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POLK COUNTY NEWS. TRYON, NORTH CAROLINA
He that has character need have no
fear of his condition. Character will
draw condition after it.
THE ODORIFEROUS BULB.
SMUTS ARE MOST DESTRUCTIVE TO CEREAL
CROPS IN ALL GRAIN-GROWING SECTIONS
s PAYS IW POULTRY
I Three Flocks of Leghorns
tl!l soecifically Value of ;
tht, United States Depart
ed of Agriculture.)
the value or pureurcu umies
, nuu-li in poultry raising as
U throe Iiociv. ui ib'w'oi f"-
Urates department of agricul-
Flock i..ine iiiuuutuuu
,h ( included in these records,
L,l of common hens : flock 2 was
V 1 v ' ft
eared White Leghorn Cockerel.
ml by breeding these hens to"
on males; flock 3 was produced
Mine flock 1 to a rooster from
ji-producing hen. The following
the original flock laid 89 eggs a
Iflock 2 laid an average of S3 eggs
; and flock 3 laid an average of
fas a hen. This, increase of 54
nt 'n one year tells very specifl-
he benefits of using a purebred
Rot the percentages alone do
11 the whole story, for a big pro-
nof the increase came at a sea-
May and Juner-when the produc-
ot flocks 1 and 2 was relatively
hi the prices were good.
For a meat substitute, if your fam
lly ls fond of onions, try these':
-Stuffed Onions With
Ham. Parboil as many
onions as will be need
ed; remove the centers
and fill with one-half
cupful of bread crumbs
and the same of. chopped
ham and tongue, or
either alone. Place the
stuffed onions in a nan
with onei cupful of stock or butter and
water, half a teaspoonful of salt and a
rew dashes of pepper. Bake until soft.
fcerve with a sauce made from the
gravy In the pan, adding flour and
butter and the yolk of an egg just be-
Stuffed Onions and Chestnuts. Pnr.
boil ten onions until ton Hot..
y VUt Uli
the tops and scoop out the centers.
Chop these fine, seasoning with salt
and pepper and chopped parsley; mix
with half a cupful of bread crumbs
and one-quarter gupful of melted but
ter. Put in a spoonful of the mixture
and three or four blanched chestnuts.
tnen another spoonful. Bake slowly,
basting with butter and hot water.
Baked , Onions and Cheese. Parboil
a half dozen even-sized onions, drain
and put a layer into a baking dish.
then cover with a layer of rich white
sauce and three or four tablespoonfuls
of cheese, grated or minced ; repeat
with another layer of onions, season
ing well with salt and paprika; cover
with the white sauce and cheese and
finish with a thick covering of but
tered crumbs. Bake until the crumbs
vmon aaiaa. unop one or more
Southern onions, mix with minced
parsley and French dressing, highly
seasoned with salt and cayenne. Serve
on head lettuce.
Onion Sandwich. Chop a mild onion
very fine; add vinegar, a little oil, salt
and pepper to taste. Spread on but
tered bread and serve as a Sunday
night lunch, after church.
Onion Soup. Take one cupful of
onion puree, that is cooked onion put
through a sieve. Mix one tablespoon-
ful of butter and flour together, add
three cupfuls of milk and when scald
ing hot stir In the puree. Cook for
a few minutes to cook the flour, add
a well beaten egg mixed with half
a cupful of cold milk and when hot.
not boiling, serve.
im CULLING PAYS WELL
PRINCE SLEET'S GREETINGS.
old King Snow, what's the
winter." said old King
long as you and I are
Stinking Smut of Wheat Grain From Treated and Untreated Seed.
ne Demonstration In Iowa County
p Hens Out of Flock of 1,54fi
poultry culling demonstiations
on the farms of the farm bureau
ers in Emmet county, Iowa, rec-
kept for eleven flocks showed
lens were-culleti out of a total of
in the flocks, according to the
h States department of agricr.l-
Tfctt average number of eggs
day by the entire flocks before
was 401.5, and the average
p of eggs laid a day by the 939
left after culling was 346.6. . The
pge number of eggs for ten hens
J before culling was 2.6; after
VZ, 3.5. The average number of
laid a day by 3G3 of the culled
which were not Immediately sold
True happiness To be ' truly happy
Is a question of how we begin and not
how we end, of what we want and not
of what we have. Stevenson.
GOOD THINGS FOR OCCASIONS.
5HING WILL INJURE EGGS
inous Film of Shell That Keep
it Air and Germs Is Removed-
Keep Nests Clean.
