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l5J ir ilS " - Pili c Plllt '
r WAS a foregone conclusion' that
many of the inventions born of
the needs of war would be turned
to peace uses with promise of
great .' benefits. Already the ex
perts of the bureau of mines, who
assisted in the war work of rpr-
f ecting the microphone and geo-
SJ phone to ascertain the exact ioca-
; nun ol enemy guns, are using mese
delicate instruments to locate en
tombed miners, and to make easier
and more accurate various mining
The principle of the microphone was
applied in ascertaining in a general way the loca
tion of a ship at sea. Toward the end of the war
the device had been so perfected that it was pos
sible for the microphone listening -station to cal-
1 .A il. . A. j i . " ' mi 1 '
cuiaie me exact position oi enemy guns alter uear
lng the shots. The speed with which sound trav
els, was, of course, known and served as a basis
of calculations at' different" stations. With these
instruments electrically connected it was possible
to record the exact time at which the sound
reached them and then, by a series of rather in
tricate calculations based on g trlangulation, to
locate the object. "...JO.-., '
The geophone is based on the same principle as
the microphone, excepting that sound '.waves are
recorded from the earth Jnstead of the air and
it has reached such a high state of. development
under engineers of the bureau of mines that ,,lt
bids fair to be one of the most usefuj. applications
now being made of inventions due to the war.
Geophone Is a Seismograph. ' : .
The geophone, , though small, is essentially a
seismograph, since it works on the same principle
as the ponderous apparatus with which earth
quake tremors are recorded. It consists of an
iron ring about three-and a half inches in, diame
ter, within the center of which Is suspended a
lead disk that Is fastened, by a single boli through
two mica disks, one of which covers the top and
the other the bottom of the ring. There are two
brass pieces, the top one having an opening in its
center to which is fastened a rubber tube leading
to a stethpscopic earpiece. These cap pieces are
fastened jwith bolts to the Iron ring and serve also
to hold the mica disks in place.
We then have really nothing but a lead weight
suspended between two mica disks cutting across
a small air-tight box. If the instrument is placed
on tfie ground and anyone is pounding or digging
in the vicinity, energy is transmitted ' as wave
motion to the earth, and the .earth-waves shake
the geophone case. The lead, on account of Its '
weight and because it is suspended between the
mica disks, remains comparatively motionless.
There then is produced a relative motion between
the instrumenfs'case and the lead weight. The
result Is that a compression ahd rarefaction of
the air in the instrument takes place, r Since the
rubber tube leading to the stethoscopic earpiece Is
connected with this space in the geophone, this
rarefaction and compression Is carried to the ear
drum. Usually two instruments are used, one for
.each ear. . ; -'--L- , . .
How Direction Is Determined.
When the two instruments are used, it has been
found j that the sound is ' apparently louder from
the instrument nearer the source of the sound..
It is evident then that by moving the Instruments
properly n point can be found when the sound
will be of the same apparent Intensity in both
pa rs. The direction of the sound is then on a perr
pellicular to the line" connecting the centers of
the two instruments either in front of or behind
the observer. Further observation will show
which side. Direction is quite accurately de
termined in this way. The sound is not actually
louder In one ear than in the other, but the ear Is
enable of distinguishing the difference In time at
which the sound arrives in the two instruments.
Since this Is the case; persons whd are slightly
;1oaf in one ear are said still to be able to de
termine direction wtth the instruments..
During the, period of the war,. engineers of. the .
fining division of the . bureau of mines .were
engaged in determining "the distance that lffe
ent mining machines could be beard through the
clay, shale, coal and the mine cover. Measure
ments were made also of the energy required in,
order that they might be heard definii- distances
throuzh clay, shale and coal, as well as to ae-
termine the distances at which the shock Waves
resulting from the discharge of various explosives
could be heard. A' brjef investigation of the
factors influencing the transfer of energy from a
mining tool to the clay and coal were also made in
order that recommendations could be made as to
the type of mining machine which could be used
to accomplish the most work with the least noise.
