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POLK COUNTY, NEWS, TRYQN, NOBTff CAROLINA
mnfcVED UNI70KH mTERIf ATIGNAl
CBy lihiV. p. b. FITZ WATER, - D. D
Teacher f English Bible In the Moody
Bible Institute of Chicago.)
(Copyright 1919. hy Western Xewpapcr Cnion.
LESSON FOR JUNE 29
J iHOMAS JEFFERSON wrote
the Declaration of Independ
I ence. And congress signed
I it. And the Liberty Bell rang
forth the glad tidings, pro-
Ij claiming liberty in the4' land.
H" J And George Washington be-.
i to fight the British
"his is about the way the average
oolboy not to say some' older
ericans thinks the Declaration 9f
ependence came into existence,, the
ependence of the United States of
erica was secured and the Fourth
July became a national holiday. .
pile some of the details concern-
the Declaration of Independence
always be a matter of argument
kg historians, the sequence of
jnts is dear and runs like this :
'ighting between the Americans and
British began April 19, 1775, at
tington. Even after the fighting
on it was some time before the
ement for independence gained
'h Jieadway in the public mind.
niary 13, 1776, a committee an
ted to prepare an address to the
itry presented its report to con
Is. This report reads in part :
Fe have been accused of carrying
!the war for the nnrnnsw nf estflh-
ing an empire. We disavow the in-
ion. We (ierlnrp thnt what uaa-
BSM WW IT V
at and what we are entrusted
ou to pursue is the defense and
stablishment of "the constitutional
ts of the colonies."
was not until -June 7, 1776, that
iard Henry Lee of Virginia Intro
a resolution which was to be
e only less familiar than the Dec
tion itself. This resolution con
8 the famous sentence : "That
United States are and of risht
1 to be free and IndeDendent
N; that they are absolved from
ai egiance to the British crown,
"iat all political connection ho-
fa them and the state of Great
Pn IS and OUeht tn ha rilsesilirort
m . a --w w x v kj kj j a w vv
f s resolution was debated many
w congress. The chief speak
er separation were John Adams,
cousin, Samuel Adams; Roger
ttan, Qliver Olcott. Kichard Henry
and George Wytfie. John Dick-
of Pennsylvania (led the opposi
ior delay, prominent among his
s being John Jay, James Wil
des Duane, Edward Rutledge
K bert R- Livingston, but it was
I rom the beginning that they
m the minority.
) gave time a committee was ap
l on juneuto frame the Dec-
R chl u Pendence' Stran to
e aJ Henry Lee, who was the.
entl 6 'J!8011, and by par
.right should have had the
? ntofThhe committ ee' was
iSion . masons for this
nave been variously ex-
hen US a fact that he ws ab
nehl Committee was named,
fswiS Clk'd hom the illness
'nfi0f mbm were Thomas Jef-sachusett-ria'-
John Adams of
isviv,' 7 Lnjamin Franklin of
L,. nia Rser Sherman nf W
York ihT'11- LivIngston of
rconx: T were Prominent
r Sherman i auixs.
h as Unique In American
Im SI?ner of the fmir
rnts: tKA . ... VVii 6cai
therw : AnicIes o' Associa-
,U ui independence,
""DREADED SPRING DOSE
He se Fi-get8 the. Brim-
u 'cle of His Youth-
on t! , .
nf ..... uu' K-tchen mnhAQt.
mass ?ttery containing" a
N fami io same calor and
K " he
lur and m.r ,,lluIoa? it was I
,rlanr ',rtes! And the mid.
YoMake iM; lfte New York
ake three days running,
. .. . , vv
SIGNING THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
SSON ROBERT UVfrJGSTON
KHJAMN FRANKUN . .
JOS1AH RARTLETT PHLT
the Articles of Confederation and the
Constitution all of which he was in
strumental in preparing.
The committee elected Jefferson
chairman and instructed him to make
a draft of a declaration. The com
mittee submitted its first draft June 28.
July 2 the congress adopted the res
olution presented by Lee and resolved
to take further consideration on the
morrow. On the third the committee
had not finished its labors, but on July
4 It presented a completed draft to the
body, and after a long debate, -which
continued until the night, the con
gress adopted the Declaration of In
dependence.. After the committee of
the whole 'had debated the paper for
hours Benjamin Harrison reported to
congress that the Declaration of Inde
pendence had been agreed to by the
committee of the whole. The paper
was again read and ordered printed.
