos.
From the first colonnades and exedra.
we pass directly into the most magnifi
cent building on the grounds, the majestic
COTTON PALACE. v
This is the chef d'oeuvre, the
piece de resistance, of the Court of
Palaces. It covers over 50,000 squaro
feet of floor space and is about 350 feet
in length. It is the centre piece from
which radiate the Colonnades to the
Palaces of Commerce and Agriculture.
A magnificent portico is a feature of it,
and standing here there is a splendid
view of the Sunken Garden and Its lake.
Within the Cotton Palace South Caro
lina fittingly exhibits a display f cotton,
cotton products and by-products and cot
ton manufactures such as has never be
fore been gathered together at any ex
position. Here is told the story of the
cotton seed from the moment it is placed
tower and two flanking wings, placed , in fetilo soil, as it develops into plant,
nearly at right angles, the extreme end blossom, boll, snowy fibre, and then on as
being the pylons connected with the main t is picked, ginned, baled, spun, wove
building by a covered way, those covered an(l the finished product appears. And
ways forming the entrance and exits to 3ust so- well the display showis its by
and from the grounds. products, what becomes of the seed, and
MR. SAMUEL LAPHAM,
land sightseers on the west side of the
The business headquarters of Nthe
South Carolina Interstate and "West In
dian Exposition is in the Administration
Building, which occupies a most com
manding Bite just to the right" of the
main entrance to the grounds. Midway
between the Natural and Art Parks its
design makes it equally effective from
all sides. In formation it has a central
The central dome and rotunda are 75
feet in diameter, and extend about 40
feet above the roof to : a height of 75
feet above the ground. The striking fea-
in fact the great story of "King Cotton"
in its entirety. .
Besides the building contains other ex
hibits of absorbing interest and the fix
ture of the imposing building is a great 1 position visitor will find that it requires
round balcony which projects boldly into
the grounds. The many rooms of the
building contain 'the Exposition offices
for the various departments. :
In style the building is a combination
of the Spjanish-Renais3ance and the Old
Mission type of architecture, with pic
turesque gables, enriched ornamentation
and projecting corbels, brackets and label
molds, the effect of the dome' being de-;
Opposite thpj Administration Building,
and on the axis line of the main plaza
separating the two Hections is tho
MINES AND FORESTRY BUILD
ING. This is the first of the great buildings
to which visitors turn and is tho Mecca
to which all North Carolinians will
flock, for in it is the great exhibit from
this State occupying the very best posi
tion in the building and forming a pic
ture of beauty immediately that the view
within the swinging doors comes into the
line of vision.
The North Carolina exhthit space Is
divided into five sections, the central
bring within an ornate pagoda, sur
rounded by the other four sectioua all
Within he building, outside of the en
tiro .North Carolina exhibit, - the pro
duets of the mines and the forests of a
great 8fi;tion ara the attractions. In area
there is about 20,000 square feet. The
building is eerai-circular in form, and its
designed after sotnn of the quaint old
palaeoK of Spain and Italy. It in one
story in height with deeply recessed win
dows high above the ground, theso being
filled in with wrought grilles.
The visitor will find many specimen of
various kinds of native woods, In natural
and finished shape. The mines exhibits,
grouped in ppolosdcal eras aro full of in-
time to thoroughly study and enjoy thy
But on again through colonnades and
we are in tho
PALACE OF AGRICULTURE.
This is the completion of the central
feroup, and here is 43,000 square feet of
floor space. In it there Is the magnificent
display made from the counties of South
Carolina, most artistically arranged. In
these are the farm crops and exhibits per
taining to horticulture, including pomol
ogy,' floriculture and viticulture, with
literature and statistics bearing on these
pursuits. In the annex there is a great
display of agricultural machinery and appliances.
Passing out the ma'i entrance of this
"building we get a splendid view of
THE COURT OF PALACES.
This enables us to study the architec t
ural beauties of the buildjngs inspected.
The Cotton Palace is of the Spanish
Renaissance style as are all the buildlag3
in the "Art Section." Its central dome
rises one hundred and sixty feet above
the level and its great porch is three
hundred and sixty teet long. The facade
Is broken by various pediments, projec
tions, domes, red tiled roofs, the architec
ture being typically Southern, with huge
masses, simple and strong contour and
nculpture at various entrances and initial
outlines, enriched with terraces and
The Palace? on either sido leyoud the
colonnades have each a central dome.four
smaller towers on each corner and two
still nmallcr towers on either side of the
gabla over tho main entrances, all being
rounded instead of square.
THE SUNKEN GARDEN.
Thin gent Coiirt of Falaceu conlains:
Uf.U.M'O Ji'inarrt tot. the s.i-.n h in- V'r
fexcavatlon made for a lake.s In' the
centre of this, fully twenty feetf below' the
level of the Palaces, is the Sunken. Gar
den. It Is beautiful by day,, brilliant at
night. Beds of tropical arid gorgeous
plants increase with their vivid, coloring
the effect produced by the shimmering re
flections of the ivory palaces seen In the
miniature lake. No more lovely sight
can be conceived than, that seen, as one
stands midway In' the band stand and
feasts en this very bouquet iof color and
effect as the sun pours out its mellow.
