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Lu Chicks Must tot Shade
ifOWiny motor riiir.. -
andFresn wen " rv
ing Hot Weather.
YOID OVERCROWDING BIRDS
i rds That Are Sufficiently Large
fockere e.nt to Market-Only
Strong, Vigorous Specimens
Should Be Retained.
a hv the United States Depart
'reparedmeynt of Agriculture.)"
y An illtisTraieu puuiaauuu,
x ,1 Vvl inn 4-1 sn
Farmers' Bulletin 1040, is now
available, which deals with the
fundamentals underlying the
production of poultry. By the
use of many appropriate pic
tares, the principles of poultry
keeping are impressed on the
Under "Selecting the Breed."
for example, -photographs are
shown of the more popular
breeds of each of the three main
classes of poultry, giving the
reader an immediate and com
plete idea of the appearance of
these fowls, the classes to which
they belong, and their economi
cal usefulness. In like manner
other essential phases of poul
try keeping are illustrated and
Throughout the bulletin ref
erences are given to other pub
lications issued by. this depart
ment which give more detailed
information on each of the sub
jects discussed and Which may
be obtained -on request.
Do not overlook the fact that the
ticks must have shade. If there la
natural shade for the chicks to
lay under during the heated partr of
h day, be sure and provide sufficient
br their needs. .
One of the most important factors
keeping young chicks growing is
SXS? V', f
Wing Chickens Feeding Themselves
. at Self-Feeder.
clean, fresh water In vessels.
S tn P dnvti . . .
uuo get wanner care snoum
!tflken to change the water as often
' required to keep it clean-and fresh.
I wold overcrowding in growing
r a coop, brooder, or colony
f3 that was large enough to hold
L baby chlckj- is not large enough
Pr two or more months, depending
F IflP hrot i .. ...
ltd m growtn. it is aDso-
iTo ' lllttl growing CJ11CB.S
f plenty 0f room to grow. Cocker-
i -c ouiutieniiy large snouia
town quicks mat nave not
Proper growth should also be
Fvarated oa i . . . . , .
lanv ".v g or wmg oaaaeu
r ' or these chicks, even the pul-
"iameieu. umy ue
Jyers itiaiuu as Dreeders ana
P ; as these are the only ones
return a profit.
(W.?on? Eat Too Much.
"H4ift, not eat t0
ie, J tteJ naye Plenty of range so
W nnif the desired exercise. A
bie Jt7i rg mash should be acces"
Fhamo v; 10 Krowlng chicks.
ne n,fsl1 Snould contain plenty of
onnd nnfgroun(i very fine and fine
ve theas n barley. Be sure to
Growt .s.h ground very" fine. -
fined n that are kept close"
along T ?, much reater atten
lve rani nes than tnose that
Sreen L-e that they have plenty
r to .lrT mat not wilted
t unS also e KePt sweet.
lick8 are ri ,1DOre essenal when
ttre clsely confined.
C118 frm tkni ;00k over
H Hot i 'i0 time 'or Uce and
C Uce and !ather 18 the Paradise
C floa't Stes- So careful be
h 1 be 80. Look out for
theV? of the country
C? SrLthe year cockerels
w Ughoras are kept.
ADVANCE IN PRICES
PAID BY FARMERS
ncrease; In v Almost Everything
5 V Used by Agriculturists.
First Two Years of War. Were the
worst, While In . 1917 the; Farmer
, Shared in the General Pros
v perity Figures for 1918.
(Prepared by the JUriited; States Depart-
iuciii. ml Asricuiture.)
While farmers are cretH n ' ' m iw.
prices for the products they sell than
tney received in 1914 or at the be
ginning of thewar, they jare also pay
ing higher prices for th4 thinirs thpv
buy, and it is of special concern to
tnem to know just how they have
fared In the general Drice movpmpnt
of things sold in relation to that fit
things bought. ; .
