North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.
RATIONS GIVEN TO HASTEN NEW FEATHERS
PRACTICAL POINTS FOR FILLING A SILO
LOSS OF FAT IN SKIM MILK
it- '. : "- - hv
PRIZE WINNING. COLUMBIAN PLYMOUTH ROCK COCK.
Hens must finish molting beforo
cold weather start3 or they will not
lay In the winter months- Because of
this fact a special combination of feed
should be given to hasten the growth
of the new feathers, according to Ross
M. Sherwood of the department of
poultry husbandry in the Kansas State
Use Linseed Oil Meal.
"Sour milk and beef scraps are use
ful at all seasons," says Mr. Sher
wood, "but linseed oil meal Is espe
cially good at this time. There are
" certain food materials in oil meal
which are needed In feather building
and which are not found In the other
feeds mentioned. Practical feeders of
ten point out that oil meal loosens
FOWLS IN WINTER
Make Profit From Rock During
Extremely Cold Weather.
PREPARE FOR HENS' COMFORT
All Immature Pullets Should Be Sepa
rated and Forced for Development
or Fattening Make General
The showing that the hens jnake
during the severity of winter, is a
good index of the person handling
them. Spring is the natural laying
.season, Nature usually lends aid for
the ha 'ching and rearing of chicks
from March until October, but winter
and late fall . finds the hen en-
-tlrely dependent upon her owner so
rar-&3thQ profit she will pay Is "on
cerned. The careful farmer or poultry
, man makes a profit from the flock
during the cold weather and prepares
the way from the time the eggs are
selected In the spring until the snow
" begins to fly by selecting eggs from
tested winter layers, keeping as win
ter producers only well developed pul
lets and healthy, energetic young hens
by preparing for their comfort in the
fall before the rigors of winter set in.
Granted that one has these well ma
tured pullets or hens that are young
enough to be profitable If held over
for another year, the problem of win
ter eggs Is not so difficult. No pro
ducer on the farm responds more
readily to good care than the heD and
Begin Culling Now.
In order to get Into winter quarters
with the best possible prospect, cull
ing should begin now. All immature
pullets should be placed to themselves
and forced for development or fatten
ed for market and all extremely old
- hens had best be prepared for the pot.
Cockerels Intended for next season's
breeders should be separated from the
others and a general clean up made
of all surplus slock. It is possible that
it will be more profitable to hold some
or all of the surplus for a better mar
ket but they shotdd at least be
separated from the winter flock and
the latter placed in permanent quar
It is remarkable how well a little
flock of HO or 100 hens and pullets will
pay If well attended. The housing
need not be elaborate or expensive.
The feed is nil at hand on the average
grain farm and no one need worry
about protohls or ash or balanced ra
tions. Give the hen something to bal
ance and she will do the work for
Make Needed Repairs.
If your house Is In need of repair,
begin npw In your spare time to repair
. it. Patch the roof If it leaks. There
are usually enough odds ami ends
around the farm to fix it. If it has
wnl! ei t fmliler nroiinrl thre sides of
it. leave a part of the south or east
lde open and make a frame covered
with cheese cloth or some other light
material for extremely cold and stormy
days. Fill in a dirt floor four or five
inches higher than the surrounding
yard. Clean out the old nest boxes
and spray the wall and parches. You
will have made a nice start toward
winter eggs when these thlugs are ac-eowpllshd.
the-old feathers. This may be the re-,
suit" of the rapid growth of new feath
ers caused by food materials contain
ed in the oil meal."
Ration for Molting Season.
The following ration is recommend
ed for the molting season : GO pounds
of corn chop, CO pounds of wheat bran.
20 pounds of meat scraps, and 15
pounds of old process oil meal. This
is fed In combination with a scratch
ing feed made up of two or more of
the cheapest grains locally.
After the fowls have completed the
molt and are well feathere., this mash
may be given: 60- pounds of corn
chop, CO pounds of wheat bran, 30
pounds of wheat shorts, and 20 pounds
of meat scraps.
WHAT KILLS FARM CHICKENS
Character of Animal May Be Pretty"
Well Determined by Condition of
Fowl When Found. -
We may pretty well determine the
Character of the animal that visited
our hen house by the condition of
the fowls as found.