For a pretty and satisfying dessert
to be served on special occasions, try
Rice and Almond
one-half cupful of
almonds, cut in
thin strips, put in
a double boiler
with three cup
fuls of milk, one-
fourth cupful of
sugar and one-half teaspoonful
of salt ; when hot add one cupful of
well washed rice. Cook until the rice
Is tender: when ready to serve, fill
sherbet cups half full, put on a tea
spoonful of apple jelly, then fill with
whipped sweetened cream with an
other bit of jelly on top.
Prince of Wales Cake. Dark part-
Creara one half cupful of butter, add
one cupful of molasses, one-half cup
ful of strong coffee, sift one teaspoon
ful each of soda, nutmeg, cinnamon,
cloves, with two cupfulsbf flour. Add
three well beaten egg yolks and one
cupful of raisins.
Light part Cream one-half , cup of
butter, add one cupful of sugar gradu
ally. Mix and sift together one cupful
of flour with one-half cupful of corn-
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.!
Smuts caused an estimated loss in
1918 of 25,000,000 bushels of wheat,
110,000,000 bushels of oats, and 6,000,
000 bushels of barley in the United
States. These diseases, which are
among the most destructive that at
tack cereaj crops, occur to a greater
or less extent in all the grain-growing
sections of the country.
There are two knds of wheat smut.
the loose smut and the covered smut;
the latter is also called bunt or stink
Loose smut is found In practically
every wheat field. It is most serious
in the southern winter wheat section
southern Missouri, southern Illinois,
southern Indiana, southern Ohio,
southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir
ginia, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Throughout this general area the an
nual losses range from 3 to 5 per cent.
In many individual fields losses of 15
to 20 per cent are known. Outside
of this general region the damage due
to loose smut ranges from about 1 to
2 per cent.
Bunt, or stinking smut, also Is found
in the different wheat-growing areas
of the country. Commonly, the dam
age done by this smut is from 1 to 5
per cent of the crop. Frequently,
however, fields show losses which
range from from 20 to 40 per cent.
Several fields have been destroyed in
which the damage-amounted to 50 or
even 80 per cent.
How to Distinguish Smuts.
Loose smut shows up most strikingly
at the time when the wheat comes into
head. The diseased plant is found to
have the kernels and chaff replaced by
v uu it H
"Don't you sometimes appear in the
spring and in the fall?" asked Prince
"Oh, yes, but even then it is wintry.
wnicn is almost the same thing. And
the fact that you are here too makes
it most assuredly winter."
MHow fine you talk," said Prince
Sleet, "with your great words! You
must have been to school since I last
saw you." ,
"Ah, no," said old King Snow. "I
haven't been to school, but I've seen
so much of the children this year.
They've had a fine winter.
"They really like me, Prince Sleet,
and it flatters me. I must admit it, it
"Why, there's old King of the
Clouds, and I do believe there comes
old Mr. and Mrs. Hail and the Hail
children. They're such a fine family
wntovtD uinroxM ranmTioicja '
wheat Is docked more or less by tha
When smutty seed Is sown in the
soil the stinking smut spores germi
nate simultaneously with tlie wheat
kernels, and the smut fungus pene
trates the young wheat plant. It con
tinues to grow Within the tissues of
the wheat plant and forms its spores
in the place where the healthy kernels
should be developed.
Control of Loose Smut.
Loose smut ls very difficult to con
trol because the fungus fs inside of the
seed .which Is sown and hence can not
be reached by ordinary chemicals with
out killing the wheat embryo. The
disease, however, can be controlled by
the so-called hot-water treatment. The
method Involves soaking the seed grain
in cold water for 4 to 6 hours. It is
then dipped in hot water at a tempera
ture of 129 degrees Fahrenheit for 10
minutes; the seed should then be
spread out to dry.
It Is very important that the water
be kept at the exact temperature and
the seed immersed for just the cor
rect period of time. If the water is
allowed to get one or two degrees
"How Fine You Talk." .
relatives, you know, of the old Hail
family who've lived on this earth for
years and years and years.
"And there comes my good friend
Mr. Wind. Well, well, well! This is
nice!" And Prince Sleet looked happy
"Sure as I'm born," he continued,
"there is Prince Icicle and his beautl-
above the temperature indicated, or ;ul bride. Well, friends, Tm glad to
the time prolonged beyond the 10 min-f gee you all."
utes, considerable Injury to the grain
The hot-water treatment, on account
of its . difficulties, ls not practicable on i giad to .see you."
j "We heard you were coming," said
the King of the- Clouds, -and we
j thought we'd like to tell you we're
the average farm. One must have
an accurate thermometer and facilities
for keeping the temperature of the wa
ter constant. This can be done quite
easily where steam is available.