In 1915 farmers received 3 ner rpnf
less than in 1914 for crops and live
stocK m their composite price, but
they paid 9 per cent more in the com
posite price of the many articles that
they bought. The- list of articles
bought used for this purpose contains
65 items of textiles and garments,
lumber, wood products, agricultural
implements ' and machinery, metal
products, coal, petroleum Droducts.
foods, fertilizers, household furnish-.
ings, and other farm and family sup-
piles. Relative loss in the second year
of the war also was suffered by farm
ers. ? what they sold in croDS and
live stock advanced in joint price, it
is true, but only by 12 per cent, while
what they bought advanced 21 per
In the next year, 1917, the relative
character of these price movements
was reversed, and the farmer faced
prosperity Instead of disaster, since
the price that he received for crops
and live stock gained 74 per cent upon
1914, while he paid 49 per cent more
In the composite price of his pur
chases. War time is a period of rapid
changes ki prices and of sudden and
often of painful maladjustments. Al
though the farmer lost ground in 1915
and 1916 in comparison with 1914, and
regained the lost ground In 1917 and
gained : much more, he lost his
relative lead in 1918 and found him
self where he started in 1914 in th
comparison of price of crops and live
stock with that of things bought The
advance , of price received in 1918
above 1914 was 97 per cent, and that
of price paid was 96 per cent, or sub
stantially the same.
HAY OF HIGH FEEDING VALUE
Soy Bean When Cut at Right Stage
and Properly Cared Is Relished
by Farm Animals.
(Prepared by "the United States Depart
; ment of Agriculture.)
The soy bean when cut at the right
stage of growth and properly cured
makes an excellent hay of high feed
ing value that" is greatly relished by all
farm animals. As compared with hay
from other leguminous crops, soy-bean
hay Is equal or superior to any. The
use of this hay as a source of protein.
which can be produced on the farm to
balance feeds for growing stock or for
milk, should reduce the quantity of
high-priced concentrated feeds which
it Is necessary to purchase.
I The soy bean may be cut for hay at
any time from the setting of the seed
until the leaves begin to turn yellow.
The crop Is best fitted for hay, how
ever, when the seeds are well formed,
for at this stage of growth the largest
yield and the best. quality of hay will
be obtained. If the harvesting Is done
earlier, the percentage of protein will
be higher, but the total yield will not
be so large and .the difficulty of curing
much greater. If the cutting Is defay.
ed, the stems rapidly become hard and
Baling Soy Bean Hay In Field From
woody and decline in feeding value,
and if left too long there is much loss
In leaves. '
NEXT WINTER'S FUEL SUPPLY
Much Wood, Apparently Valuelest aJ
This Time of Year, Can Be
Set Aside for Use. .
(Prepared by the United States Depart
: ment of Agriculture.)
Look forward to next winter's suppl;
of wood. In many parts the old-timi
custom still prevails of burning valu
able cordwood In log heaps followinf
the clearing up of new landV Thousands
of farmers must provide themselyei
with r. wood for next , winter. tni
farmer can not use the wood Wmsei.
some neighbor; achoolhouse, or churci
will likely be glad to get It wheiioH
weather comesi. Much wood; epparehti.
useless at this tliae of the, year, 11T,
wasted unless forethought is
ercf seL Postpone burning jour was
wood, v .
POLK COUNTY NEWS, TRYON, N. C.
liiri 9tir ' Wi -lili mm
One of Danzig's
ANZIG, which by the peace
treaty becomes an interna
tionalized city and the outlet
for Poland to the Baltic, Is
thus, described in a bulletin issued by
the National Geographic society :
Picture, a far north Venice, cut
through with streams and . canals,
equipped also with a sort of Irrigation
system to flood the country for miles
about, not for cultivation but for de
fense; a city of typical Philadelphia
streets, only with those long rows of
stoops made of stone and highly deco
rated and jutting Into the roadway In
stead of on the sidewalks, and you
catch but a glimpse .of the composite
As a city of churches Danzig vies
with Brooklyn;, its crooked, winding
streets suggest those Boston thorough
fares of cowpath derivation; and were
its grain warehouses more modern
the visitor might believe himself
in Minneapolis that Is he might
until he heard their names such as
Golden Pelican, Little Ship, Gray
Goose and Milk Maid then he might
look about for some popular resorts
of New York's Greenwich villagel
In no other German city is medie
val architecture to be found in such
rariety and preservation as in Danzig.
Conspicuous both In Polish and Ger
man history, Danzig was one of the
four principal centers of the Han
seatic league, while not far up the Vis
tula Is Marienburg,, capital of the Teu
tonic Order of Knights, which flouiv
ished in Danzig.
Ancient Art Works Intact.