The Declaration was committed to
the printer, Dunlap, immediately, and
the broadside was ready on the fol
lowing day, July 5, when It received
the signatures of John Hancock and
of Charles Thomson,' president and
secretary of congress, respectively, au
thenticating the copy to be forwarded
to the; governments of the thirteen
states. The signatures were followed
by the words: "By i Order and in Be
half of ihe Congress." ?
Copies of the broadside were sent
to the various states and to the com
manding officers of the continental
troops. It is not certain that each of
these bore the signatures of the pres
ident and the secretary.
On July 19 it was ordered that the
Declaration "passed on the fourth,
should be fairly engrossed on parch
ment with the title and style of The
Unanimous Declaration of the Thir
teen Unitel States of America,' and
that the same, when engrossed, be
signed by every member of congress."
On August 2 the journal records
that "The Declaration of Independ
ence, being engrossed, rfnd compared
at the table, was signed by the mem
As to the signatures to the Decla
ration, a volume might be written.
The common understanding Is that the
fifty-five men whose names are ap
pended were present in congress on
July 4, 1776, and assenting to the
Declaration. This , understanding is
far from the truth. I .
s Signatures appear on the document
of men. who were not members of the
congress at the time the Declaration
was agreed on. It has been suggested
that the proper interpretation of the
orders of congress to have the docu
ment signed by . every member, was in
tended to Include those who became
members about this time.
But Henry. Wisner of New York,
who voted for independence, did not
sign, and Robert Morris, who did not
cast his vote for the Declaration, did:
Wisner was absent in New , York on
August 2 to attend the provincial con
gress, to. which he had been elected,
and evidently never had an opportu
nity to affix his signature to, the doc
ument. - .. ' '
There was a reason for the delay In
appending the signatures apart from
the time necessary to have the docu
ment engrossed. It - as Intended to
have the Declaration go out to the
world as the unanimous declaration of
all the colonies, and on July Fdurth,
a tablespoonf ul before breakfast, and
then omit it for three days, then take
it again, and so on until you have re
peated this three times.; the creator
of the .dose explained. "No needto
tell me ; I was brought up on It, . the
visitor said. f'Without It I should
neverjiave been able to understand the
feeling of the poor wretches of Dothe
boys Hall when Mrs. Squeers fed them
brimstone and treacre. Our wasmUed
in the same -sort of bowl ?nd moUier
always set U on the sideboard, lest
- RICHARD HENRY LEE
1776, the delegates from 'New York
felt some diffidence In voting, as they
had no Instructions. ' Wisner, however,"
did cast a vote in favor of independ
ence, and before August 2 New York
had instructed her delegation to agree
to the Declaration. ' ,
There was a hearty response when
It became known that signatures were
to be appended to the document. Sam
uel Chase of Maryland was absent
from congress on July 4 and the next
day he wrote from Annapolis to John
Adams, "How shall J transmit to pos
terity that I gave my assent?".. On
the ninth Adams replied, "As soon as
an American seal is prepared I con
jecture the Declaration will be sub
scribed to by all the members, which
will give you the opportunity you wish
for of transmitting your name .among
the votaries of Independence." "
Elbridge Gerry of New York had to
leave Philadelphia two weeks after
the Declaration had been adopted, and
he wrote to John and to Samuel Ad
ams, "Pray subscribe for me ye Dec
laration of Independence If ye same is
to be signed as proposed. I think we
ought to have ye privilege when neces
sarily absent of voting and signing by
Of the signers who did not vote for
the Declaration because they were not
members at that time William Wil
liams of Connecticut was not elected
until July 11 ; Rush, Clymer, Smith,
Taylof and Ross of Pensylvanla were
ndt elected until July 20. Charles Car
roll of Carrollton, as well as Chase,
was attending a. meeting of the Mary
land convention on July 4. George
Wythe of Virginia on the same day
was chairman of the committee of the
whole of the Virginia convention, and
Richard Henry Lee was in the coaven
tlon, having been compelled to return
from Philadelphia on account of sick
ness In his family, having left on June
13. William " Hooper of North Caro
Una was absent from Philadelphia at
least as late as July 8. Yet all of these
members signed the Declaration, al
though some of them, it has been
shown, were not even members at that
time, and four members were absent
Thomas McLean of Delaware: was
the last to sign and did not do so:until
five years after the adoption of the
Declaration and at a time when - the
war virtually was at an end. It was
through no fault of McLean. His name
was omitted from the printed copy In
The popular, traditional idea of the
signing of the Declaration of Inde
pendence presents it as a graceful and
formal function taking place July 4,
1776, in a large, handsomely furnished
chamber in Independence hall, Phila
delphia. To give the necessary touch
Of vivacity to the picture there is the
scene of the small boy darting from
the door as the last signer sets his
autogfaph to the parchment and dash
ing down the street, calling to his
grandfather to "Ring ! 01, ring for
liberty !" 'x -
As a matter of fact the Declaration
of Independence was sighed behind
locked doors. The city was not breath
lessly awaiting the event ; outside, . nor
did -the Liberty Bell peal forth on that
day the triumphal note of freedom.
