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POLK COUNTY HEWS, TRYOIT, ITOUTH OABOLHTA
THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS LOST EACH YEAR
TO DAIRYMEN THROUGH IMPROPER COOLING
WHEiK SPRING SEWING
OCCUPIES YOUR TIME
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In Timet of Cold Weather Prepare for Hot Weather Harvesting Ice in a
Northern State. ' ' .
fXPrepared by the United States Depart
u ment of Agriculture.)
"Each year dairymen lose thousands
ot dollurs from returned sour milk,
poor batter, and low-quality cheese.
These losses aire' largely due to tni
proper coolin? of milk and" cream on
-ttfce farm, according, to dairy speclal
Jsts. For good results milk and cream
should be cooled to 50 degrees or lower
fand held there; and as tills usually can
'best be done by the use of Ice, dairy
,men should take advantage 6 any
soear-by hike or stream to obtain a
copply of Ice for next year.
Ice Costs Little.
The Ice harvesting season fortunate
ly, comes at a time when there is the
least work on the farm for men and
-teams, , . and consequently - the actual
aaoney cost is usually not very great.
The quantity of ice needed depends
,pon the location of the farm whether
In the North or in the South, the num
ber of cows milked, and the method of
bandllng the product In the northern
tates it has been found that, with a
moderately good ice house, one-half of
wl ton of Ice per cow is sufficient to
ool cream and hold it at a low temper
ature for delivery two or three times a
week. One and one-half or two tons
per cow should be provided where milk
la to be cooled.
Capacity office Houses.
A cubic fo)t of ice weighs about 57
iDOunds. so in storing Ice it is custom
ary to allow from 40 to 50 cubic feet
rper ton for the mass of Ice. At least
"12 Inches must be left between the ice
And the wall of the building for In
I. -eolation, unless the ice house has per
manently insulated 'walls and an un
csually large space for insulation be
neath and above the Ice. x
Where, a lake, pond, or stream of
-lear water. Is not available, some pre
liminary work In preparing the Ice
field will be required bef ore freezlng
weather sets lij... It is therefore advis
able to make all plans for the work as
soon as possible. Water for the ice
supply should be entirely free from
contamination or pollution. Ponds and
doggish streams usually have grass
and weeds growing In them,"so that the
Ice harvested Is likely to contain de
cayed vegetable matter, which Is al
ways objectionable. They should,
therefore, be thoroughly cleared of1
jrach growths before the Ice has formed.
.In some sections it Is necessary to
Impound the water for producing ice.
This may be done either by exjcavatlng,
nd diverting a stream into the ex
cavation, or by constructing dams
across low areas. In localities where
ery low temperatures prevail for. sev
eral weeks at a time, and the. supply.
ef pure water Is limited, -blocks of Ice
may be frozen in metal cans or in
special fiber containers.
In harvesting ice it Is desirable to
have a field of sufficient size to fill the
ice house at a single cutting, as the
- thickness and quality of the Ice will
be more nearly uniform, and the neces
sary preparation for cutting and har
vesting need be made but once. Iu
many instances! however, the size of
the pond or stream is such that it Is
necessary to wait for a second-crop In
order to fill the Ice house. The aver
age farmer requires only a compara
tively small quantity of ice, so that
even a small harvesting surface, will
usually prove large enough, especially
if Ice Is cut the second time. The
square feet of surface required per ton
when the ice is of different thicknesses
Is shown In the following table. Size
of cake, 22 by 22 inches.
Square Feet of Ice Surface Required
Per Ton of Ice.
Number of futtlnS Space
Cakes Required Required
GOOD THINGS FOR THE
Per Ton. Per Ton
31.3 ! , 105.4
10.4 , , 85.1
' 8.9 30-1
.... 7.8 26.3
Few Tools Required. ,
When a small quantity of Ice Is to be
harvested, but few tools are required.
The following list contains those actu
ally needed for harvesting ice on a
small scale: Two Ice saws, one hand
marker, one pulley and rope, two pairs
of ice tongs,1 two Ice hooks, one pointed
bar, and one straight edge. While
these tools are all that are necessary,
additional ones, such, as the horse plow
and marker, horse scraper and marker,
and a calking bar are convenient and
will help to expedite the work of Ice
harvesting. ' v, - V
. Faith is the rite bower ov: Hope.
If it want for Faith, there would be
no living In this world. We couldn't
even eat hash with enny.. Bafety, . If. It -want,
for Faith. " - ; v-
. Faith Is one ov them warriors who
dont kno when she Is whipped. .
