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POLK -COUNTY. NEWS, TRYON, N. C.
FPARE HOUbt run WIN I UK
... Withstand Cold Ai. Much Bet-
erThan Impure Ventilation of
.1 t,v the United States Depart-
Partu ." nt Agriculture.)
air. Don't shut
IV llOUSt. up lifciil ill UloUl IU
i out tlu' -',,(1 "Uiess ventilation is
tided. Ht lis wm uulve ueiier ana
,n0ie -s- it "I'' nave plenty ot
..... ilc.l IJflltC Tt" 1 C fl W! IWltlU!
i ; livin Wiltet sinil crrn-wl
h(ii Ih'N 5ire wiiuufu ju uatyj
tilaieJ bouses, as is sometimes tne
, ift-coM ueainei, tnev lose vital- i
nriKiuce fewer eggs, and often be- I
e ck nud stop laying. Good veu- i
ion is meieu ano to Keep tne
e dry. la cold weather moisture ,be
tts (iii the walls and roof in a facturer.
.jy-U'Uiilaiel house, making-it very j A scion is a portion cut from a
i ! . 1 . ii' til 1 1. ill r I t ft, 1 i x-. Yllarit- 4- tHA.j. j .
luiiunai'ii. u'i I-
Whi'ii the temperature rises this the
1.1 l.i.t-ri 4--
ami making tne niter on the floor
the house is not overcrowded and
31 : r, lr 'Jll I I I ! I 4-11 IJfcl AM I IT
i in cold weather, no great harm is
i become insanitary in a few hours. ,
tu 10 a inusf piui'tn iuv.K.eu con- ;
ois at the eud of one day of iin-
eairare noticeably bad and, unless
upriy terrected, grow steadily
Hitilutiou to provide pure dlr and
ess in a poultry house is simply
attcr of keeping doors' and win-
s open as much as is necessary to ,
the walls dry; Few poultry keep-
have any difficulty in this until the
ov enough to freeze
;er in the house. Then the tendency I
cluse doors "and windows to keep
house warm. j
his is the right idea, subject to th
tical limitation that the house
t Dot be closed so tight that the
iy. of fresh air is insufficient, and
circulation of air is retarded to !
an extent that moisture collects
the walls. The proper regulation
epilation insures pure air and dry-
and keeps the house as warm as
practicable without the use of arti-
I heat, or special provision to ab- !
an excess of moisture. The ail
ment of doors and windows to pro-
the conditions required must be
ned by observation.
he general rule is to open doors
windows as much as is necessary
wp the house dry in cold weather,
to keep tlH-m wide open when wa-
n the house will not freeze.
eap cotton cloth and common bur-
are often used in some of the win-
of a poultry house in place of
Cotton cloth is to be preferred
this purpose because it Is cleaner
admits more nKht. When both
J' anil ''!;iss windows i rn ikpiI tb.i
I IUUOC TTilll I Ivll"
v of Open Space in Front.
kt-"l the i;,ss windows closed all
tlnu'; to open the cloth window
Clejir iImvo or. -.l.r. if vi
P as seornti n.w..,.-. ., ....
ny i(i;i vs. when the winters
Orally mild .0tfnn Ith i enmo.
f deal 0
un be run with a
f ventilation in all but the
,1, st wi-ai her. Birds can stand
uchh 0t "('t frosted- Where there
f''pxing weather the
"'''live Wjiv thof -hoc Knn fnnn
i' a poult i-v h
' Placp .1. . .
tti(f " .iiaw or nay, to tne
i boai ds laid as wide apart as
V"J NH hold the straw.
' Birw Will
usually absorb all
V'in'l so when it is used the
'.' -Kei.ii.. .... . . - -
;VL 11 uust judge by the air
, "ousi. i,(iu, T . A ,
n-jn 1 " '"UV.-U to Keep uourss
Stitn( uiceu Hint win
,,. I lie ternnerflfliro u-hon van.
IS refill.. ..1 ......
edto M,,au,i m tnis way is not
Se fftr A . .
Ull . sxe products,
Sllftl,1,i . .
oe maue or waste
It l-t I V. .. 1 . . . . . ...
th f , K,icnen, the tame
1 mtii 1 v.
'"i the farm range, for
Is excellent fond fnr
o .v , uuur.v and will help to
pense 01 feeding.
' v, xoung Chicks.
1 ie worst enemy to
kttos ii! . ot weather tends
"M lis . . "
"'r numbers unless dra
k vo ttre wken to get rld.of
TO PROPAGATE BY GRAFTING
How to Prepare "and Treat Scion, and
Stocks Cover Cut Surfaces With
Layer of Wax.
