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GAS MEN PMY A? BIG: :.
Tcr Thousand Soldiers Toll at
uTtmlung Out Shells to Rout
W ARE INJURED AT WORK
l&gewood Arsenal i In Maryland Won
Place of Leack'-ship Over Allies In
. Scfefrtffic Progress and Dead
- Cness of Output Gas Fac-"-
- .' tory City In Itself.
EaTtfmore, Md. While the men who
lar been working In shipyards and
munition plants have received' just,
praise for their fulfillment of patriotic
iaty. there Is an army of men 10,000
strong who - have worked faithfully,
rarefullj screened from public notice,
yerfwuiing some of the most impor
tant work of the war, work which was
tersely responsible for the early sign
tag etf the armistice, who have re
rrnred no Recognition at all.
.Day after day they -have secretly
wrorked In the manufacture of the pol
xaaoss gases .which routed the Huns
and Impressed upon the Germans the
tStagenirity and resourcefulness of , the
These men of the Edgewood arsenal
stayed on .American soil, never had the
aacrttranent of an ocean voyage or ad
froture in: a foreign country or the
ftatrorship pf those who have been
awnrrseas, and yet while staying right
to this country they ran greater risks
fbao many of the men on the firing
Ene. V'-'-.i . - .' .J'--.
-- 330 at One Time . In Hospital.
.The . hospital at Edgewood is now
eipcjrfed by . 300 men who have been
C93sed: or burned while about their
exttffitrys . work. " There have been as
tTTEar heroes at Edgewood as oh tli
Satllefield. Then is in the hospital
a ,thie-eyed boy In early manhood,
ansSnff bravely "throucrh scars which
srre today as vivid as the first day,
BBOoths ago, when they brought him,
writhing bit of humanity, to the
hospital. Nor is he the only oneV There
acre others, some of whom have been
gassed twice and thrice and are today
fcrrafided in Colorado, having devel
ped tuberculosis. ' . 1
Handreds "of others are maimed" and
33 always bear the marks of their
sacrifice for Uncle Sam, which they
garre so gladly without any of the
tflory.. stripes, promotion or encourage-
aseat given to the men in the camps
M3& trenches. - '..,
Ibe signing of the armistice has
mse&e ft possible for the public to have
tie': first insight into the vast work
-wiuku ixns ueeu. accunipusnea at ' ine
SEsSSSE-wood arsenal, (' where has been
osK&xtfactured and shipped safely
tnrer there more gas than has- been
mfr by England and - France com
taaed. Par removed from prying eyes,
.E3ffl vwbJch will go down .: in history
aw among, the greatest achievements of
Cte war. j.v V'v'-v - :
Gaa, Factory: a City in Itself.
Where on "October 24. 1917. stnnri n
16are; waste of forest now stands what
Zx s small manufacturing, town nnd n
ity fa Its'; activities. - Great chemical
giants bare risen with lightning rapid
Sty: There are the chlorine, phosgene,
eb!orafin and mustard gas plants, and
Csca down near the water the large
fSTias plant -where the big shells were
Sled with deadly poisons and sent on
Gsmr errand of freeing humanity.
aafeewood arsenal covers a tract of
SEO acres, adjoining its companion
CTnUL the- STent "ilherdfien 'rrrTrtrcr
gycrazvds where the biggest of the big
tpms were tried out that were de
signed to smash the strongest of Ger
"saBa fortifications. At the arsenal
CtVJm- rwtnrlta-'it was frmfirtanlir two-
2rtS, ' would be more effectively se
BredL and " certainly at smaller hu-
ssaa cost, by the gas products which
MIMUUJIUUIIU "lUjyWWliWmgOaWltUJWMM Wll.JlL.Vjk.-
in f?"fef Ji - i ill -
rvsuwm Wiisoii hihI Ain,e. Polncure, wife of the French president, head-
procession lenvlnR th railway station at Paris: resldent PoIncar fa
cimrn.hehind President Wilson wii Mrs. Wilson!" .Wtar? S
It was confidently declared would
smother the Metz forts.
