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WAR COTTON CROPS
Methods of Control That Should
Increase Yield Without En
PLAN GIVEN BY GOVERNMENT
Some of Measures Advocated Are Not
New In Principle and Have Stood
Test of Years Check Rav
ages of Weevil.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Destruction of weevils in the
fall by plowing under or by up-
rooting and burning the plants.
Destruction In their hibernat-
ing places of weevils "that sur
vive the first operation.
Locating cotton fields where
heavy infestation may be avoid
Early and thorough prepara
tion of the hind to obtain an
early crop. This means fall
plowing u-mvI winter working of
the land, or the use of cover
Determination by experiments
on local sckIs of best methods of
spacing, both between rows and
between pliints In the row.
Insuring an early crop by early
planting of early-maturing vari
eties and by fertilizing where
These are the main points of the
formula set out in Farmers' Bulletin
848, "The Boll Weevil Problem," by
which larger war crops of American
cotton can be grown without increas
ing, and possibly by decreasing, the
present acreage In this crop.
Some of the measures are not new
In principle. They are old methods
which, modified and improved, have
stood the test of years. They represent
plain and practical farming methods,
and. although they may appear less at
tractive than many of the fantastical
panaceas which spring up from time
to time In cotton-growing sections,
they are sound and reliable. Individu
ally, they are effective in checking the
ravages of the weevils and collective
ly they offer a practical system which,
if followed carefully, will insure a
crop In spite of this pest. The system
may have to undergo slight modifica
tions to meet local conditions. For
example, In some localities hand pick
ing of weevils and Infested squares
at times may prove a profitable meas
ure. Problem of Control.
The case cannot be rested, however,
with the announcement of this antl
boll weevil system. The problem of
boll weevil control becomes more seri
ous as the pest continues its invasion
of the cotton belt. Eastern planters
must expect a more serious problem
than that which confronted the farm
ers of Texas, because the humid con
ditions in. the East are more favorable
to the life of the weevils. Better
means of control must be devised for
the region that Is becoming Invaded,
and, if possible, other means must be
developed to reduce the enornious loss
that is suffered, especially daring un
favorable seasons in Texas. The princi
pal work of the bureau of entomology
at this time Is in attempting to devise
means for this requisite additional con
trol. Much has been learned about the
habits of the boll weevil. Many seem
ingly excellent theories of control have
fallen before this newly discovered in
formation. A few may be mentioned :
Repellants d-. not repel the boll wee
vil. Sprays innumerable have been
tried unsuccessfully. Nor are the
weevils attracted to light. Lantern
traps have been hung in cotton fields by
many farmers, but only occasional
stragglers are caught In this way, the
Machines Are Injurious.
Machines employing suction and jar
ring devices, designed to pick weevils
and Infested squares or to shake the
weevils to the ground, have proved In
WATER FORCED INTO TANK AUTOMATICALLY.
A simple form of automatic drinking trough for pigs is illustrated above.
The trough T, Is provided with a cover D under which the float S Is situated.
The lever H connects the float with the valve V. When the trough is used
the float sinks, and by means of the lever pushes the valve open so that the
water from the tank or water pipe B can flow Into the trough through th-
pipe It; mn Is a flange. To the right is illustrated a section through the cover
along the line' ab. The cover D is necessary to prevent the animals touching
the float and attached parts with their snouts.
jurious to tne plants and are no, wff.
clently attractive to pay for the cost
of operation. Mechanical Ingenuity Is
needed, however, the specialists point
out, especially In developing effective
machinery for aiding In. the destruction
of weevils in the fall and also for a
better cultivation of the crop.
It Is estimated that boll weevils nowN
cause to the cotton Industry a loss of
400,000 bales of cotton annually. Al
though farmers In older region?, in
many cases, are Increasing their pro
duction, there is loss In the newly in
fested regions which offsets that gain.
