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TH£ CAROLINA UNION FARMER
[Thursday, April 24, 1913.
First National Bank
GASTONIA, N. C.
Capital, . . . $100,000.00
Surplus and Profits« 75,000.00
We Pay 5 per cent, on Time
Certificates of Deposit
Your Business Solicited.
4 Per Cent on Savings Accounts and
Certificates of Deposit. Accounts
Subject to Check Invited
Merchants and Far
mers National Bank
CHARLOTTE, N. C.
United States, State, County and City Depositary
Capital - - $200,000.00
Surplus • $200,000.00
GEO. E. WILSON. W, C. WILKINSON,
iFirst National Bank
STATESVILLE. N. C.
Surplus & Profits - 33,000.00
Farmers are specially invited to open
an account with us.
JOS. C. IKVm. Pres. E. S. PEGRAM. Cashier.
GASTONIA, N. C.
Capital & Surplus - $ 92,249.26
S Per Cent Paid on Time
Certificates of Deposit
Union National Bank
CHARLOTTE. N. C.
Capital - - - - $100,000
T. W. WADE F. B. McDOWELL
H, M. VICTOR
We cordially invite business and offer
every courtesy and accommodation con
sistent with safe banking. We particularly
invite the accounts of farmers.
H. M. VICTOR. Cashier
Every Idle Dollar
of your money should be put to hard
When your money is invested it
works for you day and ni^ht-interest
accumulates with astonishing rap
Also the knowledge that your
money is safe from tnieves or fire
helps you sleeg nights.
...iy not start a Savings Ac
count here and let your money earn
WE PAY 4 PER CENT ON CERTIHCATESiOF
DEPOSITS AND ALL SAVING FUNDS.
Southern Loau aud Saviugs Bauk
CHAREOTTE, N. C,
JItO. M. SCOTT, W. S. ALEXANDER. W. L JENKINS
Flee. Pntidflit. Cashier
Educational Aids to the Market
ing jof Farm Products
Address of Sidney E. Mezes, President University of Texas, to the First
National Conference on Marketing and Farm Credits, at Chicago,
Whether willing or unwilling, the
universities of this country must as
sume their share of responsibility for
vocational efficiency by extending our
educational system so that it will in
clude training for all the important
vocations. Until recent times schools
and colleges were concerned primar
ily with literature, arts and science,
and training in these fields was in
tended to develop the reasoning fac
ulties and to broaden the intelli
gence. Training for the particular
duties of a vocational life had not
been supposed to have a cultural
value. Various forces have brought
about a change in the attitude of
leaders of thought toward vocational
education. The industrial revolution,
the rise of machine industries, big
business in its various manifesta
tions, have greatly disturbed our old
educational ideals. Now we are
brought face to face with the grow
ing belief that educational institu
tions, particularly those that derive
their opportunity from a tax on all
the people, must fit men and women
for specific vocations and must also
render back to the people direct and
immediate service. The practical
problems growing out of our com
plex civilization demand the best
thought of the best minds that our
colleges can produce; and we are
coming more and more to believe,
without attaching less importance to
purely cultural studies, that voca
tional education has a rightful place
in any well balanced system of pub
lic instruction. Moreover, whatever
affects intimately the lives of the ma
jority of the people must be of vital
interest to every reflective citizen;
aud the study aud solution of the
problems connected with the produc
tion of wealth must be recognized as
an important means of culture.
In Texas, which occupies so large
a place on the map of the big South
west and which leads all other States
in agricultural production, eighty per
cent of the population live in the
rural districts. The substance of
these people comes directly from the
farm or the ranch. We feel, and
feel strongly, at the University of
Texas, that it is our business to be
concerned with whatever affects the
lives of this eighty per cent of the
population. We have looked with in
terest at the efforts to teach the
farmer seed selection and crop rota
tion; the fertilization of the soil, its
proper cultivation and conservation.
Through organization we now hope
to aid him in getting better prices
for his products, as well as to secure
cheap money to carry on the work of
Thus far the education of farmers
in Texas, with some aid from the
Texas Agricultural and Mechanical
College has been carried on princi
pally by the Texas Agricultural and
Mechanical College and by the De
partment of Agriculture in Washing
ton, assisted by the Farmers’ Union,
the State Department of Agriculture,
and by a very efficient organization
known as the Industrial Congress for
Texas. Some excellent farm papers
have likewise furnished valuable in
struction to many thousands of read
ers. Much agricultural enlightment
has no doubt resulted, but I think
no one will dispute the statement
that there is yet a great work to do.
Our people are conservative and the
old order changes slowly.
While some progress has been
made in teaching the farmer how to
grow more crops, little has yet been
prices for his produce. To illustrate
the gross injustice of our present
marketing system, I may point out
the fact that at Daredo, Tex., in our
onion growing district, one day a
short time ago, onions were sold for
two cents a pound; the next morning
Laredo onions were sold in the open
market at Austin, Tex., at fifteen
cents a pound. In this transaction,
as you will see, the commission man,
the public carrier, and the retail deal-
ed divided among themselves six hun
dred and fifty per cent of the price
paid to the grower. Again, tomatoes
were sold one day at two-third cents
each in Palestine, Tex., and the next
morning they were sold in the mark
ets of Austin at five cents each. IN
each of the instances cited the pro
ducer received only thirteen per cent
of the final selling price, while eighty-
seven per cent of the selling price
was divided among the railroads and
the sellers of the produce. The glar
ing injustice of such system is made
more apparent by a comparison with
the results of co-operation in mark
ets of Austin at five cents each. In
that country, for example, the co
operation society handles, sorts ac
cording to size and packs eggs for
three and one-half per cent; the ship
ping and selling cost four per cent,
leaving the farmer ninety-two and
one-half per cent of the final purchase
price paid by the consumer. In Tex
as, without co-operation, the farmer
receives thirteen per cent of the final
selling price of his produce; in Den
mark, through co-operation the
farmer receives ninety-two and one-
half per cent.