A mink will slaughter a dozen or
more birds In n night, biting them
in the neck and sucking the blood.
Doth the mink and the opossum leave
the carcasses in the coop or house
where they found them.
Rats drag their prey into the holes
orrunways. ItatS. however, very sel
dom attack a half-grown chicken or
a fowl. Their appetite is more for
the youngsters, so the front of each
coop should be closed with a wire-covered
frame, which keeps out the rats
and permits ventilation. -
Cats and foxes carry their victims
away with them; the cat, like the
rat, cares only for the baby chicks,
seldom doing damage to birds that
weigh more than a pound.
The skunk Seems to select poultry
for his diet only as a last resort. He
prefers refuse meat or scrap. If any
of the latter is found he will fill up
with it and then retire to his den.
The next night he will return, and In
case the refuse meat or scrap is Insuf-
ficient to satisfy his appetite, he will
top off on poultry.
The weasel crawls on the roost, se
lects his victim, taps a" vein and sucks
the blood. The weaseljs a regular
contortionist, and is able to so con
tract his body that he can wedg
through the smallest opening.
EGGS PURCHASED BY WEIGHT
Custom Is Growing and Seems to Be.
Only Fair Way Light Brahmas I
Lay Largest Eggs. . '
The consumer of eggs knows that
there is considerable difference In size
of eggs. As a general rule a dozen
eggs may mean very little as to thT
amount of food contained.
The custom of buying eggs by weight
rather than by the dozen Is growing.
Really this Is ihe only fair way to sell
There Is considerable variation in
the size and weight of eggs. This va
riation is more among individuals than
among breeds yt there is a relative
standard for the breeds. Light Brah
mas lay the largest eggs, the relative
nverage being 28 ounces per dozen.
Eggs of P.laclc Langshangs 'and P.arred
Plymouth Rock hens weigh a . little
over 20 ounces per dozen. The weight
of eggs laid by . Single Comb Brown
Leghorns, late-hatched Plymouth
Hocks, White Wyandottes and Buff
Cochin hens ranges from 21.7 to 24.7
ounces per dozen. The eggs of Peking
ducks are heavier than those laid by
hens, the weight of duck iggs being
So.G ounces per dozen.
DETERMINE PROFIT ON DUCKS
An Exoeriment Found . That Fowls
Twelve Weeks Old Required
3.18 Pounds of Feed.
in ah experiment to determine the
profit on ducks hatched in Incubators,
reared in brooders, and sold on the
local market at from ten to twelve
weeks old, 3.18 pounds of feed per
pound of gain were required, the aver
age weight at the end of ten weeks
being four pounds, 1L2 ounces pr
Farmer Using Separator Should Pay
Close Attention to Matter Chief i
Cause Is Speed.
livery fanner who lifips n spnnrntor I
to skim his milk should give close at-;
lention to see that he does not lose fat
in the skim milk. A small percentage
of fat going into the skim milk contin
uously means a great loss for the year.
If n cow gives 5,000 pounds of milk
and four tenths of one per cent is lost,
it would mean for the year a loss of
about $8 per cow.
There may be many causes to pro
duce such a loss. Probably the chief
cause Is the speed of the bowl. If a
separator Is turned too slowly the milk
does not skim clean and fat goes over
into the skim milk. Another cause
might be the temporal ure of the milk.
For close skimming milk should be 8",
degrees or above. Still another cause
is an unbalanced bowl. See that the
separator gets plenty of oil when run
ning and do not neglect it when it gets
out of order.
MAKING IDEAL DAIRY RATION
j. Silo Solves Succulence Problem Best
Roots Should Be More Generally
Fed to Cows.
It Is very necessary that succulence
oe supplied if we hope to come any
where near an Ideal dairy ration. The
silo solves this problem best. From all
points of view silage is to be preferred.
The - second choice would be roots.
These will be very satisfactory, either
when fed alone or supplementary to
the silage, and should be more gener
ally fed than at present on all dairy
farms. Lacking either of these, it will
be Important to secure similar effects
through the grain ration with the aid
of alfalfa or clover if available. In
this connection oil meal Is of great
value because of Its well-known laxa
tive properties coupled with its high
BUILDING UP A DAIRY HERD
Care and Feed of Calves Is of Great
Importance Select Best Marked
Select the best marked female
calves from the tested and most pro
ductive cows. Let the calf remain
with the cow for eight to ten days or
until the cow's milk Is fit for human
food. Feed sweet skim milk heated to
blood heat; about "one to two quarts
may be given morning and evening.