In this connection it vas found that sounds
were transmitted only about half as far in clay
as In shale strata and about one-quarter as far in
clay as in coal. To give some Idea of the sens!-,
tlveuess of the instrument it may be said that
pounding with a pick on the bituminous coal can i
be detected for a distance of 900 feet, and the
direction determined, and that pounding with a
sledge can Jbe heard as far as 1,150 feet. These
measurements were made in the Pittsburgh coal
seam in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, where the coal
is somewhat harder than in most other bituminous .
coal beds. The explosion of a one-ounce charge
of dynamite was detected a distance of over 2,000
feet through the shale strata. , .
Sound Tells the Implement.
One Interesting feature of the instrument is
that the sound transmitted to the ear is charac
teristic of the implement producing the sound. To
Illustrate: Twelve mining and carpentering
operations were carried out on -the coal rib. An
engineer of the bureau of mines who had never
used the geophone and who did not know what
tools were to be operated was able to recognize
and name nine of the Implements at a distance of
several, hundred feet through the strata. The
other three- sounds were accurately described, but
the tools were not identified.
Now that the war is over, the bureau has turned
to the development of the instruments for peace
time uses. For one thing, it is believed that they
will be of great value to mine-rescue crews who
may be' entering mines for exploration and to
locate miners who may have beelh entombed after
a disaster. The tests sonfar made in the vicinity
of Pittsburgh show that a man pounding on the
coal rib with a pick, piece of timber or sledge can
be detected and located from a point 600 to 1,200
feet distant. This distance depends greatly on the
character of coal upon which the man is pdunding,
and intervening rooms and entries seem to have
surprisingly little effect upon the distance or the
determination of direction.
Pounding with a sledge can be heard from 200
to 300 feet through the mine cover, depending
upon the quietness of the day outside, since any
wind greatly interferes with the successful opera
tion of the instruments. It will at once be seen
that when mines are not too deep they can be
"explored" from the surface and it will thus be
possible to find and locate a miner who Is pound
ing. At the experimental mine In Bruceton, Pa.,
a man has frequently been located through 140
feet of cover within 50 feet of the exact point
where he "was pounding.
A stuly Is also being made of the distances that
pounding on rails and pipes can be heard. Since
rails are generally buried in the earth or dust in
the entries of a mine, And since this dust dampens
the transmission of the somid, the sounds are not
transmitted very well. The same is true of pipe
lines. However, if the pipe lines are not buried,
but are laid on blocks and ties, the pounding can
be heard great distances. So far no lines have
been found long enough to show the limit of the
geophone. It is known, however, that the naked
ear can get sounds farther than 2,000 feet.;
Used to Guide Tunnel Work, v;
In metal mines expensive surveys have some
times to be made in order that the approaching
tunnel headings may be. brought together ac
curately. Since direction' can be determined so
well - with the geophones. It Is thought that they
can be used to guide such work. It would only
be necessary to go into each heading and locate
the direction' from which pounding in the other
heading was coming. " J
Observations made In a metal mine recently
showed that direction can be determined much
more easily in rock than in coal This Is prob
ably due to the fact that there is some reverbera
tion to the sound from a hammer blow on coal,
while on stone the sound is clean cut. It so hap- ;
oened that In this mine ft' raise was being driven
up. about six or eight feet" distant from a shaft
Observations were made In the drift of the sound
from the drill in the raise
and a point located on the
side of the drift behind
which the drill in the
raise was apparently op
erating. The survey mark
was then ascertained to
. be from two and one-half
to three feet to the right
of this mark. A drill
set up and operated at the survey mark did not
break through into the drift, whereas a hole
drilled at the point in the drift located by the
geophones reached the raise and proved the geo
phone observation to have been correct within a
It is also thought the instruments will be of
great value In preventing accidents from explo
sions when breaking through. In this connection
an interesting Incident happened recently. Obser
vations were being made at a tunnel heading. The
pit boss happened along and asked to be allowed
to listen. He put the earpieces in , his' ears and
remarked :'t "Mack is tamping a charge and we'd
. better moye away." He spoke as naturally as
he would have done had he been watching Mack,
and It is quite evident that he did not realize that
the sound was coming through "300 feet of coal,
otherwise bje would not have given the warning.