Upon these 300 acres have been con
structed a large number of Immense
chemical plants with the necessary ad
juncts, all on an extensive scale, con
nected by 35 miles of railway, oper
ated . by United States army crews,
working three shifts a day. , At.' first
It was attempted to run ttie arsenal
with civilian labor) .but .the. h&rdous
character of the employment made this
class of employee so uncertain, al
though fancy wages were offered, that
it. became necessary to use enlisted
men exclusively throughout, the plant.
The result has been that work of
a highly specialized nature and extra
hazardous has been done by men re
ceiving from $30 a month up, and un
der rigorous military discipline.
The research laboratory work of the
arsenal has been highly fruitful and
the gases of the Germans are said to
be mild in comparison with the more
terrible products of Edgewbod, of
which the Germans had only got a
foretaste when the armistice was
signed. - .: j
"Came to Teachr Remain to Learn."'
Two experts, Colonel Auld and Cap
tain Ha nkar, one sent from England
and the other from France, tp aid In
the establishment of toxic gas plants,
said on leaving: ."We came to teach,
but we remain to learn."
The Central Construction corpora
tion received a contract in October,
11917, for the construction of a gas
shell filling plant at Edgewood, under
the Immediate v supervision of Capt.
(now Lieut. Col.) Edwin M. Chance,
then connected with the ordnance de
partment. It soon became quite evident that
more than one gas shell filling unit
would be required. It was jalso ap
parent that, experimental work neces
sarily had to be carried on ini connec
tion with construction on a somewhat
elaborate scale in the first unit, both
of which circumstances caused the
pressure on the. entire situation to be
rapidly increased, hence the contract
or's organization, as well as ;the mili
tary personnel, began to Increase rap
idly early In the present year, until at
the height of its operation j the con
struction corporation had approximate
ly 6,000 men in its employ; new camp
buildings and mess halls vere con
structed at top speed. j
When we saved salt last winter we
helped swell the amount needed for
the making of chlorine, of which it
is the foundation. This plant produced
100 tons of chlorine and 112 tons of
fused caustic soda a day, making one
of the largest single plants of its kind
in the co.untry. For the first time vis-
M'NULTYS' DEEDS WIN
THEM LASTING FAME
Washington. What's in the name
McNulty? L , .
The encyclopedia is silent concern
ing Its origin, but two marines of that
name, who probably did not even know
one another, had ljyes that were near
ly parallel to one another, and both
distinguished themselves as heroes on
the battlefields of France. Which is
indicative that the same fighting blood
courses to the veins of these McNultys
from an ancestry that was doubtlessly
Irish. . . ;
Their names were nearly alike -Thomas
John McNulty and John Mc
Nulty. They were both in the be
ginning of their forties they were
both, in the marine corps rthey were
both first sergeants and both had
seen 19 years of service under the
Stars and Stripes. Moreover, both
fought, in the same battles in France
and both were seriously j wounded.
And the climactic result of this strange
AND MME. POINCARE
Silk Stockings Banished $
$ in Kansas Gymnasium.
J Lawrence, Kan.Silk; stock-, tjj
S Ings are a thing of the past In ft
ft the women's gymnasium of .Kan-
A sns here, the ban having been M
ft one of the first rules placed by
the authorities recently Here-
ltors a party of business men were
allowed through the. plant last week
and they saw one of the commonest of;
table supplies,, salt, being .made Into
one of the most fatal poisons. This
chloric gas passes from 3,552 electro
lytic cells, Is dried by sulphuric ;acld
and. pumped to- the chemical plants.
Dry . chloric gas is bubbled Into the
common sulphur In tanks and becomes
a basic raw material In the production
of mustard gas, which -was vone of the j
deadliest weapons used . to win the .
war. ' ':-''
Then there is , the phosgene plant '
Here coke is received by rail and -burned
by a common steam boiler. ;
Pure oxygenl obtained from liquid air ';
and carbon dioxide, are passea logeui
et through red-hot coke producing car
bon ' monoxide. Dry chlorine gas and
carbon monoxide are suitably mixed,
and by passing: over a catalyzer, con
verted to form gaseous phosgene. The
liquid phosgene is filled Into one-ton
containers for overseas shipment and
was the gas most largely used in the
Chlorpgorln, one of the commonest
war gases is another product of Edge
wood and was produced at the rate of
30 tons a day.