Have a clean tin feed bucket; disease
and no end of germs may be found In
dirty buckets. Feed every day and set
out Ip the sun and air.
Feed sweet milk; it should always
be fed warm ; cold and sour milk will
produce scours and diarrhea. After
Good Foundation Stock.
the second week a-little oatmeal and
a small quantity of flaxseed oil meal !
after it is boiled may be added to the
Tie a little bunch of bright, sweet
clover hay in the pen every day for
the calf to nibble. After the milk has
beed fed put a little meal In the calf's
mouth. A little hay may also be given.
By this method the calf will soon leurn
to eat meal and hay.
Whole oats and wheat bran may be
fed In small quantities after the sixth
week. All stock, j'ouug and old, thrive
and keep in health when well fed and
CHECK GROWTH OF BACTERIA
Milk Fresh From Cow Should Be
Chilled at Once to About Fifty
Cooling milk immediately after milk
ing checks the growth of bacteria and
thus prevents the milk from spoiling.
Hence milk fresh from the cow should
be chilled at once t about 50 degrees
Fahrenheit and kept at that tempera
ture until delivered.
SILAGE NECESSARY FOR COW
Thirty Pounds Per Day Is About Right
It "Won't Hurt to Give Her
All She Will Eat. -
About 30 pounds of silage per day
is required by the dairy cow, while a
beef animal will consume one-third
more, or possibly a still greater
amount. It will not hurt a cow to
feed her all that she will consume if
the silage Is good and Is fed regularly.
MENACE TO DAIRY INDUSTRY
Difficult to Estimate Cost of Contagi
ous Abortion Each Year Breed
ers Are Secretive.
Tuberculosis is a dread disease, and
its ravages are a heavy burden on
the live stock industry. The loss that
it entails, however, is not so much to
be dreaded by the live stock men as
the losses caused by contagious abor
tion. It Is difficult to estimate just
what abortion costs the dairy industry
each year; breeders are very secretive
about its presence in their herds;
losses are taken quietly and nothing
said. Many, too, have contagious abor
tion to deal with and are not aware
of it. It is not necessary that a cow
actually abort to prove that the dis
ease exists. Sterility, Irregular heat
and retained afterbirth, are nil sym
toms of con tagious abortion. Too of
ten, too, an abortion is explained as
the result of an accident or strain, and
the dairy fanner lulls hlmnelf into
a feeling of false security. The first
essential toward eliminating the dis
euse from the herd is thnt we be
honest with ourselves and roognlze
that the disease exists.
Eternal vigilance is the price rr" free
dom from this disease.
BLANKET FOR LITTLE LAMBS
When Animal First Comes Into World
He Is Weak and Puny and Needs
Some Froiection. '
The poor little lamb Is up agamst it
when he first comes into the world.
He is weak and puny, and the chances
are he feels chilly and he may take a
cold that will end fatally and result
In a loss to you. Be on the safe side
by wrapping him up in one of the
blankets shown in the accompanying
Blanket for Lambs
drawing. It is attached by straps
which pass under his belly and also by
one which fastens around his neck.
The lamb will be grateful and so will
you when he deVelops into a big rascal
Worth quite a few dollars on the mar
ket. FEEDING PIGS FORAGE CROPS
Greater Returns Made Than From
Animals Fed in Dry Lots Al
falfa Given Highest Rank.
Pigs fed on good forage crops will
make many times as much profit as
those fed in dry lots.
The accredited gain in pork to an
acre of forage varies, depending upon
the crop, the age of the hog, aud
amount of grain fed. An acre of
sweet clover, with corn at $1.J50 rnhj
hogs at $15 a hundred, netted $42.07;
rape, $37.50; alfalfa, $G5.90, and. a
combination of oats, peas and rape,
Of all forage crops, alfalfa is the
great permanent crop, while rape is
the emerge' cy crop, and green rye
the full and early spring crop. The
ideal forage crop should show adap
tability to soil and climate, perma
nency, palatibillty. reasonable cost
of planting, and good pasture at any,
time during the growing season. Al
falfa, clover and rape have most of
MANY FARMERS HORSE POOR
Four Animals Are All That Is Needed
to Work Quarter Section One
Should Be Brood Mare.