A conservative estimate shows that
since the weevil has Invaded this coun-
it a r,r.r AAA
bales of cotton, with a value of about j
The figures which have been cited
show clearly the enornious. reduction
In cotton production which the boll
In order to make the picture com
plete, however. It Is necessary to call
attention to the effect the weevil has
on the production of crops other than
cotton. Wherever the Insect Invades
a region, diversification of crops and
animal husbandry receive a powerful
impetus. This Is shown, for instance,
in the state of Mississippi. For many
years preceding the advent of the boll
weevil, namely 1904-1908, the average
value of all crops was $116,783,104.
For the boll weevil years, 1909-1913,
the average was $132,031,800. The
loss in cotton production was more
than offset by the increased planting
of corn, forage and other crops.
General Account of Problem.
The bulletin mentioned above, which
will be sent to anyone on request, con
tains a general account of the boll
weevil problem. It deals with the his
tory of the insect In the United
States, the damage It has done In dif
ferent regions, the reasons for local
variations in damage, the Indications
for the future, Hie hnblts of the weevil
as far as they are related to control
measures, and ways of reducing the
Injury it causes by methods which
have been tested in many experimental
fields and by large numbers of practi
MATERIAL FOR WEANING PIGS
Concentrates That Are Rich in Muscle
and Bone-Making Essentials
(Clemson College Bulletin.)
Weaned pigs need good concentrates
that are rich in muscle and bone
making material to Insure thrifty de
velopment. Accustom them to their
feed gradually, as overfeeding will
readily produce scouring. From ten
to twelve days are essential In getting
young pigs adjusted to the change.
However, they should be fed lightly
at least three times daily during this
The following rations are good for
young pigs: (1) Skim milk and wheat
middlings. (2) One part ground
grain of some kind to two parts wheat
middlings or rice meal. Ground oats
and rice meal make1 a splendid mix
ture. Feed as indicated above with
CONVENIENT PLACE FOR SILO
Should Be Located Outside Rather
Than Inside of Barn Allow
Space for Feed Room.
In general the silo should be located
outside rather than inside the barn.
Place it a few feet away from the
barn so that a small feed room may
be built between. This arrangement
not only provides a convenient place
for the silage cart but also a means
of separating the silo from the milk
ing barn where silage odors are unde
sirable. MILK RECORD IS BENEFICIAL
Farmer Who Wishes to Carry on Work
In Businesslike Way Will Keep
Tab on H'B Cows.
Any farmer who is making a spe
cialty of milk production and wishes
to carry on his work in a businesslike
way will keep milk records, Individual
performance records for each cow in
the herd, says John M. Scott of the
University of Florida experiment
TROUGH FOR SWINE
ft mi m a m w i 1 avcs
GOOD BUTTER-MAKING RULES
Best Churning Temperature Is 58 De
grees on Ordinary Thermometer
Care for Cream.
(Clemson College Bulletin.)
Cream is made up of little fat glob
ales floating In milk. In making but
ter the fat globules are brought to
gether iuto a mass and the milk is re
moved as buttermilk. These fat glob
ules will stick better when they are
just the right temperature than they
will If either too warm or too cold. A
good temperature for churning is 58
degrees on an ordinary thermometer.
When the creara Is the right sourness
It churns better than when sweet or
too sour. The cream should be kept
at 50 decrees. or lower till the day be
fore churning. Then warm it up to 70
degrees, or room heat, which will bring
about the souring by the next day.
When the barrel churn is used, al
low gas to escape every few minutes
at first. When the butter begins to
come keep a close watch and stop
churning when the butter granules
are the size of wheat kernels. Draw
off the buttermilk and wash in the
churn repeatedly with cold water till
the buttermilk is all removed. Then
remove the butter from churn and
work it with a paddle. Add an ounce
of salt per pound of butter.
MANNER OF HANDLING SILAGE
When Time for Feeding Top Layer,
Which Has Molded, Should Be
Removed Heap Top Level.
(Clemson College Bulletin.)