Filing plants are another Important
feature of the arsenal. Here shells
are received by rail and Inspected.
Phosgene, chlorpgorln and mustard gas
are received from the chemical plant.
Other war gases are obtained from
outside plants by -rail. The capacity
of these plants is more than 125,000
containers a day. The ventilation is
such that men in direct contact with
the liquid gas are not required to" wear
masks. The filled shells are returned
from -filling machines and are classi
fied by weight and stored one day as a
test for leakage. They are then paint
ed gray and striped, the numbers and
colors of the stripes Indicating the na
ture of the gas within the shell. Here
the drums, whose range is approxi
mately 1,700 yards, are filled with the
fatal gases. ' The grenades are filled
by hand with stannic chloride and are
used especially in clearing ; dugouts.
Others are filled "with white phosphor
US and are Used In the production of
smoke screens In connection with the
concealment of troops.
parallel was that both distinguished
themselves as heroes almost at the
same time. John was awarded the
distinguished service cross and Thom
as was cited for distinguished service.
But here 'the parallel ceases and
things begin to. take opposltes. Thom
as John enlisted In San Francisco, and
It was at the other side of the conti
nentNorfolk,, Va. that John enlist
ed. Thomas John was born in Amer
ica and John in England. Thomas
John was first sergeant of the Sixty
sixth company of marines and John
was the first sergeant, of the Seventy
seventh company, j
It was in the marines' ; great fight
at Belleau, Wood that First Sergt.
Thomas John McNulty won his fame
and subsequent citation. He led his
company of men In a daring charge
across a field of poppies against Bel
leau Wood, whence German machine
guns poured death into their midst.
His grim shouts of encouragement
cheered them v on to vio:ory until his
voice was Silenced by lend and he fell
seriously wounded amid the blossoms.
But his was a hardihood that could
not die by any sudden means. Upon
his recovery he joined ,a replacement
battalion and was in the heat of sub
sequent battles up to the time tho
armistice went Into effect. He has a
father,; Patrick McNulty, living at No
1013 Bennet street, Scranton, Pa.
First ' Sergt, John McNulty was
awarded his. cross for- extraordinary
heroism in the fighting between Blanc
Mont and Saint Etienne. Under a
heavy artillery and machine-gun fire
that rolled forward with a German
counter-attack he. stuck by his machine
gun. "Every man of hivgun crew was
shot down. beside him, but he stuck.
Shot after shot burrowed its way Into
his vitals, but still he stuck to his ma
chine gun with . a tenacity - that could
only be broken with death and a, re
gard that he did not hare for his life.
It was at a moment whea it seemed
that "his iron power of will was soon
to have no living body to direct tha
the German attack was beaten off, and
First Sergeant McNulty laid his ; head
on the ground exhausted. Even then
he stuck by his gun, and it was only
when ordered to the rear by his com
mandlng .officer that he finally retired.
"He was" an inspiring example to his
men," according to memoranda in con
nection' with hir being - awarded th
distinguished service cross. -
His mother is Mrs. Jane A. Wilson;
who lives at No.1 45 Dn WnwT
! Revere, Mass. " - -
mm . . - . - i
ft rafter all girls in the gym classes
must wear cotton stockings. The
tjr new rule Is made in the interest ft
ft of uniformity, economy and de- p
& mocracy. 1 - ." -,; A
A CENTURY AGO
National Prohibition Party Organ
: v ized in Chicago by 500
EARLY STANDARD BEARERS
Eighteenth Amendment Has Never
Been Favored py Leader Because
of Odds of 10 to 1 Against J
' ;,---v-- Ita'jPasaage. '
r The National Prohibition party Is
Just fifty yearsojd, its semi-centennial
falling on September i, 1919. It was
born in Farwelf hall, Chicago. The
convention numbered about 500 per
sons from 19 states. v
x The formation of. the party was
probably first -discussed In public at
a Pennsylvania! state temperance con
vention in 186tr Temperance ; leaders
had failed to et much "consideration
from the Republican and Democratic
parties and were feeling the need of
Independent action. The Good Tem-
. frn ' ' - ;
plars, an .orderj of total abstainers or
ganized In 185iat Utica, N. Y., were
also working to this end. ; i
The call fbf jthe Chicago convention
originated May 29, 1869, in the grand
lodge of . the Good Templars at Oswe
go, N. Y.,' which appointed a committee
to convene aft national gathering tp
organize a political party favorable to
prohibition legislation. This commit
tee consisted dflJohn Bussel-W Detroit,
Mich.; Daniel Wllklns, Bloomington,
111.; J. A. Spencer, Cleveland, O. ; John
N. Stearns, New York, and James
Black, Lancaster Pa. At this conven
tion the party j was organized, a plat
form was adopted arid a national com
mittee was appointed, with John Rus
sell chairman; mm!