The' following, may-not "be. new, but
are all at least worth trying once:
- R a ' 8 i n Drop
Biscuit. Sift to
gether three cup
fuls of flour, six
i level teasfpoonfuls
of baking powder
and one teaspoon
ful of salt. Rub
into the flour one-
half cupful of sweet fat nd add one
and one-half cupfuls of milk lowly.
The dough must be . soft, so It will
drop from the spoon; add one cupful
of raisins, and drop on a bu'; red-
sheet.- Uake twelve to fifteen minutes.
Grandmother's Cookies. Cream one-
half cupful of any good fat, add one
cupful of sugar, one-half cupful of
sour milk, one teaspoonf ul of soda
and four, cupfuls of flour. Sift the
flour with a half-teaspoonful of salt,
add the soda dissolved in the milk, and
mix all the Ingredients together. Koll;
put on a floured bread board, sprinkled
with granulated sugar and bake twelve
minutes in a hot oven.
Cocoa Nut Bars. Cream half a cup
ful of butter substitute, and two cup
fuls of sugar 'together; add one-half
cupful of milk slowly, then two well
beaten eggs. . Add one-half teaspoon
ful of soda dissolved in one table
spoonful of water, then sift In one
cupful of cocoa. Sift together with
three cupfuls of flour, a half teaspoon-
ful each of cream of tartar and salt.
Mix, and roll one-fourth Inch In thick
ness, and cut In strips four inches long
and one inch wide. Brush the top with
well-beaten egg, sprinkle with choppel
nuts, and bake In a hot oven twelve
Beef Stew for Luncheon. Peel and
cook six onions, covering them with
boiling water, and let them cook un
til nearly tender, then add a can of j
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WATER SUPPLY WON'T FREEZE
Heat Deflected From Lantern Top
Around Pails, Keeping Tempera
, ture Above Freezing.
To make a non-freezable drinking
fountain for the hen houfe the fol
lowing materiar will be needed: One
soap or cracker box; a lantern; two
galvanised Iron pails, about two-quart,
capacity; and enough heavy asbestoa
paper to line box with a double thick
ness to keep in the heat generated by
i the lantern and for fire prevention.
The box must be large enough to
hold the lantern and two pails. Two
holes are cut in the top of box, one at
each end,' allowing the pails to sink
Into tlie box with only about 3 Inches
protruding; Inside the box, between
the pails, the lantern should be placed.
The heat will be deflected by the lan
tern top and the box around the water
palls, thus keeping . the water a few
degrees above freezing even' in cold
The box Is placed on . a platform.
This, In addition to being a support
for perches on which the fowls stand
while drinking, is also the bottom of
III I I .j!.' r ' V T TUrini'1! VT 'i f7
Among manjs other things that ab
sorb the attrition of home dress
makers, busy" with spring sewing,
there are negligees to be provided for
hours of leisure. Now Is the best
time for making these luxurious and
Inspiring frivo!yties of the wardrobe.
Gay new sprir materials are here,
and the buslne? of sewing is in hand.
January and February ought to see
underthings fothe family and negli
in two gar-
U. S. BUTTER EXPORTS SMALL
gees, housedrees, service clothes for
tomato soup, a can of peas, a teaspoon- I the housewife, out disposed of. Cer
ful of salt, two tablesnoonfnls of rhlll tain,-v tne PreUl negligees should not
sauce and one pound of sliced stewed
beef. Parboil a nlnt of notatoes. drain.
' ' i . v m .
add to the onions and soup, and let mems' inai 18 unaersnp ana a coat,
cook ten minutes; add the sJced beef, or trousers andrbat. These styles are
peas, and let simmer until the pota- about enunlly Jopular and the trou
toes are done. Then add the season-1 seris a re ,,kl We worn by Chinese
Ings, and serve very hot
Negligees ar' usually
This Country Furnishes Less Than 1
Per Cent of Product That Fig
ures in Trade.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
In. spite of vast grazing lands In the
United States this country furnishes
less than 1 per cent of the butter that
figures in world or International trade,
according to statistics recently com
piled by the United States department
of agriculture. However, the same
fact, expressed In terms of the total
number of pounds of butter exported,
does not look so insignificant, since
the annual total for at least one year
m each or tne last six decades has
approached 30,000,000 pounds. There
has been marked fluctuation In this
country's exports of butter, the
amount frequently dropping to less
than one-third of the total for the big
years. The relation between domes
tic, and foreign prices has been the
determining factor , in these changes.