Frfim these facts It appears that the
"Fourth of July" might with good rea
son have fallen upon either July 2 or
August 2 Instead of upon July 4.
And she shuddered as she spoke. But
even at that she knew that the shudder
was for effect. So strong is the force
of, tradition that she went home; that
very, day and mixed herself the child-'
hood dose, deciding that If ; there were
any virtue in ? the ;' combination - of
spring and a blood purifier she might
as well benefit by It. At all events it
could, not hurt her; f - -r V
y. : : . f :.;
The middleman' should not be ielt
centered and content to db middling
well. . ' - -
REVIEW: RESPONSE TO GOD'S
' love.: :. v,-.
y SELECTION FOR READING Phil. 1:
GOLDEN TEXT I will praise thee, O
Lord my Ood, with my whole heart.
Ps. .86:12. " ' .
PRIMARY TOPIC Showing Our Love
tp Our Heavenly Father. John 14:15. ...
JUNIOR TOPIC-Some Things W Have
Learned About God. John 3:16.
INTERMEDIATE TOPIC The Marks
of a Christian. ',
SENIOR AND ADULT TOPIC Some
Fundamentals of Faith' and Practice. ; :
The method of review will largely be
determined by the grade of the school.
The, primary teacher can use the ma
terial which shows love to the Heav
enly Father; the Junior teacher, that
which teaches about God; the inter
mediate teacher, the marks of a Chris
tian ; the senior and adult teacher, the
fundamentals of faith and practice. As
Illustrative of the method for the
senior and adult, note the following:
Lesson I. God who. was before all
things is the cause of air things, j The
universe came into being by, the! will
and act of the divine personality. Man
himself Is a creation of God..1 nqt an
evolution. All things continue to be
by the preserving power of God. (This
great being Is the Father of all who be
lieve on Jesus Christ. We should, edve
him our undivided 'affection and trust
him for food and raiment. .
Lesson II. Jesus,' the Son of God
and Israel's Messiah, Is the lamb who
bore, our sins. Out" of God's love he
was ' given, and "whosoever belleveth
on him shall not perish, but have ever
Lesson III. Jesus Christ rose from
the dead. His resurrection guarantees :
1. The integrity of the Scriptures
I Cor. 15:20).
2. The reality of the divine person
3. The sufficiency of Christ's aton
ing sacrifice (Rom. 4:25). .
4. Life and immortality of the .be
liever (I Cor. 15:20). .
Lesson IV. On the day of Pentecost
the Holy Spirit was poured out upon
the, disciples, baptizing them into the
one body of which Christ Is the head.
The gift of the Spirit peculiarly qual
ified the disciples to be his witnesses.
Lesson V. God created man In his
likeness and Image and placed him at
the head of creation.
Lesson VI. Through the fafi of
Adam sin has passed upon all men,
bringing death, physical and spiritual,
and sorrow. In Its train
Lesson VII. Lost men are saved ab
solutely by God's grace. His grace
means his kindness toward men
through Jesus Christ
Lesson VII I. At the preaching of
Jonah the people of Nineveh repented.
Because of their repentance God's
wrath was turned aside. Those who
repent of their sins and cry to. God
for mercy through Jesus Christ shall
be saved. '
Lesson IX. It Is only through faith
that man can please God. Through
faith the mightiest victories have been
wrought The grand exemplar upon
whom faith can rest Is Jesus Christ
Lesson X. The grand Incentive to
obedience is love to God. Calling Christ
Lord will not answer for disobedience
to his will; Hearing and doing his
teachings Is building upon the solid
rock. Such building can never'be de
stroyed by flood or storm. '
Lesson XI. The right motive in pray
ing Is not to attract man's attention,
but to have fellowship with God. God
Is pleased with persistency In prayer.