When the time comes for feeding
silage the top layer, which will be
found to be molded, should be re
moved. The molded part usually ex
tends for several inches below the
surface. At least two inches of silage
should be fed each day In order to
prevent the formation of the mold.
The top of the silage should be kept
level so as to expose the smallest sur
face possible to the air. 6nly enough
silage for one feeding should be put
out, as it soon dries out if not fed at
ROUGHAGE OF HIGH QUALITY
Average New York Cow Credited With
$66.09 Yearly Income Scrub
Success in dairying is based on the
production of high quality roughage.
The truth of this basic principle of
dairy farm management finds support
in estimates recently made by the New
York State college of the average dairy
cow's product in that state. The aver
age New York cow is credited with only
$G6.09 total income yearly. The cost
of maintaining her is estimated at
$61.85, not including the cost of labor.
The difference amounting to only $4.25
a cow, would give to the man who
Splendid Type for Milk.
cared for 20 cows a yearly wage of
$85 which is less than the lowest wage
paid to ordinary farm labor. Scrub
cows are largely responsible, it Is said,
for this poor showing in New York
and the college advises that they be
weeded out If dairy herds are to be
profitable to the farmer. These herds
may be improved greatly by better
breeding methods and by eliminating
the culls. Behind the cows lies the
farm on which they are kept. If the
farm is not properly managed; the
cows are laboring under a severe han
dicap. FIRST FEED FOR YOUNG CALF
Skim Milk Is Given Soon as Prac
ticable and Continued Until Ani
mal Is Six Months Old.
At first the calf is fed whole milk,
the quantity being gradually increased.
Skim milk is substituted as soon as
practicable and, if cheap, is continued
until the calf Is six months old. Or
dinarily the maximum quantity of skim
milk that can be fed economically is
20 pounds a day. When the calf is
twajweeks old, grain and bright, clean
hay should be offered; the quantity
fed should be increased as the calfs
COMMON CAUSES OF SCOURS
Overfeeding, Milk That Is Cold or Sour,
Dirty Pails, Troughs or Stalls
Indigestion is the cause of common
i;ours. This generally occurs when the
calf is from two weeks to a month
old. Prevention is the best remedy.
The common causes of indigestion are
overfeeding, feeding milk that Is cold
or sour, feeding sweet milk one meal
and sour the next, dirty pails, troughs
RATIONS FOR ORPHAN COLTS
Bottle, and Nipple Will Be Found
Cheapest and Most Satisfactory
Means of Giving Milk.
Raising orphan colts Is a hard task
which requires time and patience.
Cow's uilk Is the usual substitute for
mare's milk. Allowance must be made
for the fact that cow's milk is lower
in per cent of protein, fat, and ash
than mare's milk, while the latter Is
lower In per cent of water and milk
- At first a bottle and nipple probably
will be found the cheapest and most
satisfactory means of Inducing the colt
to take the milk. The milk should al
ways be warmed to body temperature
Add enough warm water to a table
spoonful of sugar to dissolve it, then
add from three to five tablespoonfuls
, of lime water and enough milk to make
a pint. Feed one-fourth of this mix
ture every hour for a few days, grad
ually lengthening the intervals and in-
creasing the amount given at a feed
as the colt grows older.
When the colt Is three or four weeks
, old the sugar In the milk may be dis
continued. At three months the colt
. should be put on a ration of all the
sweet milk it will drink three times
i a day.
I If the colt scours, cut down on the
amount of milk and give two to four
I ounces of a mixture of two parts cas
tor oil to one part sweet oil.
WORKING HORSE IN SUMMER
Large NumLer of Animals Lost Each
Year Through Lack of Care and
From Excessive Heat.
It no doubt would be one of the
greatest surprises that we have had
for some time, were we to realize the
large number of horses that are lost
each year from the lack of care and
from the heat; the time is here again
when we must watch our horses care
fully so that they may work safely
and to the best advantage for us dur
ing the long hot days of summer.