The first ,'natlonaf nominating con
vention assemhled In Columbus, O., on
Washington's birthday, 1872.. It
named James Black for president and
John Russell for; vice president. Black
was one of the! founders of the Na
tional Temperance Society and Pub
lication house, an organizer of the fa
mous Ocean jGrove (N. J.) Camp
Meeting assocfatlon and a prominent
Good Templar, Upon his death in
1893 he left his "temperance library'
of 1,200 volumes to the National Tem
perance society! Russell, the "Father
of, the Prohibition party," was Meth
odist minister fund a leading Good
Templar. Hlsi newspaper, the Penin
sular Herald, was the first to advocate
the formation 4 of - a separate, political
party for prohibition, v ..
;, Notwithstanding the worthiness of
the cause and the candidates,, the pub
He support at the election of 1872 was
not enthusiastic: The total of the
votes received by Black ; and Russell
was but 5,607.
In 1876 Greett Clay Smith of Ken
tucky and Gideon T. Stewart of Ohio
were the candidates. They polled
9,737 votes. In 1880 Neal Dow of
Maine, with H. iA. Thompson of Ohio
as running mate, - appealed to the
country. General Dow was widely
known as the author of the Maine pro
hibition law, but he succeeded In get:
ting only 10,366 votes. . - ,
Candidates; and Their Vote.
The Prohibition convention of 1896
split the party .over woman suffrage
and money. The "free silver" minor
ity formed a Liberal party, with Bent
Jey of Nebraska and Southgate of
Illinois; as its standard-bearers. They
polled about 13.Q00 votes.
The feature iof the Prohibition cam
paign of 1900 was a tour of the coun
try by the candidates and a corps of
speakers by sp'ecial train. In 1C12
the - Prohibition '.convention renom
inated the candidates of 1908. The
candidates' since .1884 and their, vote
are as follows .'.
D; i888. CllntonB. FIsk, New Jersey,
and J.A. Brooks, Missouri, 249,945
votes. r ' - '. .
iM892, John Bidwell, CaUfornia, and
J. B. Cranfill, ?Texas, 270,710 votes.
? 1896, - Joshua : Levering, Maryland,
and , Hale Johnson, Blinds,; 130,753
votes, - 's:vA;:Jr-- ; '- f':,
r!900 John a Woolley. Bllnois.: nnrt
H. B. MetcalfRhode ; Island, 209,469
votes. ... .? - - , ,
V ,1904, a wallow,- Pennsylvania,
and,. George . B Carroll, Texas, 25805
.votes..,. -v; - ... ;
. 1908, Eugene W. Chafln,. Illinois, and
4aron S. Watklns, Ohio, 25331 votes.
1912, Eugene W. Chafln; Arizona, (
and Aaron S. ?yatklns, Ohio, zusws
191 6i -J.; Frank Hanley,; Indiana arid !
Dr. Ira Landrlth, Tennessee, 214,340
votes, , ! ' '" -; i I -
The. iNational " Prohibition . party,
curiously enough,' has been . rather op
posed to ' prohibition by constitutional
amendment. InMhe last Year book
(1916) we read:
"Although the Prohibition- party
may be said to be committed by plat
form declaration to the adoption of a
national prohibition amendment, when
placed In power, the program of the
party has i never contemplated agita
tion for a f nonpartisan amendment to
beenforced by administrations ;not fa-'
vorable to- prohibition. . . i The
general opinion seems to favor admit-,
ting the desirability of the amendment
as the end to be accomplished, at the
same time emphasizing, its impracti
cability as a method, and denying Its
necessity as a condition precedent to
securing national prohibition. ' . .