During the last few years our exports,
small as they are relatively, have been
going to 70 different countries, col
onies, and dependencies.
I'm just a little ditty and not
least bit witty;
But. listen, I've a secret up
If you're forever sighing
And. all the world decrying.
Tour friends, will all excuse them
selves and leave.
women or patterned afer those of
India. Sometimes a long skirt Is so
draped as to suggest-trousers and ' In
any case thesepicturesque suits are
fascinating. Iifj the picture trousers
of crepe-de-chlm have double frills of
narrow knife plating about the ankles.
The coat Is muh like n short kimono
and It is edged IHth wide lace. A silk
cord and tassel is suspended from the
coat at each side, falling from a small
bow of ribbon. Those tassels and
cords have no jpartlcular reason for
being where they are, except to look
pretty ; they do add to- the grace ot
the coat by weighting it. There Is no
attempt to follow the style that In
spires a negligee with , fidelity to the
original. The Chinese cord and tassel
idea is used along with very pert little
ribbon bows having an American fla
vor, and ribbon rosette with long ends
at the front. '
Such sensible-things as the combina
tion undergarment for a little girl,
shown in the picture, must share at
tention with beautiful negligees in the
spring sewing. The body and knickers
are cut In 5rie. the former gathered
into an elastic band at the knee, or on
a straight band that buttons. Neck
and short sleeves are finished . with
button-hole stitching over the edges of
small scallops, and the same garment
Is made with lower neck and sleeve
less for midsummer wear. The weight
of the muslins used varies, too, ac
cording to the season for which the
combinations are made.
The Deflected Heat From the Lantern
Keeps Fountain From Freezing.
the heat box upon which the lantern
rests. When filling or cleaning the
lantern, the box and pails are lifted
from the platform, and when filling
the pails, they are simply removed
from the holes. Popular Science
ORIGIN OF .MUSCOVY DUCKS
MACHINERY SAVES LABOR IN CUTTING WOOD
Buzz Saw Operated by a Gasoline Engine.
CPreparedj, by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Machinery is valuable in cutting fire
wood and is especially valuable now.
Machinery speeds up wood cutting,
and means more wood and therefore
more coal, saved.
A buzz saw or a drag saw will cut
several times as much wood in a day
as can be cut by hand and will do It
touch more easily. Woodsawing ma
hlnes are comparatively Inexpensive,
and when well cared for will last a
lotig time. On farms whlrh
gasoline engines or other sources
of power, little extra outlay is neces
sary. Most of the outfits may be op
erated by a. small number of men. Re
pairs and ' upkeep usually are mod
erate. The cot of cutting a cord of wood
with a buzz saw is approximately 20
cents. All-small trees and cord wood
can be cut readily with - a buzz and
circular saw, but logs above 10 to 12
inches In diameter can be cut best
with a drag saw, although the lattei
will not cut so rapidly. The sawinj
outfit may. be owned cooperatively a
may be , used for custom work. v
Raisin Pie. Mix two cupfuls of
steamed, seeded and chopped raisins.
tut; j u l v. c a ii u
rind and chopped !
pulp of one lem
on, one cupful of
cold water, one
third of a cupful
of sugar and one
beaten egg. Fill
the . crust dust
with flour, dot with bits of butter, cov
er vith lattice crust and bake.
Chicken a la King. Melt two table
spoonfuls of butter. In it cook one
fourth pound of fresh mushroom caps,
peeled and broken In. pieces, and half
a green pepper, cut in shreds ; stir and
cook until some of the . moisture is
evaporated. In another saucepan melt
two .tablespoonfuls of butter; in it
cook three tablespoonfuls of flour, half
a teaspoonf ul of salt and one-fourth
teaspoonful of paprika ; add one cu
ful of thin cream ; and ; one cupful of
chicken broth and stir until boiling j
beat in one egg yolk, beaten and mixed
with a teaspoonful of lemon juice, and
continue beating until the egg la
cooked. Do not allow the mixture to
boil; add the mushrooms and pepper
and three cupfuls if chicken, breast
preferably, cut in inch square pieces.
This dish may be prepared from cold
chicken but it, is best hot. freshly
Breaded Tomatoes. Take one can
of tomatoes, one cupful of boiling wa
ter, one tablespoonful of salt, a tea
spoonful of sugar and a dash of pep
per with a pinch of soda. . Bring to the
boiling point and put through a sieve.