.Too many farmers are horse poor.
They hnve not only too many horses
but horses which are not good. In
farming a quarter-section cf la. d there
is no need for more thao fewr horses.
Three of these should be heavy horses
and one should be an animal heavy
enough to Uo considerable work yet
light euough to do Un family driving.
Of these heavy horses at least one
should bo a good brood 5 mire. While
practicing economy la r.t!:er respects,
it is well to study the ecoi o 'ical use
of horse flesh.
PASTURE SHEEP IN ORCHARD
If Turned in Early in Season They
Gradually Accustom Themselves
to Fallen Apples.
Sheep, If suddenly fed an unlimited
quantity of apples, would quite likely
ekeko thcr.sel ves, or cveroat to such
an extent that other disastrous re
sults would follow. I'ut, if turned in
to the orchard early in the season,
they will gradually acc stom them
selves to the small apples as they grad
ually fall from the trees, and no harm
ful results follow. Cows and hogs
are equally useful, provided the trees
are in such a condition, and of such
a shape that the snl.nals will not
' (Clemwon College Bulletin.)
Distributing and packing silage in
the silo is frequently neglected. Un
less the blower lias a distributor at
tachment there Is a tendency for the
cut corn to fall in one place in the
.silo. If the stalks are frequently
blown to the outside and the heavier
parts, ears and butts of stalks, "are
deposited in the center, this causes an
uneven distribution of grain and stalk
and a consequent uneven quality of
silage. Uneven distribution is fre
quently the cause of soft places and
air pockets, which later result in
spoiled silage. When the lighter por
tions are blown to the outside they
do not pack well and the silage spoils
near the wall." Such spoilage, which
really results from careless filling. Is
often attributed to the silo.
Packing Is Important.
' Tacking the silage Is equally as Im
portant as distribution. "Thorough
packing requires persistent work.
LAi.iGS BORN IN FALL
Such Animals When Ready for
Market Bring Fancy Prices.
Dorset, Rambouillets and Merinos Will
Breed at Almost Any Season
Open Shed Will Furnish Suf
The term "winter lamb" has refer
ence to lambs that are born In the fall
or early winter and grown during the
winter. Such lambs when ready for
the market usually sell at fancy prices
because they reach the market at a
time of the year when choice, fat young
lambs are scarce and in great demand,
says D. A. Spencer, sheep expert for
the department of animal husbandry of
Oklahoma A. and M. college, Stillwa
ter. To produce winter lambs It is neces
sary to have the ewes bred In late
spring or early summer, says Mr. Spen
cer. If the ewes arc in good, thrifty
condition and have access to plenty of
good pasture, they will not need any
grain until lambing time.
Not a very large percentage of the
ewes of the most desirable mutton type
will breed eiuiy enough for winter
lambs. The lorset breed is an excep
tion to this, however, for the Dorset
oh'ps will breed nt almost finy season
of the year. Only-a small percentage
of the tidy, popular Shropshire ewes
will breed before ol weather In the
fall. Merinos and Rambouillets, like
Dorsets, will breed nt almost any sea
son. If one has grrde Merino or Ham
boulllet ewes that he does not care to
mate with fine-wool rams, they may be
bred to mutton type rams and the
hunbs will be excellent for mutton.
Nevertheless, during the hot weather
thnt usually prevails in July and Au
gust," only a small percentage of the
ewes of any breed will come In heat.
It is. therefore, wise to turn the rains
with the ewes In May, or at least as
early as .Tune, in order to get the ewes
to breed before extreme hot weather.
The period of gestation !n the ewe will
average about one week less than five
months, so th'ir ewes bred in May or
.Tint' will hi nib in October fin I Novem
ber, just when the weather is getting
cool and almost ideal for himhing.