Observations were made recently of a mine fire
burning from 20Kto 40 feet below the surface. A
low rumbling noise could be heard as if air were
being drawn in along crevices, and occasionally
sounds could be heard from the snapping and
falling of pieces of coal or rock. As well as can
be determined, the fire area was accurately located,
but owing to the fact that the fire could not be
approached from Inside, the d&ta could not be
checked absolutely.- It Is interesting to note that
similar sounds could be heard from only one point
on the Inside of the mine and that point was the
one nearest the area as located on the surface.
In addition to the uses enumerated, an engineer
of the bureau has discovered that the instruments
can be employed advantageously in locating
knocks In automobile valves and cylinders. For
.this purpose It Is best to. mount the instrument on
a short Iron rod that can be easily inserted In the
machinery. Not only can a troublesome cylinder
be located in this manner, but the trouble area
In the cylinder also can be found.
The crisp, frosty days of autumn .are a sure
indication that the apple season is in-full swing.
Those who can pick tha. fruit are fortunate, for
the apple fresh from the tree, at this time of
the year, is unrivaled In flavor and temptingly
tart and juicy. But the privilege of gathering
apples is no longer limited to those -who live in
the country, for nowadays many famlliesv who
.own.cars avail ; themselves of the, opportunity of
motoring to the suburbs, ;where they may either
gather a generous supply ' from unclaimed trees,
or purchase the privilege of picking better va
rieties from the orchard of some thrifty farmer.
After a few of these trips the housewife will find
that she has obtained enough apples to supply
her family with a variety of preparations for the
winter's use. So many things may be done with
apples that one . becomes enthusiastic at the
thought; they may be canned, dried or made Into
fruit butters and -jellies, fruit sirup , and fruit
leather. Even the pulp which remains may be
fed to the cattle, hogs or sheep.' so. there is no
vvaste whatever in the whole process. Christian
Science Monitor. , -
NESTED IN TOWER TWENTY YEARS.
v There . is an old English sparrow that has
nested In the eaves at Tower C, at East Somer
vllle (Baltimore and - Maryland yards), for the
last 20 years.
- Fifteen years ago he i.was. caught and marked
with a band of silver wire just to see how long
he would live.
A new; tower Is being built at Tower C, and
. as the new tower ' is of brick and so constructed
there Is no nesting place In the eaves, and when
the old' tower is torn' down '.the old sparrow will
be deprived of a home. : f ' "
Consequently one of the towermen caught th'
old sparrow (he Is very tame), and took him t
Wakefield and' kept him in the garage several
days, thinking he would nest there. L i
But when he was let out he made a beellne fo
Tower C at East Somerville. and has been ther
ever since. ' 1 V x
1 Perhaps! after all,'; he" cab 'find; a place U
squeeze In at the new. brick, tower when his oh
home Is torn do wtl Boston Globe. :
fttTROVED UNIFORM LTTEENATIONAL
(By REV. P.- B. FITZ WATER, D. D.,
Teacher of English Bible In the Moody
Bible Institute of Chicago.) .
(Copyright. 1919. Western Newspaper Union)
LESSON FOR NOVEMBER 16
WITNESSES OF CHRIST'S GLORY.
LESSON TEXT Luke 9:28-35.
GOLDEN TEXT This is: my beloved
Son: hear ye him. Mark 9:7.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL Matt. 17:1
8; Mark 9:2-8; II Peter 1:16-18. k !i
PRIMARY AND JUNIOR TOPIC Peter
and John with Jesus on the mountain.