Lesson XII. The greatest of the
Holy Spirit's gifts Is love the. love
of God Shed abroad In our heart
Love is not a mere sentiment or emo
tion, but a mighty dynamic which'
transforms the life,' expressing Itself
In practical service to men. It abides
forever. . .
Staying Away From Church.
The habit of absenting one's1 sell
from the Sunday services of the church
Is one that some seem to acquire! very
easily. Tt Is a habit to be shunned.
Sometlmea it Is occasioned by sick,
ness ; often some small excuse, some
grudge against a member, some re
sentment at a fellow-member's fault,
Is the occasion. Jesus will be there,
even If an unworthy' member Is pres.
ent Jesus may be present especially,
to meet and forgive that unworthy
member ; and who are . we that we
should judge a .brother, or a sister?.
W Charity and Denial.
Brother men, one act of charity will
teoch us more of the. love, of God than
a thousand sermons one denial, than
whole volumes of , the wisest writers
on theology. F. 'W. Robertson..-..
Grandest Thing on Earth.";
There is not a man or womanhow
ever poor, they may; 6e. but have It.
in their power, by the, grace, of . God.
to leave - behind-them the grandest
thing' on earth., character; and their
children might rise up after them and
tha uk God, that th elf mother was a
pious' womanr or their ' father "a " pfouV.
man. N. .Macleod. '
" " " Transcends , AM 8uDstance.' .
t God's will In the present t moment Is
the dally bread which transcends all
aibstance. Madame Swetchlna.
1 ' ' 9
LL roads henceforth lead to
, The Rome of the. Caesars
and of the Popes, which held
pre-eminence In this respect for many
ages, now yields to Geneva, which,
since John Calvinjs time, has been call
ed, "the Protestant Rome,", writes Irv
ing R. Bacon, in the Detroit Free Press.
Geneva isto be the capital of the
league of nations, which Is but another
way of saying the capital of the world:
Thus the peace conference at Paris
has decided. "
In the middle of the nineteenth cen
tury, when, under, the quasl-dlctator-ship
of James Fazy, ? the radicals of
the Swiss canton Geneva spent money
with almost reckless extravagance to
develop and modernize the city, de la
Rive, a conservative, exclaimed: .
They want to make Geneva the
smallest of the great cities; oh, that
they would only allow her to remain
the greatest of the. small cities!!.
And now, seventy years after he
expressed this wish, it is about to be
realized; for from now on it Is there
that the parliament of nations will hold
Its sessions and . the roads from all
ends of earth will focus there.
The census of 1911' gave Geneva In
the neighborhood of 150,000 inhabi
tants, divided almost evenly between
ProtestantsfJand Catholics.. In point of
languages the French preponderated
nearly seven to one as compared with
On Beautiful Lake Leman. '
The city is i the southwesternmost
point of Switzerland. It is on the pic
turesque Lake Leman (called also Lake
Geneva), and is divided intp halves,
the old and the new towns, by the
River Rhone." The number seven fig
ures geographically in Geneva as It
does in Rome. The latter city hai
seven "hills; Geneva, seven bridges."
Geneva, however, Is of ' but recent
date compared with Rome. It was lit
tle more than a village of the Allo
broges, a Gallic tribe, when Rome was
mistress of the world. Julius Caesar
took his stand there when he heard
that the Helvetians (the Swiss of to
day) had decided to emigrate-from
their own country, which they had
come to consider as too cramping for
their national growth.
They shajl not pass," was Caesar's
watchword. And two-thirds of the
Helvetian people perished in a futile
attempt to force their passage through
the Roman provinces. It was the be
ginning of the Gallic war, which lasted
nine years and became the fulcrum by
which Caesar raised himself to the po
sition of dictator of virtually the whole
Birthplace of Rousseau. '
Few cities have produced so many
illustrious sons or been the arena for
the activity ;df so many great men as I
Geneva. Jean Jacques Rousseau was
born there. And it is no small coin
cidence that the city of his birth should
have been chosen as the capital of a
league of nations of a democratized
world. For to no other one man does
democracy owe- a greater debt than tp
Rousseau. His pen was the flail
which first set ' thrones , .a-tottering.
Kingcraft began to decay beneath the
corroding assaults of reason which he
leveled at the "divine rights" upon
which royal prerogatives were' based.
Lord Byron's noble tribute to both
Geneva and Rousseau constitutes al
most the entire theme of r the third
canto of his magnificent "Childe
Harold." . v y ..