Physically, 'Danzig escaped many ef
fects of the reformation. s Even in her
famous St. Mary's church, one of the
largest Protestant edifices in the world,
covering an area as great,, as the
Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris,
are to be found reliquaries and
manuscripts; embroideries of Roman,
Byzantine and Gothic designs, treas
ures in precious metals, stones and
ivories, and a noted collection of vest
ments. Among its art works is the fa
mous Last Judgment" of Hans Meal
ing. In appearance almost as much
like a fortress as a' church, bringing
to mind Luther's militant hymn MA
Mighty Fortress Is Our God," the
church has been called "one of the
most German things In Germany." In
many ways it suggests the Prussian
militarist spirit. From the vaulting,
for example, projects one of Napoleon's
But the Danzig visitor needs no In
direct intimation of militarism. The
city was one of the most strongly for
tified places in the now shattered Ger
man empire. To the east and south
of the city older defenses were sup
plemented in recent years by a score
of bastions. Along the Vistula, on
which the city lies, to Its mouth at
Neufahrwasser, four miles away,
stretches a line of forts. In addition
three sides of the town could be In
undated by the garrison."
Quaint House Architecture.
Streets are lined with' ornate old
houses of the Hanseatlc period, crown
ed with high gables, often profuse
ly ornamented. Balconies overhang
the streets and in spite of the impedi
ment they offer to traffic,' many of
the elevated stone porches still re
main. Gargoyles grin from ancient
walls. Vistas abound. There are
many old water gates. One of these,
the Hobe Tor, is fashioned after a Ro
man arch. Another, the Kran i Thor,
with each successive story projecting
farther than the one below, looks like
the leaning tower of Pisa.
Danzig's beginnings are not known.
Poland, Denmark Pomeranla and
Brandenburg held It at various early
times. In the fourteenth century it
came under the Sway of the Teutonic
knights. Not long afterward i it be
came one of the four centers of the
Hanseatlc league.: With the decline of
the league it allied Itself with Poland,
retaining most of Its rights as a free
city. It had a flag derived from the
red and white emblem of the league;
employing the red 5 as a field upon
which were f- three gold crowns, ar
ranged Trtlcally::ve:: 'Jg' ; :
. t-r separation .From 'IPolindif: ; f5
; Russians and Saxons took the city
and the score dr . more neighboring vll
lages it Terned in, 1734. hen Po
land was partitioned, four years before
the American colonists signed the Dec
laration of Independence, Danzig was
separated from Poland and 21 vears
later Prussia gained possession of it
Again made a free city by Napoleon,
it passed once more to Poland; then
back to Prussia in 1814. "
Danzig became, the capital of West
Prussia. Government and private
docks were located there. Shipbuild
ing and the making of munitions were
introduced and amber, beer and liquors
were, other products. Its granaries,
built on1 an island, w.ere erected when
it was the principal grain shipping
port for Poland and Silesia.
Danzig is a little farther by rail
northeast of Berlin than Boston1 is
from New York. Its population in
1910 was about that of Columbus, O.
WELL EQUIPPED BY NATURE
Simple Explanation of Remarkable
- Sense of Hearing That Is Pos
. sessed by the Owl.
It is held by naturalists that in
order to capture its prey the owl
must depend -even more upon its sense
of hearing than upon Its sense of
sight. The tufts of feathers that dis
tinguish the short-eared and the long
eared owls -are, of course, no more
ears than they are horn3. The true
ear of the owl is a most remarkable
The facial disk of feathers that
gives the owl its characteristic ap
pearance serves as a kind of sounding-board
or ear-trumpet to concen
trate the slightest sounds and to trans
mit them to the orifice of the true
ear, concealed In the small feathers
behind the eye. Even In the barn
owl, which possesses the least com
plicated arrangement of this kind, the
orifice of the ear is covered by a re
markable flap of the skin, while in the
other species there are striking dif
ferences in the size and shape of this
orifice and its covering flap on the two
sides of the head.
The exact way In which owls utilize
this elaborately specialized apparatus
has still to be discovered.
Water in Wood.
All wood contains more or less wa
ter; even the driest wood known con
tains two or three pounds of water to
every 100 pounds of weight Absolute
ly dry wood is unknown, for the heat
needed to obtain It would dissolve the
wood and convert it Into gas and
charcoal. , r .