Reheat and add crumbed bmii until
tWck. A more attractive way of serv
ing this same dish is to heat slices tf
bread until hot, butter generously and
fi ver with seasoned tomatoes
Corn Flake Griddle Cakes. Sift to
gether one cupful of pastry flour, one-
half teaspoonful of soda, two teaspoon
fuls of baking "powder and half a tea
spoonful of salt; add one cupful of
corn flakes. Beat one egg very light,
add a" cupful ;of thick sour milk, half
a cupful of sweet milk and two table
spoonfuls of shortening. Mix and hake
on a hot. well greased griddle.
Chowder of - Parsnips. Take one
quart of well scraped parsnips sliced,
one quart of quartered potatoes and
four onions quartered. Cover with wiv
ter, add salt and pepper and a four
inch cube of salt pork cut In bits; boll
ten minutes, then simmer without stir
ring until -well done.
Coits Stylish and Practical
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Breed Comes From South America
and Is Very Active They Are "
Useful for. Crossing.
The Muscovy breed of ducks origi
nated In South America. It is very
active. The; drake weighs from 11 to
12 pounds; the female only six to sev
en pounds."' The period of incubation
Is from 34 to 35 days. The standard
r.dmits two varieties white and col
ored Muscovy. They are used for
crossing to some extent, and. unlike
most ducks, are rather quarrelsome
with one another, and the drakes with
other poultry. They are cared for
Just as other ducks. The ducklings
are fed largely on ground food with
plenty of green stuff, which may be
put In the mash. Water should be
before all ducks constantly In such a
form that they cannot get Into .It
with their feet. Sand or coarse grav
el should ' be put In the feed once 8
day. All ducks must have a dry place
STUDY OF MARKET DEMANDS
Mixed Flocks Will Not Produce Uni
form Eggs or Meat, Most Deslr
i able for Consumer.
Every poultry raiser should make a
study of the market demands. A uni
form color of eggs and flesh In poultry
Is desirable. A mixed flock will not
produce uniform eggs or meat, and
eggs from such a flock are not desir
able for hatching.
SSENTIALS FOR HEN HOUSE
Keep Flock Comfortable by Furnishing
Good Ventilation, Fresh Air ,
House the flock comfortably; keep
houses dry and well ventilated, allow
ing plenty of fresh air and sunshlDe.
Remodel the old house stop cracks
and eliminate drafts.
Give hens a good straw litter tc
scratch In during the vlnter months.
t It used to be ihat, . to call a gar
ment "practical" as about equivalent
to calling it "conDaonplace." - but that
day has gone by. More and more the
Intangible elemetlt of style Is de
manded and commands a Very tangi
ble and substantial return In money.
The two coats hown In the picture
above will first ctch the eye because
of their - smart; tyler and then will
bear study as thoroughly practical.
The suppleness 'fi t the season's coat
ings makes It easji for designers to do
unusual things, ai in the'' coat shown
at the left of thetnicture. where odd
capelike extensio are set in at the
'sides and the b'vfly of the coat Is
joined to a deep jrke with many rows
of machine stltch3ig. Everything In
the model Is on a f jenerous scale, even
the handsome butns are extra large.
The very wide tthiffler collar wraps
about the ' throat sjn the . coziest man
ner possible - Xnfa less flexible uuh
terial these ideas yould not be carried
At the right of the picture there is
a very , smart bloused model, cut with
kimono body and sleeves Joined to a
full skirt under a wide, crushed belt
The wide collar Is gathered In at the
neck and turns over. The cuffs, collai
and bottom, of the skirt are embel
lished with large disks, about the size
of a silver dollar, which an Dear to
be made of, French knots In silk .floss,!
set tnickiy together. The body blouses
considerably and the entire design
is novel and chic. .Any of the soft
coatings will serve for coats like those
shown here, the velours, bollvlas, silver-1 raising ducks and geese, but who could
tones, and similar weaves that have I flm raising them profitable.
Be sure chicks
It is necessary, to save some of the
old hens for breeders.
, . V.
Ducks and geese can usually be
raised very economically on most
The wild breeds of turkey? are
known as the North American, Mexi
can and 'the Honduras..
There are many farmers not no
distinguished this season's wraps make
garments that are both practical and
stylish. - , . r
Young hens will pay web. for care
'and feed, but If they do not get good
treatment they will not produce mucn
profit .'' . V ;
Dampness Is always more dangerous
than cold, and that's why it Is so lm
portant to have the hen house Ugbt