(Prepared by the t?nltrt sato tn
ment of Agriculture )
(apples, pears and quinces), the 'stone
fruits (peaches, plums, cherries and ap
ricots), and the citrus fruits (lemons,
limes and oranges) are now multi
plied by grafting or budding. The
progress in plant breeding and the
great rapidity with which new sorts
are now disseminated could not be ob
tained without the aid of budding or
grafting. Under existing conditions
it is not necessary for the originator
of a new sort pf apple to give any
thought to the question of fixing that
type so It may be reproduced from
seed; the method of reproducing the
sort does not enter as a factor into Lis
errcrrs to secure the desired variation.
craning or budding has settled that
long ago; but were it otherwise. horri.
culturists would be studying different
prooiems, and the nurseryman would
more of a scientist than a manu-
i in.frifu upon anotner (or
same) plant, with the intention
that It shall grow. Except for her
baceous grafting the wood for scions
should be taken while in a dormant
or resting condition. The time usu
ally considered best is after the leaves
have fallen, but before severe freez
ing begins. The scions are tied in
bunches and buried In moist sand,
where they will not freeze and yet
be kept cold enough to prevent giowth.
Good results often follow cutting
scions In the spring just before or at
the time the grafting Is to be done.
If cleft grafting is the style to be em
ployed, this practice frequently gives
good results, but spring cutting of
sdons for whip grafting is not deslr- ;
able, as not enough time is given for
proper healing of the i wound before
planting time in the spring.
The stock is the plant or part of
a plant upon which or Into which the
bud or scion is Inserted. For best re
suits in grafting it is essential that,
the stock be in an active condition,
or so that active growth can be quick
ly brought about.
This , style of graft is particularly
adapted to large trees when for any
reason it becomes necessary to change
the variety. Branches too large to be
worked by other methods can be cleft
. A branch one or one smd one-half
inches in diameter is severed with a
saw. Care should be taken that the
bark be not' loosened from any portion
of the stub. Split the exposed end
with a broad thin chisel or grafting
tool. Then with a wedge or the wedgt
shaped prong at the end of the graft
ing tool spread the cleft so that the
scions may be inserted.
The scion should consist of a por
tion of the previous season's growth
and should be long enough to have two
or three buds. The lower end of ttie
scion, which is to be inserted into the
cleft, should be cut Into the shape of
a wedge, having the outer edge thick-
Cleft Grafting a, the Scion; b, Scions
Inserted in Cleft.
er than the other. In general, it is
a good plan to cut the scion so that
the lowest bud will come just at the
top of this wedge, so that it will be
near the top of the stock. By cut
ting the wedge thicker at one side the
pressure of the stock is brought upon
the outer growing part of both scion
and stock, whereas were the scion
thicker on the inner side the condi-
tlons would be reversed' and the death !
of the scion would follow. The im
portance of having an intimate con
nection between the growing tissues
of both scion and stock cannot be
too strongly emphasized, for upon this
Hlone the success of graft! 1 lepends.
To make this contact of th. growing
portions doubly certain, the scion is
often set at a slight angle with the
stock into which it is inserted in or
der to cause the growing portions of
the two to cross.
After the scions have been set the
operation of cleft grafting Is com
pleted by covering all cut surfaces
with a layer of grafting wax.
Spread of Fire Blight.
The fire blight of apple and pear la
spread quite largely through the
aphides or plant lice which infest the
jroung shoots in early spring.
Have Perfect Grapes.
. Either spray the grapes, or Inclose
each bunch in an ordinary paper bag
if you, want perfect fruit.
AO PAULO, or, to use the English
equivalent, St. Paul, is the. capi
tal and business metropolis of
one of Brazil's greatest states.
Of the 20 states, one territory and one
federal district Into which the great
southern republic is divided, the state
of Sao Paulo and Its splend'd capital
stand among the most progressive
units of the entire nation.
The state, says the Bulletin of the
Pan-American Union, in territory is
larger than the five New England
states of North America, with -Pennsylvania
added, or an area of 112,300
square miles, embracing undulating
plain and valley with several low
mountain ranges extending across the
country. More than three-fourths of
the state lie within the region of the
tropic of Capricorn, and about one
eghth of Brazil's 24,000,000 people re
side within its boundaries. Nature has
divided this territory into two distinct
legions that bordering the Atlantic
ocean for nearly 400 miles, where the
temperature is hot and moist and
where bananas, coconuts, cacao,
oranges and other tropical products
grow in abundance. This coastal plain
is narrow in the north, but gradually
broadens to 80 miles or more near the
southern boundary of the state. West
ward from the low mountains border
ing the coastal plain the country is
higher and well suited to agricultural
crops, of which coffee growing is the
most important. . In recent years va
rious other crops have been introduced
more generally and are now additional
Important Industries, which, together
with stock raising, are greatly increas
ing private and public revenues.