A Swiss authority on the character
istics of wood believes that a suffi
ciently powerful and perfect micro
scope would show 'that the ultimate
wood cell is composed of crystals like
grains of sugar or salt and that thin
films of water hold he crystals apart
yet bind them into a mass. . '
A good microscope shows the wood
cell and reveals its spiral bandages
and its openings and. cavities, but no
instrument yet made reveals the ulti
mate crystals that as many believe
do exist and that would L explain why
water cannot be expelled from wood
without destroying the .wood itself.
New York Sun.
Justice to 'Franklin.
Phlladelphians love to set forth the
fact that there were written two of
the most notable literary achievements
of the world, the Declaration of Inde
pendence and the Constitution of the
United States, both of them remark
able for fine literary Quality, for pre
cision of statement for lucid presenta
tion of facts,; for logical arrangement
But it is possible, so it has been'
unkindly suggested, that they do not
always remember that neither of these
important productions was written by
a Philadelphian. But to anyone who
may make a suggestion It may with
justice be said; that 'the "Auto:
biography" of Franklin, one of ; the
lew great " autobiographies' of 1 the
world, was written by a Philadelphian,
and also his "Poor Richard and other
world-famous works." ' 1 ;'" '
! -7 Putting-the Clock Ahead.
How times have changed. The "old
fashioned girl who1 used never to si'
up later than nine o'clock has a daugh
ter- nowwjiD. just starts put ;at nln
o'clock for the evenings-Boston Txai
script-. , ; . -
PURPOSE OF A SMALL FLOCK
it Is Primarily for Eggs and Therefore
Fowls Should Be Fed With This
End in View.
Ifrepared by the United States -Depart-'
ment of Agriculture.) .
The actual purpose , of keeping a
small flock of fowls is primarily f cr
egg production. Consequently they
should be fed .with this end in view.
Practically t every . housewife has a
quantity of table . scraps, vegetable
peelings and ; "leftovers" that can : be
utilized by feeding to. hens. Supple
mentary to such feed, however, a grain
and dry mash should be provided in
order to produce the best results. . By
Purebred Fowls of General-Purpose
Type Are Best Adapted for Back
Yard Flocks. r
supplying the fowls with all available
table scraps It will usually cost, from
50 to 75 cents a year per fowl for
grain and other feeds. A good egg
laying ration should con'sist of . the
following: Three parts corn meal and
one part beef scrap mixed together
and fed In a dry-mash hopper, to which
the fowls will have access, at all times.
In addition to this a scratch ration
consisting of equal parts cracked corn
and oats should , be led twice dally.
When no table jscraps are available it
will take about one quart of. scratch
grain daily for twelvt to fourteen
fowls. However, this can be reduced
when table scraps - are fed and a cer
tain amount of natural green feed,
such as .grass is. available., , ,
In providing the fowls with a suit
able house it should be remembered
that the essentials of such a building
are fresh air, dryness, sunlight and
sufficient space sc that the fowls wiR
not be crowded. Usually each fowl
should be allowed four square feet of
floor space. If available, scrap lum
ber from dry-goods boxes, etc., can be
utilized to construct such a house. The
cost will be considerably less than
when lumber is purchased. If suffi
cient lumber Is not available for the
entire house a .rough f rameworkv well
covered with ordinary roofing , or tar
paper will answer - the immediate
When the heavier fowls (Plymouth
Rocks, Wyandottes, Rhode Island
Reds, etc.) are kept all females should
be disposed of at the end of their sec
ond year, inasmuch as in most cases
they will cease to be profitable at the
end of that time. The lighter breeds
(Leghorns, etc.), however, can be prof
itably kept as long as-three years. By
disposing of the hens In this way a
part of the flock must be renewed each
year. Consequently, considering that
the percentage of cockerels and pullets
is usually about the same, and that
a certain percentage will die before
reaching maturity, it is customary to
hatch more chicks each year than
there are hens in the flock.
Overfeeding kills more chicks than
Little and often is n good feeding
rule for newly hatched chicks.
. Eggs for, incubator hatching should
be fresh, the fresher the better.
' This is -the time of year when poul
try quarters need to be made safe from
rats. ' . - -; ". '
1 Ducklings should be ready for the
green , duck market at from ten to
fourteen weeks of age.
A good, well-regulated incubator will
hatch eggs with far more certainty and
So it more cheaply than can be done
with hens. v
Much of the trouble 'often found in
brooding chicks is due alone to feed
ing too' early, or In ' excess' during the
Urst few days. , . -." (1 , , t
Scales on '. chicken's legs are caused
fry a mite. This mite can best be con
trolled and disposed of by the use of
aeavy black crude on. . : - -
In the-location of the poultry house.
