Friday, January 16, 1959
J!.G4ut 0^ Milk awl
Romania: as seen by Iosif Dolezal, First
Romanian Secretary to the United States.
Romania, land of sparkling waters and fun-
loving people, transformed from the oppressive
days of the monarchy when the king and his
mistress captivated the rich landowners, and
•spent years of revelry, allowing the more than
forty monopolies owned by the bourgeoisie to
strangle the economy of the country and ignor
ing the feudal conditions among the peasants,
40% of whom were illiterate. Romania, which
was forced to endure the Nazi occupation by
their ne^w king, Michael, a mere hoy.
August 23, 1944. Glorious day of the masses’
overthrow of the Nazis, an armed uprising of
the Communist party members, against the
PMscist dictatorship. ’ A period of nationalistic
revival, getting ready . . . and then, 1947, and
the monarchy is abolished.
The Romanian People’s Republic. Already
the land has been redistributed to the sup
porters of the revolution, the peasants. But
now comes the second stage: Socialism. The
banks become state-owned. The economy is
nationalized. Down with the strangling mono
polies and the self-interestpd foreign capital.
Socialism is successful in the industry. Prom
what was once a backward, agarian country,
to deriving 50% of the income from industry.
All of this money goes to the people. For
now there are no classes. No landowners, no
bourgeosie Intellectuals are present, but they
are merely peasants of the higher intellects
(I presume). Compulsory schools for seven
years of education are required. Illiteracy
was completely abolished in 1945. The people
are on their way up. 50% of the students of
the state universities have state scholarships.
National minorities (Hungarians, Ceczhs) have
schools in their mother tongues, with their own
histories. There are twenty-one Scientific In
stitutes, with 2500 scientific researchers. Al
ready there is an atomic reactor.
The National Assembly is a place for the
people to suggest improvements. 48% of the
deputies are members of the party. The others
do not belong to any political party: “What
is important is not their political affiliation,
but whom they represent.” Criticism expres
sed in the newspaper constantly points out
mistakes the leaders have made; they cannot
long get away with mistakes in applying So
cialism. No one questions the principle of
Socialism upon which the government is based;
do Americans question the desirability of De
Has the government been unsuccessful? To
a certain extent, in socializing agriculture.
The country did not have the facilities to
produce the necessary tractors, and other
machines. Mechanization must move slowly,
but as the industry expands, collectivized
farms will also. Already the production rates
on the state farms have proved to be 20-50%
higher than on private plots. Time is a neces
What about Hungary? Not against the prin
ciple of socialism, but against mistakes which
the government had made in applying their
theories. The government had made mistakes.
But this exuberant unrest among the students
was exploited by what were obviously forces
planning a fascist dictatorship Many of the
refugees who have fled were the former land-
owners, and naturally it is not the govern
ment’s wish to please these people.
What are the aims? To equal in a relatively
short time the advanced stage of the other
socialist states. Does mean exclusion of non
socialist states from any contacts? Definitely
not. There must be peaceful co-existence—no
economic affiliations, even with the U. S. S. R.
unless this can quickly be repaid. But cul
turally, we welcome Americans. In 1958 there
were 500 to 600 tourists. The Philadelphia
Orchestra came, an American painting exhibit
—seen by 230,000 people. Naturally not all
of your culture, though. (The American Sol
By Susan Foard
Published every Friday of the College year
by the Student Body of Salem College
OFFICES—Lower Floor Main Hall
Downtown Office—414 Bank St., S. W,
Printed by the Sun Printing Company
Subscription Price—$3.50 a year
Editor-in-chief Jean Smitherman
Associate Editor Mary Jo Wyhne
News Editor Nancy Jane Carroll
Feature Editor Erwin Robbins
Managing Editor Susan Foard
Copy Editor Sallie Hickok
Headline Editor Sarah Ann Price
Advertising Manager Rosemary Laney
Circulation Manager Becky Smith
Asst. Business Manager —Betsy Gilmour
Columnists; Sandy Shaver, Mary Jane
Faculty Advisor Miss Jess Byrd
Typists -Irene Noel, Joanne Doremus
Asst. Advertising Manager ... Lynn LIgon
Castro Asks Cuban Unity;
Promises Free Elections
‘ By Sue Cooper
Fidel Castro took command in Cuba last week with a tumltous we -
come by his people. The warships m the harbors sounded a ,
salute /nd throngs mobbed him in the streets. He appealed ^ationa^
unity and support to show the world the civic spirit of the Cuban
^^Eve^nts have taken place rapidly since the New Year’s Day victory for
the rebels. A Provisional Government has been proclaimed with ur.