The same great poet has also cele
brated the misfortunes of another Gen
evan in the well-known poem of 'The
Prisoner of Chillon." ' ,
Chlllon is castle on top of a crag
which rises: perpendicularly, nearly 1
000 feet above Lake Leman. Here,
early in th fifteenth century, Francois
de Bonn! vard, prior of St Victor,; was
imprisoned. - ' .
" 'Where Calvin Ruled.
In 1532 William Favell, a Protest
tant preacher from Dauphlne, who, had
jqst: won Vaud, a Swiss canton, to
Protestantism, made his appearance at
Geneva. . His success was so consider
able that he established his home there
and; In the following year-Oeneva en
tered into . closer religious - relations
with . the Swiss city ot Berne," which
had embraced Protestantism. Frlbourg,
vhich remained loyal to its old faith,'
withdrew from the alliance with
the New Brjdge.
Geneva. On August 10, 1535, Geneva
formally adopted Protestanisnu
A year later, John Calvin, a refugee
I from France, stopped at Geneva, in
tending to remain there only one night.
Favel induced him to protract hisvf visit
In 1538 the opposition succeeded in
having Favel and Calvin expelled ; but
although Favel never returned, Calvin
went back In .1541, and gained such an
ascendancy that he was soon enabled
to set up a theocratic form of govern
ment, with himself at the head. He
was, at that time, in his thirty-second
The site of Calvin's house, at Ge
neva, Is at No.. 13 Grand Rue. That of
Rousseau, which still, stands, is at
No.' 40, the same street
After the French revolution the city
was the capital of a French depart
ment, but in 1814 it became the twenty
second canton of the Swiss confedera
tion. Since that time : the history of
Genevans regards, its foreign policy,
has been ; Identical with , that of - the
confederation. . r v
PROTECT THE MIAMI VALLEY
Work of Protecting .Immense' Reser-
voire One of the Greatest Projects
of the Kind.
Were It not for the fact that the
TJnlted States has been engaged- In
the greatest of world wars, the build
ings of the five dry reservoirs as part
of a flood-prevention plan Ja the Mi
ami valley would arrest the attention
of the nation, says Howard Egbert in
Popular Mechanics Magazine. . Further
than , tfcat International construction
experts would be watching the work
with considerable Interest because the
project is byvfar, the greatest of its
kind ever attempted - In this country.
The plan, of course, is to insure per
manent protection to the more than
700,000 inhabitants living to. the Miami
conservancy district a regipn follow
ing closely, the Miami river, an im
portant but not navigable waterway
which threads its way through south
ern Ohio counties. The cost is esti-.
mated at $20,000,000. More than 2,000
men are required to complete the con
struction work, and three years as a
minimum isthe length of time esti
mated as necessary to carry out the
designs of the district Five huge re- ,
tentlon basins, or dry reservoirs, are
being constructed, all of them now welL
under way. To construct any one of
these dams means the: digging, trans--portlng,
depositing and compacting of
from 850,000 to 4,000,000 cubic yards
of earth. For the Miami river chan
nel the estimate Is .4,000,000 cubic
yard. Dams and river together will
mean the excavation ' and transporta
tion In all of some 13,000,000 cubic
yards of earth.
The flood-conservancy project con
sists of the dry-reservoir ' system,
which, once constructed, will occupy
five different tracts of land In the dis
trict At unusual periods, of high wa
ter it is . designed to permit all over- :
flow v water to run Into these basins.
Tljey will , be so stoutly constructed
that they cannot break under pressure
of millions of gallons of water. The '
river channel, thus relieved of the ad
ditional burden of high water, will not '
be threatened, and the customary dan
ger of banks breaking or overflowing
is entirely eliminated.
Best Way to Stain Floor.
To stain your floor a dark walnut
haveVthe floor perfectly clean, then
take, a pound of burnt umber ground
In oil; paint stores sell this prepara
tion. Next take boiled linseed oil and
mix enough of the umber with it to.
color the oil, but not thicken it Try
on a small piece of board and add um
ber until you have the required shade."
Rub this into the floor until the stain
ceases to : come off and the wood is of
a rich walnut brown; Some of the
color -may dry out in which case an
other coat should be applied. .
- Least She Could Do.
"Cholly tried to kiss me, upset the
canoe, fell out ruined his new suit and
'was' nearly drowned. He's in the hos
pital now. --' " -:"Welir
' s 4 : -i
"What should X dor
"I think you ought to go round and
give him hat kiss." Louisville Coupler-Journal.