The horse that will stand the hot
weather well Is the one that has been
well groomed and cared for, you must
feed your horses well If yon want them
to work well and if you want to get
the most from your feed you must
keep them clean and comfortable. The
horse that is working hard during the
hot weather should be watered at least
four or five times each day, and every
hour or hour aM a half would be still
RACK FOR STOCK OPERATIONS
Sometimes Difficult .and Lengthy Be
cause of Lack of Secure Place
to Hold Animals.
Performing needed operations on
live stock ofttimes Is rendered a diffi
cult and lengthy job because of the
lack of a rack in which the animal
can be securely held. Here is one
which looks rather complex but which
'will keep the animal where he can't
get away to save himself, hard as he
may try. The animal is driven into
Rack for Stock.
the rack. Behind him one door swings
to, preventing him from backing out.
In front another door swings to
against the left side of the neck and
another slides In against the right
side. The lever Is locked there and
the stock is In the stocks, for all the
world like an evildoer in' ancient
times. Once you've got the animal in
that position you are at liberty to do
your worst. lie can't do anything to
stop you. Farming Business.
SORE MOUTH IN YOUNG PIGS
Where Disease Has Advanced to Any
Great Extent, Animal Should Be
Destroyed Burn Carcass.
(By I. E. NEWSOM, Colorado Agricul
tural College, Fort Collins. Colo.)
Watch the little pigs for sore mouth.
If ulcers are found Isolate the litter
and treat the nffected pigs. Tincture
of iodine on fe cotton swab used dally
will be valuable. If the disease Is far
advanced the pig should be destroyed
and the carcuji burned.
MANAGEMENT OF YOUNG COLT
Teach It to Eat Grain and Alfalfa or
Clover Soon as Possible Allow
Access to Grass.
As soon as possible teach the young
colt to eat grnln and alfalfa or clover,
and allow It access to grass. Crushed
oats and a little bran make the best
grain feed, but If these are not avail
able substitute crushed corn and bran
in equal parts by bulk with a little
I linseed moal. .
(JGH! CALOMEL MAKES YOU SICK!
GLEAN LIVER AND BOWELS MY WAY
Just Once! Try "Dodson's Liver Tone" When Bilious, Consti
pated, Headachy Don't Lose a Day's Work.
Liven up your sluggish liver! Feel
fine and cheerful; make your work a
pleasure; be vigorous and full of am
bition. But take no nasty, danger
ous calomel, because It makes you
sick and you may lose a day's work.
Calomel is mercury or quicksilver,
which causes necrosis of the bones.
Calomel crashes into sour bile like
dynamite, breaking it up. That's
when you feel that awfnl nausea and
Listen to me! If you want to enjoy
the nicest, gentlest liver and bowel
cleansing you ever experienced Just
take a spoonful of harmless Dodson's
Liver Tone. Tour druggist or dealer
sells you a 50 cent bottle of Dodson's
Liver Tone under my personal money-
Small PilL Small
Genuine bear signature
"Do you remember in your days of
adventure the story you told me about
the trouble you had in one voyage to
dodge a menacing shark?"
"Yes, but that's nothing to the
trouble I have to dodge my wife when
she wants money for shopping."
How's This ?
We offer 1100.00 for any case of catarrh
that cannot be cured by HALL'S CA
TARRH MEDICINE. HALL'S CATARRH
MEDICINE is taken internally and acts
through the Blood on the Mucous Sur
faces of the System.
Sold by drureists for over forty years.
Price 75c. Testimonials free.
P. J. Ciieney & Co., Toledo, Ohio.
A marriage broker brought an assist
ant along to a conference about a
bride. The assistant was to confirm
"She Is well made, like a pine tree,"
said the agent
"Like a pine tree," repeated the as
sistant. ' -
"She is cultured beyond words."
"Wonderfully cultured," came the
"However, one thing is true," con
fessed the broker, "she has a slight
hunch on her back."
"And what a hunch!" confirmed the
Want Good Marksmen.