Manuel Urrutia Lleo as President and Castro as “Delegate of the Presi
dent to the Armed Forces.” It was announced that constitutional
guarantees suspended by Batista would be restored, including freedom
of the press. . . ,
The Cuban Congress has been dissolved and all mayors, governors,
and other officials under Batista have been removed. Free elections
have been promised after 18-24 months rule by decree from the Pro*
visional Government. The new Goyernment has won international
recognition and the believed pro-Batista U. S. Ambassador, Earl
Smith, has resigned. -i, , u
The New Government does face some problems and these will not be
settled so rapidly. Castro forces face a much depleted treasury. Batista
and his followers in the last seven years in power got from 200 million
to a billion dollars. When Batista pulled out with his loot, the gold
and dollar reserves behind the Cuban currency went way down. Govern
ment assets are frozen and nobody can take more than $250 out of
Cuba. The sugar crop going to market should bring in new cash, but
it will be slow coming in because of battle damage to railroads, bridges,
roads, and power lines (89 railroad bridges are out). ^ Workers may
become dissatisfied, and Castro may have to call on Washington for help.
Social and economic reforms will be two of the biggest problems.
Castro will be expected to satisfy the people who supported him, and
no doubt, the public will expect miracles.
Another problem is that of the tourist trade. It has been hard hit
by the revolution, and the tourist business is second only to the sugar
industry. Recovery may take place when things settle down again.
As in every situation the Communists also present a problem. The
Communists have been underground for years and have come to light
with the revolution. They want recognition for the part they played in
the revolt. The new President has expressed his opposition to the Com
munists, but he has also said he wants fairness for all groups. ■ In the
recent reorganization of the governing body of the biggest labor con
federation, the Communists got five out of eighteen posts.
Just what direction Castro and his new government will take remains
to be seen. Much will depend on his skill as a leader in peacetime now
that the smoke of revolution has died down.
Salemites treked back to “the square” with suitcases and boxes full
of Santa’s loot. New furs were paraded to the dining rbom Sunday
afternoon, new record collections became old familiar albums as the “hi-
fi” or “sterro” set daddy bought you rejects and plays and rejects and
replays and new luggage will soon be packed to run back home between
be top-heavy with foreign students! Agnes and Katherine are moving
in with the seniors after exams. Agnes was a little dubious about taking
The faculty has its sweet memories of Chris'tmas, too. Mrs. Hixson
and Dean Heidbreder spent their free hours together on tlie island of
Nassau while “the Globetrotting” Miss Battle divided her busy schedule
between Nassau, Atlanta, Miami, and New York City. Mr. Pete’s un
usually wide grin is evidence that “St. Nick” brought a special package
to the Peterson’s household—a new baby boy.
Enough of this “remembering.” Forgetting those things that are
past, I must press forward . . .” Looks as if Bitting Dorm is going to
the roo mthat was given her because she claimed, “the beds are too
soft.” Katherine complained that it wasn’t so much the beds were too
soft—but certainly they are too big. It will be refreshing to live with
these girls, their complaints are so unusual. Most Salemites can hardly
keep themselves on what they term “these narrow cots” and most as
suredly the last thing some girls would say is that the springs that poke
you in the ribs when you squirm—are soft.
I rather hesitantly (tongue in cheek) mention new jewelry collections.