4ays, or at night when "crowns and
streamers 'and . jets of electric fire en-,
girdle building, and dome, and minaret
MR; E. L. TESSIER, JR.,
Manager' Department of Exhibits
1 and Concessions.
dnd turret and garden, in one vast wav
ing, quivering line of indescribable bril
liancy and beauty. "It is enchantment
that has d6ne this," one idly, dreams.
Across the Plaza and into the Audito
rium is a pleasant walk. The building
is circular : in form, with symbolio de
corations, and in the southern end an
open pergola reached by outside stair
ways. It Is a commodious building, with
a seating' capacity of about 6,000 people.
In it is a 'spacious stage, back of which
is one of the largest organs ever con
structed made by Moller, of Maryland,
especially for the Exposition. The in
terior of the building is gay with bunt
ing", while sloping Beats and wide aisles
make it .a 'comfortable, play house.
' SOME STATES AND CITIES.
Turning to the northwest towards .the
"Natural Section" we find at its entrance
the Pennsylvania Building, a massive
structure, whose open court, wide" ver
andas and accessible observatory make
it a pleasant place' of meeting for the
"Quakers" an3 their friends. It is furn
ished beautifclly " throughout and' a fine
birds-eye view of the grounds is to be
had from ttho observatory.
First in the "Natural Section" 'comes
the Maryland Building,- of the, Spajolsh
Mission type. It is "elaborate in its de
tails ami mural decorations, the entrance
to it being,over a "camels back" bridge,
which spans an outlet from Lake Juanita.
Further : on, bordering upon Dake
Juanita is the New York Building, built
in the Spanish type, with backing of live
oaks, moss''drapC(l.r Its two wings have
an open court, between, and it has a spe
cial beaut of its own, ,
Directly opposite is 'the Philedelphla
Building, within whose central rotunda
is the : historic . Liberty Bell, guarded .'.by
four stalwart, policemen. The. design' Is
colonial, pure white in color, and a long
vestibule, approach, made brilliant by
electricity at night, gives it a unique ap
pearance. In, it are matters full of in
terest, telling of the great things done in
the "City of Brotherly' Love."
OVER LAKE JUANITA; :
Here, oh the edge of .the Lake is .the
building known as "Venice In America,"
containing precious Venetian ware. Out
on the lake are the electric fountains,
while gondolas dot its waters. In the
J f irM
MR. J. L. DAVID,
centre of the bridge leading across it is
the electric island and booth, where at
night prismatic ray3 make a beautiful il
lusion. The lake itself has been let in
from the Ashley River, a dyke on which
stands the Fisheries Building dividing it
from the lake.
. Over the bridge the first point reached
is . .. .
THE MACHINERY BUILDING:
In this there is a display, both of ma
chinery ah'd electricity. It is a long low
building, with a loggia of many arches
and columns, its ornamentations being
mainly a central porch at the entrance,
with a gable above, this as well as the
deeply corrugated roof showing the pic
turesque curves of the Spanish-Renais-sance
Here is machinery of all kinds, except
textile, and a wonderful gathering of in
ventions in electrical appliances. It is
an Instructive and entertaining exhibit,
as it take3 up in detail some of the very
.latest efforts and Inventions in these
lines. '" - 1 '
THE TRANSPORTATION BUILp
.. .. ING.
JUirt beyond, . &till on the north s'ulo of
the lake, is the Machinery Building, .In
it arc seen linos somewhat akin to that of
the Machinery Building. It is long and
low, while its gables and tiled roof tell
ot Spanish design. In tho building arc
seen the latest devices in steam and
electric railways; elevated, surface, un
derground; vehicles moved by horses,
electric, steam, gas, compressed air or
oth3r power, and vessels of .mercantile or
pleasure service. Here also is to be
Kfcpn '-the -Good Roads exhibit.
TJII3 FISHERIES BUILDING.
its; motif the proper -display
iris? Interests of tho cou
erected upon, the dyke or
arating the two bodies of
The 1 building is square
Oriental design. Access
entrances and within ai
tanks, with sidea' of 'plat
by mirrors at the' back W
Dlav the-live exhibit in
waters. Light is introduced from above,
and the aquarium displays the fish with
in to. the very best' advantage. . . .
In the centre of the buildings is a large
tank, with, bottom of white tiles this
being the tropio home of a family of
Alaska , seals; whose movements draw
many curious spectators. In addition to
these tanks there is a complete exhibit
of the practical work done by the United
States Fish Commission in the propaga
tion of fish, modern appliances for catch
ing fish, models of boats, and one of the
most attractive exhibits on the grounds,
that showing the development and growth
of coral and oysters.