The Control of Bunt.
Bunt, or stinking smut, Is readily
"Well, now, that Is so nice, so ex
tremely nice I And I am so glad to see
all of my grood friends. How about a
little jollification? A little; party, eh?
Just the thing, Prince Sleet," said
the Hail family. "We remember dear
old Granny Hail dd your great
controlled by the use of formaldehyde, grandfather used to give the most glo-
Is? and hasten its spoiling. Exten
Division, North Dakota Agricul
S8 should not be washed as this
les the gelatinous film of the shell
tops out air and eerms. The
should be kept clean so that the
"111 have nn fhnr tn hommt
id as removing dirt by washing starch and two teaspoonfuls of baking
ttllw molds and trerms to enter Powder; aaa tne ary ingredients ai-
ternateiy witn one-nan cuprui oi miiK.
Cut and fold in the whites of three
eggs beaten stiff. Bake in layers. Al-
I ' ternate a dark with white layer when
P1 " I mittinc tnerether.
Luncheon Dessert. Pour lemon jelly
over orange sections, banana, pineap-i
pie and grapefruit. When molded serve
Fig or Date Pudding. Beat one egg,
separating tlie yolk and white, one-
' makes nn th hniir f ft half curjful of milk, six tablespoonfuls
.eeese, it is doubtful whether It of Ice water, one-third of a cup of but
I w raiSe them unless good grass ter, one cupful of flour, one and one-
ttVHl nh n J i 1 1 1 nnrvnnnfnla T nnin? IMlWIlPr.
-"""c uuriiiic me summer, i uuii.
one-half pound of flgs or aates, two
A simple procedure Is to place 1 pint
or 1 pound of commercial formalde
hyde In 40 gallons of water. The seed
to be treated should be freed as much
as possible from smut balls and other
foreign matter, and should then be dip
ped In the folmaldehyde solution and
rious storm parties anywhere around,
and so that folks wouldn't feel jealous
or hurt he'd go around and around to
many, many parts. You take right
Prince Sleet smiled a snowy, wet
Icy smile, which they all thought was
kept there about 10 minutes. During, very sweet and nice, and then he made
this period the sack shbuld be raised a lov bow.
e that has free
range on a
th oca on mo
and thnf i .
1 farm reason wny neg-
ven, fiooks lay wel1 summer
17 orl.v at other times.
found - bv ernerimpnt
Prove rtm t
: ffltQlreers that tn1lr birds are
breedY COrnparlson with sme
tablespoonfuls of molasses. Cream the
butter, which may be a butter substl
tute: add the egg yolk, molasses, part
of the flour, ice water, remainder of
flour with the baking powder, well
sifted. Add the ngs or dates -wmcu
have been cut in bits and rolled In
flour; lastly the white of egg beaten
stiff with a pinch of salt.
Beat one egg, add one-half cup of
sugar and half-cup of hot milk witn
flnvnrlne. Serve at once.
Cranberry JellVw Place three pints
of ripe cranberries In a granite sauce-
d - one-half ' Dints of
pan, uuu .... . .
cold water. Bring to the boiling point
&oo( lot . .. .
r1 Suited r 'urea pmiets
h. ... :r oarly ns are on
tons all L thy are nealthy anl
N ... r '? Quired to obtain msh the berries with a
fl Swl 18 tne right kind of "" Add two cupfuls of
granulated sugar (one pound), and boll
together for one minute Strain
i. ooA sfrnlner into a bowl
tnrougn a tyoiBv M1
rinsed In cold water. Set aside until
fhflA lrl J M ...
WH1 fiiM,7T MU OI ram tnaI
W Thh 811 the different
ly of paired to maintain
al8 Ornish k 8003 condItIon,
We niad material oi wmcu
Healthy Wheat Head and Smut Laden
black, sooty mass of dustlike par
ticles. These dust-like particles, tne
spores of the smut fungus, begin to
blow from the diseased head soon af
ter the latter emerges from the boot
These spores are carried by the wind
to neighboring sound heads which are
in bloom at the time; they lodge be
tween the glumes or chaff, where they
start growth immediately and pene
trate the newly forming kernels. When
these Infected kernels are ripe they
can .not be distinguished from sound
and lowered so as to stir up the grain
and get it thoroughly in contact with
the solution. After treatment the
grain should be. spread out to dry and
then sown as soon as possible. One
pint of formaldehyde solution, dis
solved in 40 gallons of water, is suffi
cient to treat about 40 bushels of seed
Another method of applying the
solution is to spread the grain to be
treated on a clean floor, and by means
of a sprinkling can sprinkle the solu
tion over the grain. The grain should
be shoveled over In order to get the
solution well in contact with the grain.