The mild winters of Oklahoma afford
the farmers of this state splendid op
portunities for winter 'limb production,
A sheil placed on well-drained land,
opening to the south to admit sunlight,
o built as to break direct drafts of
wind, and with a good roi.f. will fur
nish sufficient shelter.
nrtmmPTr i-i nrtrt n r- rtr-.-
CONCRETE FLOORS ARE BEST
Corncribs, Granaries, Poultry Houses !
and Chicken Coops Should Be
Concrete floors may be built for new j
corncribs and granaries smd - small
mesh wire netting can he pui'-ed in the i
walls. Old cribs and granaries, ehic!-?
en c-ops iind poultry husc MioiY
-rilso be made rat-proof. One of t?!
food conservation suggestions made by
ihe Missouri College of Agriculture is
rnt-prooling eonu rids :m! granaries.
A few years ago it was estimated that
every rat on the fttrm est the farmer
S1.X2 n year. With the present high
prices of feed. seil and grain the cost
will amount to much more than that.
la most of the grain-growing states a
fair estimate of the rat population of
farm would be about "J-" end .t0.
PIPE TO FILL SILO.
fiood silage can be had only by uni
form parking and Uniform distribu
tion of the corn. The entire surface,
especially the outer edge, should be
packed firmly. The best help obtain
able should be stationed in the silo.
That is where the silage Is ultimately
made, and success depends on the abil
ity of the men to distribute and pack'
the corn properly.
Large Cutter Saves Money.
The large cutter with the corre
sponding large capacity frequently
saves money in filling the silo, but it
may result in a waste of the storage
capacity of the silo. If the silo Is
filled rapidly the corn has little time
to settle. Slow filling allows the corn
to settle as It" Is stored, with the re
sult that more corn can he placed In
the silo. To overcome the disadvan
tage of rapid filling woven wire may
be extended above the top of the silo,
thus increasing its capacity until It
MAKING MONEY WITH CATTLE
Possibilities of Beef Production From
Winter Grazing Shown at North
The money-making possibilities of
beef production from winter grazing
have been demonstrated in a series
of experiments conducted Jointly by
the North Carolina "experiment sta
tion and the bureau of animal In
dustry. The cattle depended uiwn
pasture for food during the winter
months. The experiments covered a
period of three years. Seventeen
steers were used the first year, the
nverage Inltiul weight, being C15.5
pounds. The final weight indicated
a gain of 55.5 pounds each, and the
total cost of wintering was only $4.88
per steer. For the second year 26
steers were used. The average Initial
weight was 705 pounds, and the gain
during 131 winter days was 17 pounds
The cost of wintering each animal
was $5.75. In the third year 16 ani
mals made an average gain of 26
pound in 119 winter days; the cost
for wintering being $5.30.
When we take Into consideration the
fact that wintering animals in this
way, in addition to giving them gains,
puts them In such condition that they
will readily take on flesh in the spring
and summer, it is a strong indication
that this plan of handling them is a
good one, ns there is nothing to lose.
PIG RAISED WITH EACH COW
With Exceptionally Good Cows the
Number of Hogs May Be
Figure on raising one pig to market
able age for each dairy cow and pos
sibly one or two In addition for the
house slops. With exceptionally good
cows the number of pigs may be some
what increased. Th's is, of course,
where the cream Is sold, but the skim
ini?k kept on the farm.
MAKING MONEY WITH MULES
Profitab'e to Buy Up Stock Animals
and Feed Them Over Winter Let
Them Run Loose.
Any farmer who 1ms nn abundance
of corn and roujrhnge can make money
by linyinc up stork mules In the large
markets and feeding them over winter.
They should be allowed to run loose in
roomy barns or li' -d and never con
fined In stalls, as horses.
SAVE EGGS FROM BEST STOCK
Evidence of Grod Q'.;zlities When Fowl
Reaches SOO-E Mark-Should
Kgus from 'he best hens should not
lie eaten. When a fowl reaches the
2rtO-eKg mark In a season, it Is evf-
donee of qualities which ought to be
perpetuated. Kggs from this kind of
stoek should into the incubator.
f Keep Horre Doctor Busy.
Maybe you think you can save tl
by feeding the horse enough in the
morning to last nil day. That I n
good way to make u job for a horse
Encourage Pigs to Eat.
A sma'l pen built close to the sow's
pen. with a hole through which the nlsr
j ,nn imss and eat grain bv themselves.
i will encourage them fo et grnln much