Jerome Moore, Noel Vosseler, Nancy Neese, and Mary Ann Townsend
have spent considerably too much time watching the glittering stone on
their “third finger left hand.” Mary Louise Lineberger has now taken
on the sapre problem peculiar to all “pinned females”—the job of pro
perly placing and replacing a little jeweled object on everything she
owns. Miss White, naturally distinguished herself as the one faculty
member who is engaged but Audrey Kennedy, Mignon Ross, and Pat
Lomax went the second mile and tied “the proverbial knots”. Ladies
Is There Hope Bor
Freedom In Russia?
if you need any helpful household hints see the college Home Economics
Most men are so unoriginal when it comes to giving their sweet
heart’s presents, but Clarice Long’s male friend is to be highly com
mended for his originality. Wonder what tender little thought motivated
him to send Clarice an alligator from the Everglades ? Clarice is frantic.
Salem offers courses Jn child care, child development—but what of the
girl who has an alligator to rear? Mr. Campbell sympathetically recom
mended Clarice bring the “wee beast” to his lab for a good dose of
chloroform. Until Clarice finds a better solution to her problem, you
will probably find her in Lehman dormitory reading article on' “the
proper diet for baby alligators”.
“Around the Square” purposely has that light tone for depressed
Salemites who are dreading next Thursday. We will all be permanently
“around the square”—so sit back, relax, and cram for all you’re worth—
this may be your last opportunity to pass.
“Best wishes to you . . .”
By Sarah Ann Price p
INSIDE RUSSIA TODAY, written by Johji’
Gunther after his recent visit there, is an in.'
formative and fascinating study of contem.!
porary Russia, its people, their social life, the'
political system under which they live and,'
that system’s effect on the economic situation,
within the country.
Socially, in Russia the people are freer now'
than at any time under Joseph Stalin. When
they are dissatisfied, the people grumble openlyi
and as long as it isn’t about anything political,,
they are astonishingly free with criticism.
Another aspect of the new freedom in Rus-i
sia today is seen in the amount of travel,
within the country. A few years ago, the'
people were not allowed to travel. Now
families take vacations to various parts of the]
country with little or no trou|)le. The main^
difficulty in traveling today is that the modes
of travel are somewhat limited. Cars are still
scarce although production has been stepped
up greatly and there are long waiting lists
for those who wish to buy cars. Also, a
driver’s license is extremely hard to obtain in
Russia. Among other requirements in getting
a driver’s permit, one must prove that he or
she can take apart and put together an auto
The Russian people are also hungry for
reading material of any kind. Bookstores are
invariably packed. A story is,told of a Rus
sian author who had an autograph party at a
Moscow bookstore. In a matter of a half hour
every one of his books was sold. The author
then began autographing any book in the store
including biology books and highly technical
physics books. These too, were sold in re
I was surprised to learn that English is
taught in the Russian schools. One of the
reasons for its being taught is evident, how
ever, in this paragraph from Mr. Gunther’s
book. He describes his visit to a fifth grade
“ . . . I managed to get a quick look
at a textbook. One story was called
“Black Jimmie,” and described the
adventures of a Negro boy in the
American South. Black Jimmie lives
in Niggertown. His father is out of
work. Jimmie is very hungry, and he
is not allowed to go into the “white
man’s city.” He shivers, sleeping on
the floor. Jimmie must be out in the
street at eight o’clock. At that time
the workers’ demonstration against
the factory will begin. Jimmie’s
father was the first in line . . .”
Khrushchev the present party boss in Russia,
is as ugly and fat as he appears in his pictures.
He is also witty and somewhat of a rogue and
is known for speaking out as he pleases. For
instance, when a visiting delegation at a party
commented that so many Russian women work,
Khrushchev replied: “Yes, our women work,
and they are honest women — not like the
women in France who are all whores!” Not
a very diplomatic comment, to say the least.
Some people have the mistaken idea that
Khrushchev is a perpetual drinker of Vodka.
While he does like to imbibe, he can never be
called an alcoholic.
Communism is a way of life in Russia just
as Democracy is the basis of our American
way of life. The Russian people do not know
about democracy. However, they are becom
ing curious. This curiosity, it is hoped (bj
the free world), will lead to the gradual en
lightenment of the Russian people to the con
cept of democracy—and of freedom. Perhaps
this is what is beginning to happen “insidf