The odds are so overwhelmingly
against the ratification of an amend
ment that they cannot possibly be
overcome through any reasonable ex
penditure of time, money and effort so
long as the liquor traffic exists to fight
for its life."
The National Prohibition party Is
certainly right about the apparent
odds against the adoption by congress
of a constitutional amendment 1 and
Its ratification by the states. There
have" been 1,757 'amendments to the
Constitution proposed and 18 of them
have been passed. Herein lies the mar
vel of the ratification of the eighteenth
amendment In about thirteen months.
It has been figured that the chances
against the passing"bf an amendment
are 10 to 1. The case is put thus:
The chances against ratification are
2 to 1 in the house of representatives, '
and 2 to 1 in the senate, and, there- j
fore 4 to 1 in congress. s That; is: ;
Should the" measure pass either house '
by unanimous vote, the one-third op
position in . the other house would ;
block it in congress as a whole; In
other words, the resolution must be
supported on the two chances in each
house, while If the opposition scores;
on its one chance in either house, the
measure fails. - The chances in the
state legislatures are 6 to 1 against
the resolution ; hence, in the congress
and the legislatures combined the...
chances are 10 to 1 against passage.
In other words, the measure might
pass both houses of congress unani-,
mousiy, and be defeated as a whole by
the one chance In the states. It might ?
pass either house of congress and all
of the legislatures unanimously, and
be defeated by the one chance in the
other house of congress. ' .
St. John Makes a Stir.-
:" John P. St. John was the first Pro-"
hibition party candidate to make a
real stir In the political world. What
he did In the . campaign of 1884 was
long remembered. St. John was born
in Indiana and in the Civil war was
lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred
and Forty-third regiment, Illinois vol
unteers. He was twice elected gov
ernor of Kansas on the Republican
ticket; and was defeated for re-election
to this office in 1882 by anti-prohibition
Republicans, who thought him
too warm a friend of the temperance
Frances E. Wlllard and a delega
tion of women presented an enormous
petition to. the Republican national
convention, urging consideration for
the prohibition forces. I The story of
that time was that the petition was:
not only laid on the table but thrown ,
John P. St. John.
onthe floor, where.it was found' the
next rday, much" the worse for wear. ,
r Anyway, Miss Willard took , her
grievance to the ' Prohibition "party.
The Prohibition party- offered the
nomination for president to St. John,
with William Daniel of Maryland for
vice president. St. John accepted the
nomination. ;He was an effective
speaker and campaigner and he went
out after- blood and especially Re
publican blood. . He - carried : the war
Into New York, considered a "doubt
ful" state in the exciting : atrugEle of
! that campaign between James G.
Blaine and Grover Cleveland. . j .
St. John jumped the Prohibition vote
i- from 10,366 votes v to 150,626 votes;
What is more, he polled eno'ueh vofpa
in New - York to defeat the "Plumed
t Knight" In that state and, as "it
iwucu uui, u ui,nauoD. xne reel
ing of the time 7 is indicated by the
fact : that StT: John was burned in
effigy In morei than 100 cities. - ,
irfPfcdVZD UNlTORtt CTtt MATIONAI,
(By Rev. P.' B. FITZW ATER,D. D.,
Teacher of English Bible ln t& Moody
Bible iMtitute of Chicago.)
1 (Oopyrtht,'l818. Westen Ntwaptper Union.)
LESSON FOR FEBRUARY 2
THE GIVING OF THE MANNA.
LESSON TEXT Exodus 18:1-36.
i GOU3EN' TEXTr-43ive i us : this day our
ially bread. Matthew 6:1L ,
AD.DITIONAL, MATERIALr Deut. 1:1
t0; John 6: 6L
PRIMART TOPIC God's fift of food
tx. l:ll-ll. . V..:-
JUNIOR TOPIC Dally j
food In the dea-
rt. Memory Verses Matt 6:21, 26.
dependence upon God.
SENIOR AND ADULT TOPIC Poverty
and providence in our day.
1. Lusting for the 1 Flesh Pota of
. 1. Murmuring: against Moses and
Aaron (w. 1-3).