The need of co-operation in secur
ing cheap money for the farmers in
the southwest is as great as the need
of aid obtaining larger returns for
his produce. In many places in Tex
as and Oklahoma the farmer is yet
obliged to pay rates of interest that
range from ten to twenty-five per
cent, and even these rates are better
than buying on time from the coun
try merchant. In some sections
without banking facilities, credit
from the country merchant is the
only resource. Side by side with the
farmer is the cattle man, who is able
to secure money at interest rates of
from six to eight per cent, and the
railroads which have little trouble in
finding capital at much lower rates.
The cattle men and the railroad men
have flexible and efficient organiza
tions; they work together. The farm
ers, on the other hand, with loose or
ganizations or no organization at all,
though possessing in the aggregate
much greater wealth, continue to pay
ruinous rates of interest.
Such a condition of affairs is arous
ing the interest of leading editors,
bankers, philanthropists, farmers’
union officials, and students, through
out the entire Southwest. At the Uni
versity of Texas one man is at pres
ent employed who is to give his en
tire time to, the study of problems
of marketing. The result of these
studies will be distributed in bulle
tins, and so far as possible, lec
tures will be delivered to farm or
ganizations suggesting plans for
meeting the situation. A course on
agricultural economics is given in the
school of economics where the prob
lems of modern agriculture are
studied. The University of Texas has
the distinction of supplying a con
stitution and by-laws for the first
credit union to be organized In the
Southwest; in fact, the first credit
union, so far as is known, that has
Jhpon in tho TTntted StateB.
except those in Massachusetts. Re
sponding to the interest aroused by
the publication of this constitution
and by comments in the leading
newspapers and farm journals in the
State, the Texas Legislature has just
passed a bill authorizing the organ
ization of credit unions similar to
those in Massachusetts. Another bill
has been considered authorizing the
organization of a central credit union
similar to the central union for Land-
shaften in Germany. Still another bill
has been considered in Texas provid
ing expenses for a commission which
is to be sent to Europe ^o study the
credit system of Europe and Ger
It must be confessed, however, that
little has yet been accomplished In
the solution of the two pressing prob
lems of agricultural credits and mar
keting. One man in a State so big as
Texas can make but little headway in
aiding farmers to secure better prices
for his produce; rather there should
be twenty studying this one subject.
The State and National Governments
working, through the University of
Texas, need at least that number of
Darwins to go out into the fields, pa
tiently secure the facts and careful
ly correlate them. The great univer
sities, free and untrammeled from
political pressure, should assume the
Mexican Bisr Boll Cotton Seed, 75c bushel.
Seed Peanuts, Sic lb.
Vireinia Bunch Peanuts, 4c lb.
Guernsey Bulls, (Registered) >25, >35, 840.
Guernsey Heifer, >25.
Btood Sows, >25.
Minorca Cockerels, >1 each.
Evergreen Slock Farm,
S. W. WOODLEY, Prop'r.
R 2, Box 4, Creswell, N. C.
NEW EMBLIH BADGE
ENAMELED IN BLUE, with the
design in gold plate, screw back
style. The prettiest and neatest
Fanners Union Badge we have
yet seen. Price 25 cents each,
or >2.40 per dozen, by mail.
UNION SUPPLY CO.. Marsbville. N. C.
Sweet Potato Plants
Leading Varieties, 15.000,000
Price 81-50 per thousand- Plants of first Qual-
ty- Count and safe arrival guarameed-
C. W. WAUGHTEL,
Box 49 HOMELAND, GA. M-1
The Best is Always the
When it comes to S. C. vv bite Orpingtons and
White Indian Runner Ducks I have the best.
Eggs from either, >2.50 per sitting. I prepa) ex
press on two sittings.
Thos. W. Hunter, Norwood, N.C.
AM Selling Cheap to Farmers
I can save you money on watches, clocks.
A WAIAA 9AtO yOs* ***vr**w^ —""
watch chains, lockets, bracelets, rings, emblem
pins and every kind of jewelry. 1 will mail,
post paid, a Union Emblem Pin for 6 cents. Be
sure and write for catalogue and save money.
WILL C. WALKER, Bntler, Tenn.
ANNDAI^ CONFEDERATE VETERANS’
Chattanooga, Tennessee, May 27 to 29, 191S
—Low Round Trip Fares Via Southern
Tickets will be on sale on May 24th, 25th,
26th, 27th, 28th, and for trains scheduled to
reach Chattanooga before noon on May 29,
Tickets win be limited returning to reach
original starting point not later than mid
night of June 6th, or If you desire to re
main longer, by depositing your ticket with
special agent at Chattanooga and paying a
fee of fifty cents final limit will be extended
until June 25, 1913.
Tickets for this occasion will be on basis
of one cent per mile.
For complete and detailed Information as
to round trip fares, schedules, special serv
ice, etc., ask your agent or address
J. O. JO.VES.
Traveling Passenger Agent.
S. D. KISER. Raleigh. N. C.