Climbing the Coast range or the Ser
ra do Mar (at Some places 3,000 feet
high) by the railroad between the sea
at Santos and Sao Paulo city, a dis
tance of 50 miles, we perceive changes
in temperature and note how the coun
try gradually and in places precip
itously rises as the train moves west
ward. At Sao Paulo the altitude is
about 2,500 feet, while the state as a
whole averages 2,000 feet above the
level of the sea. There are many high
er elevations along the mountain
ranges. The streams flowing to the
Atlantic are short, while those which
carry their waters northwestward, fol
lowing the "lay of the land," are of con
siderable size, the largest being the
Tiete river, which has been harnessed
to supply the city of Sao Paul with
electric power, and also with water for
uuuieauc u;ses. jluis mer traverses
almost the entire length of the state,
flowing in a northwesterly direction.
One of Brazil's Oldest Cities.
Sao Paulo, the state capital, is one
of Brazil's oldest cities, its fragmen
tary history dating from 1500, when
Portuguese discovered the country.
Passing over many eventful periods,
Sao Paul has outgrown its youthful
years and stands today as a great city
the third in commercial importance
of the South American continent. Sur
rounding the city we find a fertile roll
ing countfy, devoted largely to coffee
and other crops. The state is credited
with 2,000,000 acres' devoted to coffee
growing, representing an outlay of
$500,000,000, and producing annually
about 60 per cent of the world's cof
fee, the bulk of which trade centers in
the capital.. Furthermore, the network
of ,7,000 miles of railroads connecting
the city with adjoining states is re
sponsible for making Sao Paul an In
terstate rather than a. local outlet and
trading mart. . . . .
The area of the city proper covers
about 14 square miles, and its popu
lation of nearly 500,000 inhabitants
has quadrupled during the last 30
years. About 35 per cent of the peo
ple are foreigners, the Italians being
geatest In number, followed by Ger
mans, Portuguese, Spaniards, French,
in Sao Paulo.
and English. There Is a sprinkling of
North Americans, who represent some
thing like 50 different commercial in
terests In the United States. The
city's birth rate growth of 40.80 per
1,000 Inhabitants has been largely
augmented by a constant flow of Euro
pean immigration, while the death
rate of 20.505 per 1,000 indicates the
healthy condition of the people.
Streets Afford Broad Contrasts. .
Sao Paulo's streets are both ancient
and modern. The narrow and often
congested business thoroughfares con
trast strikingly with the broad ave
nues that cross the city and extend
through the newer suburban sections.
In the latter we find such an abun
dance of shade trees that one Is re
minded of Washington, while the largo
number of detached private residences
suggest Denver or Buffalo. In Sao
Paulo, too, we find types of the chalet,
the Moorish palace, the French Ren
nalssance, and other features of archi
tecture more or less modified to suit
local conditions. The Tiete river,
passing through the northern sub
urbs of Sao Paulo, Is, an extremely
crooked stream, and numerous afflu
ents flowing through the city in vari
ous directions seem to have influenced
the early builders and some of the
oldest streets are crooked or wind
ing. The business heart of the city, often
referred to as the triangle, is served
by active streets locally known as
ruas. Thus Ttua Sao Prento. Bua
Quinze de Novembro, and Rua Direita
are among the most Important in the
so-called, triangle district. Overlook
ing the Largo do Palacio, also In the
midst of business life, stands the gov
ernment palace. From this point
streets and avenues radiate to all
parts of the city and suburbs. In this
business area the city blocks are not
so regular or uniform as are the new
er sections of Sao Paulo. The Aven
ida Tiradentes extnds northward to
the Tiete ; from the center of the city
the Avenida Ttangel Pestana opens a
direct course to the eastward, passing
one of the leading markets. Three
thoroughfares leading to the south
ward, Ruas Liberdade, Santo Amaro,
and Consolacao, provide direct ac
cess to the magnificent, Avenida Paul
Ista, by far the most beautiful boule
vard of the capital. The principal
business streets of the city are paved
with asphalt and other materials, a
I feature that has encouraged the use
lf motor eh!cles Gf all descriptions.