SENIOR AND ADULT .TOPIC The
glory of Jesus Christ.
While It Is true, that In this lesson
the disciples are witnesses of Christ's
glory, the full troth is that the mani-
testation of Christ in glory was to give
to the discouraged disciples a fore
gleam of the Messianic Kingdom. The
hopes of, the disciples', were crushed
when Christ announced his denth on
the cross: They were unable to see
how victory could Issue from death.
Jesus took with him Peter, James,
and John, and went into the mountain
to pray. His chief aim in retirement
was to get the disciples apart into a
state of receptivity ' so that he might
show them the method of the Kingdom.
Before going to the mountain he de
clared that there were some standing
In his presence who would not taste
of death till they should see the Son
of Man coming in his Kingdom (Luke
9:27; Matt. 16:28). . That their droop
ing spirits might be revived and their
confidence restored, he is transfigured
before them. Two men from the upper
world are" sent to converse with him
about his approaching death In Jerus
alem (v. 31) the very thing about
which the disciples refused to talk.
Then, too, God's own voice was heard
in words of approval of Christ's course,
directing them to hear the Master.
Surely they cannot doubt his ability
now to carry Into execution his king
dom plans. The purpose, then, of the
transfiguration is to give the disciples
a foregleam of the coming Kingdom,
to-enable them to see the Kingdom In
embryo. That this is true is not only
shown by the context and circumstanc
es, but by the inspired interpretation
of one who was with him and knew
all that happened. Peter said, "For
we did not follow cunningly devised
fables when we made known unto you
the, power and coming of our Lord
Jesus Christ, but we were eye witness
es of his majesty, for he received of
God the Father, honor and glory when
therecame such a voice to him from
the excellent glory. This Is my belov
ed Son In whom tI am well pleased :
and thisvoice w? oursselves heard come
out of heaven, when we were with him
In the holy mount. And we have the
word of prophecy made more sure ;
whereunto ye do well that ye take heed,
as unto a lamp shining in a dark place,
until the day dawn, and the day-star
arise In your hearts (2 Peter 1:16-19
R. V.). To those who believe In the
inspiration of the Bible these words
are final; Let us therefore note the
outstanding features of the Kingdom
as displayed in the transfiguration.
I. Jesus Christ the Glorified King
on. Mount Zlon (v. 29).
The glorified King on this Mount
was Intended to symbolize the Messi
anic Kingdom when Christ returns to
the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem
(Zech. 14:4-17. This is still In the
future, and will be literally fulfilled.
II. The Glorified Saints With Christ
(vv. SO, 31).
1. Moses, who was once denied an en
trance into Palestine, appears now in
glory, representing the redeemed of
the Lord who will pass through death
into the Kingdom. Many thousands of
the redeemed have fallen asleep and at
the coming of the Lord shall be awak
ened to pass Into the Kingdom.
; 2. JElijah, now. - glorified, represents
the redeemed who shall pass into the
Kingdom through translation. Many
shall be living upon the earth when the
Lord shall come, and shall without dy-
ing be changed and thus pass into the
Kingdom (1 Cor. 15 :50-53; 1 Thess. 4:-14-18).
3. They talk of the very thing which
the disciples refused to believe, name
ly, the death of Christ.
III. Israel, in the Flesh, In Connec
tion With the Kingdom, Represented
by Peter, James and John (v. 28).-
Israel shall be called from their hiding
place among all nations of the earth
and shall be gathered to Jesus Christ
the King, as the central people In the
Kingdom (Ez. 37 :21-27).
1. Peter proposes to build three tab
ernacles (v. 33). The Feast of Taber
nacles looked forward to the glorious
reign of Christ. Peteip caught a
glimpse of the significance of the trans
figuration. : His proposition showed
that he thought of the Feast of Taber
nacles, and therefore of the, Millenium.
2. The divine voice (v. 35). At this
time God himself uttered his words, as
suring them that this one In glory was
his son Jesus Christ. ,
: IV. The Multitude at the Foot of the
Mountain (yv. 37-43).