The fisheries exhibit is pronounced by
those who have examined it as being1 su
perior to the exhibit made at Buffalo.
The building Isone of the Meccas of the
"Ivory City" and much time is pleasant
ly' and profitably spent in studying, tl
magnificent display made within tl
Crossing the causeway, we turn by a
winding path and And entrance into : ,
THE PALACE OF FINE ARTS.
- This Is appropriately the most artistic
building at the Exposition, the mural
ornamentation on the outside of the
building being extraordinarily attractive.
The design is purely classical, the struc
ture being of brick and is fireprooXjl v;
On the east and west sides four group
make up the "Dewey Arch," as it is
termed. These are "War," 'Teace,"
"The' Army"- and "The Navy," mounted
upon high pedestals, while a cast of
Apollo and other statuary mark the ap
proach to the building, to which entrance
Is had by a flight of low steps. '
The building within is divided Into a
large 'central court and two side galleries
containing fully as repurescntative an
exhibit of the work on canvas and in
sculpture as was found at the Pan-American.
The building is 140 feet long, 50
feet wide, the inside height being 30
feet. The building is lighted by a large
skylight, 24 feet wide, extending the en
tire length of the building, and providing
for a splendid view of the art treasures
within. The color scheme without har
monizes with the general motif of the
"Ivory City" and is most satisfying.
The display of American art is excep
tionally, fine. Its collection is due to
the work of Mr. James Bliss Townsend,
of New York, the Art Director of the Ex
position, and especial praise is given to
the exquisite exhibit of Colonial or early.
Americln Art, the exhibit made of the
work of American miniature and portrai
painters being a noticeable , feature
These come largely from Charleston
homes and are characteristic efforts of
famous portrait painters. The only pic
ture by a foreign artist Is that of "Mc
Kinley Signing the peace Protocol with
Spain," by Chartran, and its strong, bold
lines and its accuracy as to detailSyat
tract much attention. . " , yA.''"
Two statuettes before which every
Southerner pauses with reverence, and
the Northerner with deep interest, are
those of President- Jefferson- Davis, of
the Southern Confederacy, and General
Robert E. Lee, the chevalier of the
Southern armies. ' , "'', ' ;
It is a scene of rare' interest, is that
in the Art Palace, and the time'spent in .
viewing it is time profitably spent. From
it, by a circuitous ' walk, and over a
bridge spanning an inlet from the Ashley
river, we reach ' . ' ! ' ;, 't '; '..''
THE WOMAN'S. BUILDING.
, This is in the suburb of the Exposition
grounds and is built up5 in ail of its at-,
tractiveness from what was even before 1
the Exposition a magnet which drew
Charlestonlans and visitors alike to its
Across the waters of the Ashley river
are the primeval woods, and here on this
side of the waters is a magnificent grove
of spreading ' wide oaks, festooned with
beauteous gray moss, in whoso embrace
stands a colonial countryresidence, built
over 150 t'ears ago, from whose architec
tural beauty was struck the keynote of
much of the Exposition.
It is a building with a history, and as
it is gazed upon it takes you back for
hundreds of years. The broad lawn
sloping from the portico to the ripples
of the Ashley river, bordered by hedges
of Cherokee roses, a prim little garden
that recalls our great, great grandmamas
with its narrow walks bordering on
clove pinks, hollyhocks and gilly flow
ers, it' forms indeed a breath from an
other' ago. . ,
Early in 1800 the property passed to
William Lowndes, a statesman and man
of prominence whose descendants are
well known Carolinians. Here he made
a beautiful country home, famed, for its
hospitality, and through its shady drives
fashionable Charlestonlans have passed
in numbers. All this section of the
grounds comprised the plantation form
erly owned by the Lowndes famil, but
pf late years the property' of Capt. F. W.
Wagener,' and by him passed on to tho
From now until the close of the Char
leston Exposition there will be almosc
dally events of great interest occurring
in the city and at the Exposition Grounds.
One of the latest popular acts of the
Exposition authorities is. to make the
admittance to the Races absolutely free.
Heretofore an extra fee had to be paUI
to enter the race track, but now orio
admission at the Exposition gates admits
to the race track as well.
President Roosevelt, his wifo and Miss
Alice, as well as many Cabinet officials
and their families, will be in Charleston
for two days "during North Carolina
Week, April 7 to 14.
There are State Days and City Day.1:,
Press Days, Educational Days, Hoo IIoo'
Days and all kinds of Days. In fact,
everything Is a big Day at the Exposition.
LOUISIANA PURCHASE BUILD
ING. This has been transported to Charles
ton from Buffalo and is of the permanent
type being of Spaulh-French stylo of
architecture, with portls, doc-ply point
ed gables and latticed windows. rt3
beautiful, location, tho fln view ot river
and gove afforded, it coiforU or boni
lifffnd hospitality roahilt.it n ft