The solution should be applied at the
rate of about one gallon to one bush
el nf spat) era In. Thi crrnin should be
niiort nn and covered with sacks or way and that, to aasn against win
canvas and left for two or three hours, dow panes and into people's faces as
Tt Bhnnid then he snread out to drv they tried to catch eacn otner. iney
hid under a person s cnin or xney
"Well, old Wind, what do you say to
The wind cave a lone whistle, "I
should say I'd like it," he answered
So Prince Sleet led a chorus and
this ls what they sang:
Oh the winter snow, the winter snow.
Is fine, is fine Indeed.
And when the wind doth blow, the wind
Let us all follow his lead.
And we'll storm and we'll rave.
And we'll rush and we'll run.
And ourselves will not spare.
For we think It ls fun
To dash through the air.
The air so keen and cold
We love It more than gold."
After they had sung this song they
all started to play games, to rush this
and sown as soon as possible.
After treating the grain, great care
must be taken not to place It on a
floor or in sacks which are contami
nated with the bunt spores, or to sow
It In a drill which Is contaminated.
Bunt Problem of the Pacific Northwest
in tuc iavi . . f,,nf
stlnklne smut presents a very serloui " 1 7?'
would play tag. Oh, such games as
they played, such scrambling and such
tearing along and such racing and. such
And through it all the wind nowiea
and Prince Sleet howled and they sang
and roared too, "Keep It up, keep It
kernels, but they nevertheless contain I problem because of soil Infestation in
the smut fungus. Whin an infected
seed is planted and germinates the
smut plant within It also begins to
crow and develops within the growing
plant; when the plant begins to form
the head the developing tissues of the
grain and chaff are destroyed and the
smut fungus produces its spores,
Wheat heads infected with bunt are
readily distinguished a short time be
fore the wheat is ripe, although the
trained observer can detect the pres
ence of the disease several days be
fore. The heads of smutted plants
that region. During the thrashing of
a smutted crop the smut spores are
blown long distances over the fallowed
land, as summer fallowing for wheat
Is a, common practice. When the fall
rains occur, along about seeding time,
these spores In the soil germinate and
infect the young wheat plants as they
develop. On this account seed treat-
And when at last they were all tired
out everyone gave Vrlnce Sleet a vote
of thanks for coming to cheer them
up all but the earth people who said:
"Well, we're thankful that storm
seems to be over!"
The test of a resolution Is how It
will stand adversity. Some girls re-
ment is not entiely effective; but. as solve to be cheerful and they keeP
0"oi mio ' frh (v,nnpr Riiinhnta that resolution uii uiey
treatment gives much better results
than the formaldehyde.
The coDDer sulphate or bluestone
stand more erect 'on account of their -treatment consists in dipping the seed
lighter weight The chaff IS spread in a solution of copper sulphate, 1
jmart bv the swelling of the - enlarged pound of copper sulphate being dis
uAmAia t- cmnt halls, which sivG I solved in 5" eallons of water. After
Xixiotj ClUCW V. T - o I , -
the heads ft dark color. These smut I Immersion the seed ls dried or sown
balls contain a greasy, ; Ill-smelling I immediately. This Solution may 'cause
mass of smut spores." - considerable injury to the grain. Thl?
Tn thrashtnir Derations these smut J damage can be lessened greatly bj
balls are knocked out and' the head 1 dipping the seed, after removal fron:
r ieS hroken anarf and the the copper sulphate solution, in a solu-
I tun a- 1 nnnnri- of nnirklime to 10 I rise?
cm tit SDores scaueiwmw mc duuuu v. - - . .n w
kernels- such grain has a darker color gallons of water. The lime prevent. Butcher-Oh. yes; I want Twrtote
.BVdltirSl:.oor.due.toitlie. the continued Injurious. action, of thl here at four erery morntni.-Ainrl-
.on nt thA mmnt scores, smutty i copper suiyuuie. . i
nointed. Others resolve to oe nna,
and they live up to that resolution till
cAmothtnir occurs to Irritate them.
When everything Is favorable a reso
lution may be said to keep itself. The
test comes when things go wrong.
Girls Companion. - -A
Chance to Rise.
Bntcher I am in need of a boy
about your size. I would payyou $5
Applicant Will I have a chance to
wj tttiv. f. B. HTZWATKR, D.