1 , As they Journeyed from Ellm Into
the great wilderness they became con
scious of the scarcity 'of some of the
things they hid enjoyed even in Egyp
tian slavery. Only a' few days ago
they were' 'singing God's praises for
their wondrous, deliverance at the Red
Sea (Ch. 15) .' , Now at the' beginning
of their privation they are murmur
ing. They utterly lack spiritual per
ception. ; They were aj free people on
the way to their own land. What did
it matter, with such a prospect, though'
they were a bit hungry?
This complaining showed a base in
gratitude and was most dishonoring to
God.' Unthankfulness is a algn of
heart corruption (Rom. 1:21). .
2. God's answer to L their murmur
Ings (vv. 4-12).
(1). He promised to rain bread from
heaven (vv. 4, 5). His purpose in this
was to teach them that "man doth not
live by bread alone, but by .every; word
that proceedeth out of the mouth of
the Lord." (Deut. 8:3). The manna
was given by God, but the people must
gather it. (2) He promised to give
them a vision of his glory (w. 6-10).
This served as a warning and an en
couragement. Despite their murmur-
fn f ncnln5t him Yt IrtTlfp thm tn
come near unto him. "Wonderful grace
that sinful, ungrateful men should be
permitted to come near to God I (3)
Flesh and bread promised (vv. 11, 12).
God answered the cravings of the
people, by giving them; quails and man
na to eat. . How gracious Is our God I
II. Quails and Manna Given (16 : 13-15).
At the appointed time God gave the
Israelites the promised food. . He first
allowed thenr- to f feel Hheir need, to
show that man's highest need is to be
lieve God and rely upon, him for all
needs (Deut. 8:2, 3 ; Matt. 4:3, 4). ue
then displayed his glory, showing that
he was able and willing to supply their
need- if they would 'obey him.
1. In the' evening the quails came
up. (. 13). - J v ..J ;
Since they desired flesh he ga.v
them hsh to eat. This is an e..amf le
o"f the patience and long-suffering of
God. How he caters to the whims of
his vacillating children I
2. In the morning; God gave the
manna (w. 14, 15). j
The Israelites did not know what it
was. They exclaimed: "What is it?"
Moes told' them It was the bread
which the Lord had given them to eat.
111. The Responsibilities of 4he lev
raelitea (16:16:31). . j
I. .They must gather a , certain ration
dally (v. 16 cf v. 4). ! : p
This was to test their faith. They
must look to him for their dally bread
, 2. Every man waa to gather for bim
elf (v. 16 cf v. 20).
The manna typified CJhrlst (John6:
83, 51). As each .man was to. gather
for himself so each one must appro
priate, Christ for himself.
3. The manna must be gathered
fresh every morning (v. 21). , ; J
This was . to be done early, before
the sun- was up. Christ, our . manna,
should be taken each day, and the first
thing in the day (John 6: 57). j
4. They must not gal
one day's supply (vv.j
her in excess iof
18. 20). I
That which was in excess of the
day's supply became corrupt. Chrs-;
Mano orVirnM molro no nf thp fift-a ho.
stowed by, God, God's graces are only
Mnv1 tx vn e-vv A 11 CA - I
5. The manna must be eaten to pre
serve life. , V:j
Thpv wprp In thpT wlldornKS sn
mnld onlv live bv eatins of the food
which God . gave. In the wilderness
of this world ionly those who feed
upon hrist, the true manna, have
eternal life (Jphn 6:50. 51). j
6. Due consideration! should be given
to the Sabbath k day . (vv. 22-31). lA
double portion was to be gathered the
day before. v ' "I
" IV. Manna Kept as a Memorial (16:
82-36). ; - : : ,
This was to be kept as a reminder pf
God's favor In supplying them with
tread In the wilderness for forty years.
Help From Nature. Study.
'The study of nature Is well pleasing '
to God, and is akin to prayer. Learn-
In? the la ws - of nature, we ' ma crn If v
the first inventor the . designer . of the
world; and we learn to love' him. for
great love of God results, from great
knowledge.; Leonardo da .Vinci. ' "
' Think First Upon God.
' In the morning, when you awake, ac
custom ' yourself ;'to ; think first Upon
God,' or something In order to, his serv
Ica ; and ' at' night, also,. let him close
das eyes.Jeremy Taylor. ,