(Last year Sao Paulo imported mor
automobiles than any other city of
The numerous parks of the city re
flect large sums of money that have
been expended in making them at
tractive. In numerous case's artificial
lakes, natural streams, rustic bridges,
statues, fine shade trees, and blooming
flowers offer attractions to citizen and
Sao Paulo is a city of wealth, In
dividual as well as official. Agricul
ture and industry have made many
private fortunes, and these fortunes
are reflected in the nnusual number of
palatial homes in .the city proper and
in the "suburbs. No stranger can drive
about the city without noticing the vast
amount of capital and the diversified
architectural talent that has been
called to provide for Sao Paulo's
Writing Paper for Soldiers.
Three hundred million sheets of
writing paper have ieen ordered for
the free use of American' soldiers at
home and abroad. The Y. M. C. A
has. ordered 200,000.000 letterheads for
immediate distribution to 'the camps
and cantonments in this country and
100,000,000 letterheads to be sent to
the American expeditionary forces
within the next three or four months.
Despise not thou small things.
The soul that longs for wings
To soar to some great height of sac
rifice too oft
Forgets the- daily round
Where daily cares abound.
And shakes off little duties, while she
BANANA AS FOOD.
ANANAS are a most
ing food. Being de
ficieut in flavor it
self, the banana ah-'
sorbs flavors read
ily and presents a
nood medium by
which such flavors
may be brought into
notice, thus afford
ing a great variety of combinations.
Because of the l ick of acid in its
composition it should be a popular
breakfast fruit. The cooked banana. '
even slightly coo'jed, is more easily
digested than the ravv fruit. Simply
covering the ripe thinly sliced fruit
with hot cereal w'll cook it sufficient- i
'Banana Croqtettes With Lamb
Chops. Remove the peeling and
coarse threads from five firm bananas;
cut the fruit in halves crosswise, trim
off the ends to make the halves sym
metrical at the ends; roll in egg
which has been beaten with a table
spoonful of water, then roll in sifted
crumbs and fry in deep fat until
brown. Drain on soft paper. Two
minutes will be long enough for cook
ing. Serve with broiled lamb chops. I
Compote of Bananas With Orange
Sirup. Remove the peel and coarse
threads from six ripe bananas; let
stand covered with boiling water a
minute, then drain and pile in the
form of a pyramid on a serving dish
and pour over tkem a cupful of orange
Orange Sirup. Boll a cupful of the
juice and pulp of orange, the juice of
half a lemon, one cupful of sugar and
one-quarter of a cupful of water six
minutes ot unti1 slightely thickened.
Baked Bananas. Pull down a sec
tion of the skin of each banana, loosen
the pulp, remove the coarse threads
and return the pulp to the skin, lay
the fruit thus prepared in a saucepan
and bake in a hot oven until the skins
are blackened. Remove the pulp
from the skins, bend in a half circle
and place on a serving dish. Sprinkle
with powdered sugar and chopped
nuts as a dessert ; or pour over a jelly
sauce. Melt half a cupful of currant
jelly, add a half-cupful of sugar and
cook five minutes, then stir in a tea
spoonfuj of cornstarch, made smooth
with a little water; cook five minutes
and add a- tablespoonful of butter and
a leaspoonful of lemon juice.
" Fruit Cocktails. To six tablespoott
fuls of fruit juice add two tablespom
fuls of honey, the pulp of two oranges;
three diced bananas," and four". ripe
peaches, diced.' Divide into - cocktail
glasses and serve. This may he-used
also as a dessert.
Sure they oC many blessings should
scatter "blessings round,
As laden boughs in autumn fling their
ripe fruit to the ground.
"'TIS PICKLIN' TIME."
O GREAT is the va
riety of relishes that
she is indeed hard to
suit who cannot fitid
some which her fam
ily can enjoy.
and Onion Pickle.
r1 ' . 1 1 ' 1 1 1 T . I . I . ' . 1 1 1
fg -Cowmissioft- jfl large cucumbers, peel
and slice thin and
cover with a sprinkling of salt over
night. Peel and slice oue dozen small
onions and treat in the same way, bt
do not mix them. The next day drain
and squeeze dry. Scald the vegetables
in a pint each of water and vinegar,
then drain dry again. Now take a quart
of vinegar, one cup of sugar, one ounce
of celery seed, three teaspoonf uls of
mustard seed, two teaspoonfuls of
white pepper; when boiling hot put In
the vegetables. Just let them scald,
but do not cook, then seal in jars while
Chutney. Chop one dozen apples,
two green peppers, one onion and one
cup of raisins; add two cups of vine
gar, one cup of sugar, the juice of one
lemon and a half tablespoonful each of
ginger and salt. Cook all together two
Marion Harland's Relish. Cut -the
corn from twelve cobs ; break into flo
erets one head of cauliflower, cut into
j half-Inch lengths one bunch of celery,
seed and chop fine two green peppers,
add three tablespoonfuls of salt, one
and one-half pounds of brown sugar
and three pints of vinegar. Add the
sugar to the vinegar and when scalding
hot pour over the vegetables. Now
cover closely and cook ten minutes.