At the time. of the Spanish-American
war an expert rifle shot was re
fused enlistment ns a sharpshooter
on the ground that good marksman
ship is of no advantage on the field of
battle. There are still some military
authorities who believe this to be the
case. They point out that when the
distance is not accurately known, the
good rifleman will be sure to miss,
while a volley Trom poor marksmen
will cover a large area and score some
hits. Nevertheless, the policy is now
to encourage marksmanship by every
When Man Is Caught.
Many a man has been caught at his
own foolish game by people who let
him think he was fooling them.
Poor Old Rich Man.
No one seems to sympathize with
the poor", old rich man paying income
like it and
they know it's
good for them
Tjlf T ff DTJADT I? Usually Need Iron in the Blood. Try 1
rALLliF rfcUrLE carter's iron pills I
back guarantee that each SDoonful
will clean your sluggish liver better
than a dose of nasty calomel and that
it won t make you sick.
Dodson's Liver Tone is real liver
medicine. You'll know It next morn
ing, because you will wake up feel
ing fine, your liver will be working.
your beadacbe and dizziness gone.
your stomach will be sweet and your
Dodson's Liver Tone ,1s estttrsiy
vegetable, therefore nnrrafcrvE :
cannot salivate. Give it to your caU-f
dren. Millions of people are using!
Dodson s Liver Tone instead of dan
gerous calomel now. Your druggist
will tell you that the sale of calomel
is almost stopped entirely here. Adv.
MAKING OF THE BISCUITS
STANDARD f EXCELLENCE
for DUr has htm. or if not k skonli.
Mk turn er write us qtvta) his tia.au.
CHATTANOOGA BAKERY "Ti,.
Carter's Little Liver Pills
Make you feel the Joy of living. It is impossible
to be happy or feel good when you are
This old remedy .will set you right over night
l " WWM-WIAOTll f
Yager's Liniment is excel
lent for any kind of pain or
congestion. It quickly re
lieves backache and rheu
matic pains, and is a splen
did remedy for - Neuralgia,
- Sciatica, chest pains, sprains,
strains, swellings and en
largements. Keep a bottle in your home for
emergencies you never can tell
when you will require something
of the sort. -
35c Per Bottle
Each bottle contains more than the
usual 50 cent bottle of liniment.
GILBERT BROS. & CO.
Sold for 4? years. For Malaria, Chills
and Fever. Also a Fine General
Slrendlhenintf Tonic. ""SZftSSZ-
(1) Men for town and country schools, $75 to
$100; (2) Ladlen combining muslo and common
school ; (3) Grade and high school. Can place
all qualified teachers. Unprecedented de
mand. Write today. Special enrollment.
Southern Teachers' Agency, Colombia, S. C
Concrete Is Preferable.
Steel is going up, and concrete, as a
result is coming into wider use. Rail
way bridges, for example, which used
always to be of steel, are now often of
concrete. A beautiful concrete rail
way bridge Is being built across the
James river at Richmond, Va.t and it
is much prettier than a steel bridge.
For like reasons," concrete is replac-
Inir wnnd in nilnitiff structural WOrkS.
where it has the great advantage o '
being waterproof. y'-
A Good Word for Adam.
A Tommy, writing home from the
Garden of Eden, says : "I think It's a
rotten hole, and I don't blame Adatn
for getting thrown out."
No man is so poor that he cannot
afford to pay somebody a compliment
now and then.
m Murine Is for Tired Eyes. I
MOYliS Red Eyes Sore Eyes 5
E mmtm Granulated Hjeltdg. Beats 3
s Rf reabes Restores. Marine Is a Favorite r
Treatment for Hjes that feel dry and smart;
- Give your Byes as much of roar loving ear
S as Toor Teeth and with the same regafarUy.
5 CAM FM THEM. TON CMMT SUT FW ETESI
Sold at Lr tig a Optical Stores or &r a
Isa fejrtas Ex Inks? Cs, Caicact. tx ftsa