If it is impracticable to select a soil
that is Morally X& t tiould fca-crdj
try "fcx-thorough csderdrainasa.
FEED CROPS TO UVE STOCK: H
InveflnatlAn's i CImu Dfi Cmm
. VMWII I VII. a v ,
c-J.j: O - .
ecu 1 1 iii dierm Kin .ournius i.nrn
(Prepared by the United States Depart
? . ment of Agriculture.) " i
That the southern farmer who ralai
a surplus of corn and farm roughage,
can market them at a handsome prica
through steers of good quality, when
properly purchased, and can retal -fertilizing
elements of the' feeds ba -his
farm, is clearly shown in recent 1
investigations by the , United States
department of agriculture. :-
Three lots of native ' steers, grade
animals two to three years 'old. e
medium good quality, and averagiar
about. 825 pounds at the beginning; e
the experiment, were fed for ahocft
five months on full feed. The ant- "
mals ' in lot 1 received a daily "allow
ance of 39.1 pounds of corn silage, 5JT
pounds of cottonseed meal, 4-J pcaiw25
of oat straw; those of lot 2; 3311
pounds of corn silage, 7.6 pounds'
ear com, 3 pounds of cottonseed meal,
and 2.9 pounds of oat straw ; and tha
uteers of lot 3, 38.5 pounds of corSt
silage, 6 pounds shelled corn,' 3 poands
cottoiueed meal, and 3.5 pounds '&
pat straw. ' ' '
At markt ting tinie these groups ef
animals averaged, -refcpectivelyi IjOH.
1,059, and 1,066 pounds an animal, the
beeves of lot 1 having accomplished 4
dally gain of 1.56 pounds, those of tot
21.66 pounds, and the animals C
group 3, 1.7 pounds during the feed- .
Ing period. X : ' 3 -
" When ,the pork made is credited to ;
the steers of loirs 2 and 3, they patt -for
corn at 70 cents a bushel, and
then made over $14 a head - profitv or
almost as much Income as. i-esnlteit
from the cottonseed meal-ed steera, -Without
hogs following the steers thsj
feeding of corn would have been con
siderably less profitable, than feedhox
cottonseed meal ' alone. It cost SJ3J53
to make 100 pounds of gain tn'fbm ,.
case of lot 1, $10.82 for lot 2, and $10.7S
for lot 3, where no pork credit Is gives
the stesrs. Each steer in lots 1, 2 anC
3 made a net profit of ,$15.19, pjJSt,
and $11.48, respectively, when mytm
credit is given the steers of lots 2
and 3 for the pork produced. . This
pork credit probably amounted, tm
about $3 a steer. . ;. . ,..t;
It is particularly noteworthy UbsC
the shrinkage in transit to market cf
these cattle during a 34-hour ma
A Bunch - of Southern Cattto.
ranged from 54 to 64 pounds a head
vhich indicates that silage, when
properly fed in conjunction with
plementary grains, results in
shrinkage in transit than where c&fHa
are fattened on .grass .'and marketed
directly from pastures. The steen
under consideration in this experhaesi
made good killing ' retards, ' the ca"
casses being well covered : witia fat
and generally satisfactory. The ani
mals of lot 1 made a dressing record
of 5U2 per cent, those of lot 2, S7J
per cent, and those of lot 3, 57.4 pea
cent of marketable meat
PROVIDE SWINE WITH SHADE
Many Hogs Die During Summer
Months If Not Given Protection
of Some Kind, " -
Many hogs die from the effects cf
heat during the summer months.- B
there Is no natural shade in the pas
ture, places should be provided where
the hogs may get relief from the heat,
A cheap and practical plan is to buHd
sheds with roofs of poles and .straws,
supported! by posts. This will allow
the free circulation of air, and If tba
water supply is near, will enable the
hogs to pass the hot weather safely. .'
i LIVE STOCK NOTES i ,
Orphan lambs caii be raised on cow?b
When a few sheep are cared tei .
properly one may expect a flock lag
short time. ' . , . .
v When legume hay Is used as hcrcj
feed, the quality should be good asi
the quantity fed limited.
" There hcrald be c pasture for C
cltsrCp bi t it win not be necessary
for them to folldwihe ieafa fcb tl