Add a tablespoonful of mustard and
seal in jar. Wrap in papers to keep
the mixture a good color.
Tomato Conserve. Cook until thick
five pounds of ripe tomatoes, three
lemons, juice, pulp and rind ; two
pounds of sugar, one cup of shredded
citron ; when thick add one and one
half cupfuls of seeded raisins and one
cupful of walnut meats.
Ripe Cucumber Chowder. -"Grate
twelve large, ripe cucumbers and three
onions; press the pulp dry, then add
one chopped red pepper ; salt and pep
per to taste,, witl; vinegar to' make the
mixture as thick as prepared horserad
ish. Seal for winter me.
Jtf Commission' j
SHEEP RAISING IS PATRIOTIC
Wool Fro.n Twenty Animals Necessary
to Clothe and Equip One Soldier
for War, Service.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
War jhas given the sheep and wool
Industry a stupendous task. Thre
must be 0 sheep back of every soldier
to clothe and equip him. This need
has made sheep raising a patriotic as
well as a profitable undertaking. Sheep
require little bread grain, and as both
wool , and mutton are in strong de
mand, the development of the industry
will contribute materially to the na
tion's food and clothing supply.
"Farm jSheep Raising for Beginners"
(Farmers' Bulletin 840), a recent pub
lication of the United States depart
ment of agriculture, contains all the
general directions needed to make a
start. Another recent publication of
the department, entitled "Sheep and
Intensive Farming" (Yearbook 1017,
Separate 750), will also be found help
For the . present -so son wool has
about trebled in price and the price
of lambs has about doubled. The
gross annual returns from ewes of
breeding age may be expected to range
from $8 to $15 a head, depending upon
the-percentage of lambs raised, the
weight of the fleeces and the values
for these products. The lamb and
wool yield depend largely upon the
breed selected. So the choice of a
breed Is a very important matter.
There are 12 breed? f improved sheep
which are well established n the Unit
ed States, anil a number of others are
gaining in popularity. These breeds
differ widely in their specia points of
usefulness for various sections and
systems of management. These points
are carefully developed in "Breeds of
Sheep for the Farm" (Farmers' Bulle
Sheep require a very much smaller
proportion of grain than is required
by .other ! meat animals, as they get
High-Class Flock of Southdown Ewes
on a Vermont Farm.
much of their nourishment from much
permanent pasture, and at the same
time they keep down the weeds, which
Is an improvement to the pasture.
This information, with much else of in
terest and value, is to be found In
MThe Place of Sheep on New England
Farms" (Farmers' Bulletin 929).
Sheep raising does not require ex
pensive equipment or heavy labor.
In mild latitudes little housing is need
ed. Important features of buildings
for sheep, drawings, and bills of ma
terials for barns, sheds, feed racks,
etc., are given in "Equipment for Farm
Sheep Raising" (Farmers' Bulletin
810). In any sheep enterprise provi
sion must be made for the guarding or
fencing-in of the flock, for not only are
the animals prone to stray from home
pastures, but they are favorite prey
for dogs, which annually inflict great
losses on the industry. Winter care
must be provided for, and feed a:ul
sheltered quarters must be available
in cold weather. Persons who desire
to raise sheep are advised to enter the
Industry with a view of staying for
several years at least. The use'ful life
of a sheep Is about six years.
SHEEP FOR "SLACKER" ACRES
Labor-Saving Value of Animals Is Im
portant, for They Are Effective
0?repared by the United States Depart,
ment of Agriculture.)
In the winning of this war guns and
bullets are no more important than
bread and meat Several million acres
of land in the United States produce
good summer feed for sheep, but are
not grazed at present. Effort chnnM
be made to secure the most economic
use of every acre, and much may be
accomplished In this direction by the
raising of a few sheep in public parks,
on golf courses and private lawns. The
use of sheep, in lawns and parks has
been extensive in England. The labor
saving value of sheep Is important, for
they are neat and effective grass enfr