Teacher of English Bible In the Moody
Bible Institute of Chicago.)
fCopvrtght. m. Wftm Newipipw CbIob)
LESSON FOR MARCH 7
JOHN. WRITES ABOUT CHRISTIAN
LESSON TEXT-I John 4:7-21.
GOLDEN TEXT Beloved, if God so
loved us. we ought also to love one an
other. I John 4:1L
ADDITIONAL, MATERIAL I John II
John, III John.
PRIMARY TOPIC-Lovlng One Another
JUNIOR TOPIC-Loving God andOur
J.1NT.L.KMEDIATE AND SENIOR TOPIC
How to Show Love for God and Ills
YOUNG PEOPLE AND ADULT TOPIC
Christian Love Upon Society.
I. The Origin of Love (vv. 7, 8).
Love is of God, for God Is love. God
not merely loves, but he is the foun
tainhead of. love. Love of country;
love of humanity, filial and parental
love, every particle of love everywhere
has been derived from God ; his love Is
infinite, eternal and unchangeable.
Since love ls of God, everyone who
loves is born of God and knoweth God.
The Christian, by his life of love, In
terprets God to the world. It ls not'
enough that the world should be tola
that God is good and kind, it should,
see his nature expressed in the life
and love of the dNeij.'e. The Chris-i
tian's life Is the world's Bible. Where
love is wanting, knowledge of God Is
II. God's Manifestation of Love (tt.
God's method of making known his
ove is through the incarnation the
sending of his only. begotten Son Into
the world to be the propitiation for
our sins (John 3:1?). The coming of
Jesus Christ Into the world and his
taking on human nature makes possi
ble life for those who receive him. If
we would know God's love, let ua look
at Jesus Christ Those who gaze upon
him in reverent contemplation cannot
doubt God's love.
III. The Supreme Motive of Love
God's love Is the grand Incentive
prompting his children to love.
IV. Love the Proof That God Dwells
With Us (vv. 12-16).
1. No man hath seen God at any
time (v. 12), but there is abundant
proof of his being. The one unmistak
able proof of his being Is love In the
-heart of man. Love is not native to
the human heart for the. heart U de
ceitful above all things and desperate
ly wicked (Jer. 17:9). Out of the
heart proceeds murder (Matt 15:19).
Love in the heart is proof that. God
dwells within. p ;
2. Love proves that God's Spirit la
withinus (vv. 13-16). The fruit of the
Spirit is love (GaL 5:22). God's Spirit
dwells within his children. Xhe in
dwelling Spirit shows us Christ and
makes us believe in him as God's Son,
the Savior of the world. Those In
whom God dwells will always make
this confession. Those who deny the
Deity of Chklst have no fellowship
with God, and those who have fellow
ship with God will confess Christ as
his Divine Son.
V. Love's Relation to the Judgment
(w. 17, 18).
It casts out fear. A Judgment day Is
coming, for God hath appointed a day
In which he will Judge the world In
righteousness by tttat man whom he
hath ordained (Acts 17:31). It will be
a terrible thing for those unprepared
to meet God at that time, but fox
those who are indwelt by the living
God there will be a Joyful meeting. He
that dwelleth in God and God in him
will realize the perfection of love In
a. V .A a. -a m m . a
Doianess in oa oz judgment, De
cause as he is so are we in this world
(w. 16, 17). The way to get rid' of
the fear of meeting God in the judg
ment ls to be living with God now.
VI. God's Love the Ground of Alt
Love (v. 19).
The reason we love ls that our Uvea
have come into touch with the great
fountalnhead of love. JThe incoming
of God's being and nature becomes the
animating and controlling principle of
our lives. The one In whom love Is
not the master principle does not
know God. '
VII. The Child of God Possesses
Dual Love (v. 20).
The proof that one loves the unseen
God is that he loves the person visible
who bears the likeness and Image of
God, and has become a member of the
same family through the redemption
In Christ Jesus. Love to God and man
ls united in the one breast of the
Christian. The one who hates his
brother while pretending to love God
is a liar.
VIII. The Solemn Command From
God (v. 21). ,
. God commands that those who love
him should love their brethren Obe
dience to this command will eliminate
all war and contentions. ...
Life is made up, not of great sacrl-.
flees or duties, but of little things. In
which . smiles and kindness, the small,
obligations given habitually, are what
preserve the heart and secure com-.
fort Sir LL Davy.
Our Great Blessing.
There is nothing that makes mora
for human happlaess than the simple
fact that some one needs us, that
some task Is holding us fast We may
ignorantly think of it as a burden, bet
It la our great blessing.