This is representative of the nations
which shall be brought into the King
dom; which ; shall be established over
Israel (see Isaiah 11 -10-12). ' The. peo
ple here were grievously oppressed by
the deviL There' are times ,when the
devil Is especially active ; In - his op
pression of men.. About the time of
Christ's first coming he did his best
to ' harass men. v Just before Christ's
?omlng again he will be especially ac
tive, for he knows that his time Is
Conducted by National Council of the
? s ; v Boy Scouts of America.) 'i f,
SEA SCOUTS FROM ENGLAND
"That the splendid work done by
British sea scouts during the war pe-'
riod is appreciated by - England Is
shown by the, special arrangements
wnich have been made for their bene
fit with the White Star line,", writes
James;E. West, chief fscout executive.
"livery White Starrlmer, whether
making port in New pTork,i Boston or
yrnii. r j .. . ... .
jLianiui, , Cannes iwo or inree rsriusn
sea scouts who are shipped as 'cadets,
are resnilnr rnemhprs nf tha pww nnri
are getting an unforgettable and fasci
nating experience of real seafaring.
"Some of these boys learn to love
their good ship and the life of the sea
so well that they continue In the serv
ice, sail the seven seas make strange
VlWC nils? Avnnfnnlln ' V. nn n i
officers or skippers."
In New York, Dr. J. J. Macdonald,
an American 'scoutmaster, is always
ready at the pier to greet these Brlt-
lsn Doys, ana to taKe charge of them
as long as they remain on shore.
W. ARMSTRONG PERRY.
4 He Is to Head the Pioneer Scouts of
the Big Brotherhdod.
THE KING AND THE BOY SCOUTS.
On the day that Kine Georere crave his
great garden party to those who had
distinguished themselves t in patriotic
work during the war, there were in
cluded only two organizations of,
young people. These were tie boy.
scouts and the girl guides. .
The king particularly asked that the
boys and girls themselves should ..be
present to the number of 150,' as . rep-,
resentatlves of the rest. Picked, as
they were, one from every county in
the British Isles, they naturally pre
sented a very smart lot. ; -
The king talked for quite a while
In praise of the work of soutmasters.
Results were what he judged by, not
the steps. Results are the only test,
and the results reflected with greatest
possible credit on the workers. He
said that he had personal experience
of this, because, on account of their
capability, scouts had come now to be
used for all large functions at the pal
ace. And he went on to say this of
scouting: "The beauty of a scout Is
that you never have to tell him what
to do, and you can rely on his doing, it.
A scout never makes - a mistake. r-I
have never known a scout to make a
SCOUTS LIKE WOOL CAMP DUDS
Bodily moisture can evaporate
through woolens V much more easily
than through cotton or linen cloth,
which keeps the moisture In its texture
until it is thoroughly saturated. . And
it Is the dampness next to the skin that
causes colds and chills so stick to
But, see, that you wash em right!
You kill their betterness right off if
you let little bits of soap get in be
tween the fibers and thus clog up the
channels through which the moisture
is supposed to go.
; 'A good way is to soak the garments
in; lukewarm suds, then squeeze out
the water by pulling the woolens
through the hands. And don't twist or
wring, if you don't want , to invite
stretching or shrinking. : r '
Just get out as much of the water as
VOU DOSSIhlv can nnrl hanv -V uj-.o
- - UUU3
up to dry.
" WHAT THE SCO UTS DO. V
At a victory celebration for the sol
diers -atx Geneseo, N. the boy
scouts were asked to take care of two
airplanes and guard them" through the
long night. " :
Some happy scouts are those of Los
Angeles Troops ,1 and .2. A short
Ime ago they went over to Hollywood
and were the guests : of Mary .Pick
ford, the movie star, "who not' only
gaye . them a royal reception, but also
presented them with' 25 for trocn
equipment. " ' 5tr , ' .