SEE YOU IN
Salem College, Winston-Salem, N. C., Wednesday, October 15, 1969
See Page 4
Vietnam Chronology —
A History Of Struggle
War Solution Complicated By
Varied Strategies, Objectives
By Joy Bishop
The United States’ course in Vietnam
becomes clearer if one compares it with U
Iriiant's original 3-point plan for peace. At
his press conference on January 28, the
^Secretary General noted that two of the
Ifcoints have been put into effect—the bomb
ing of the North had ended and talks among
ftll the p a r ti e s involved had begun. U
-^hant’s third point was a gradual de-escala
tion of the fighting. Instead of de-escalat-
ng in response to the considerable de-
scalation on the other side, we have been
stepping up both ground and aerial action
in the South.
It is now becoming clearer that Johnson
acted a sharp price when he ended the
_'Ombing of the North. He imposed severe
restrictions on enemy activity while making
^it possible for us to increase ours.
The Nixon Administration seems to be
■srrying on the strategy of Johnson’s. This
strategy has two elements. The first is to
reaten resumption of the bombing in the
Orth if the other side should resume sub
stantial shellings from the DMZ or should
attack the larger cities. The second is to
ihe advantage of these military limitations
the other side to move considerable
forces from the northern part of South
Vietnam where they have been on guard
gainst a possible invasion from the DMZ.
The bombing of the North ended Novem-
er 1. The escalation from our side began
It the same time. In the three months fol
lowing the end of the bombing, more than
2,000 Americans lost their lives.
The premise of negotiations is that neither
ide can win a military victory. If we are
*i*Sotiating, why go on killing? If we hope
achieve our aims in South Vietnam by
step-up in the killing, why negotiate ?
he Cynical answer is that the negotiations
serve as a smokescreen. Neither the U. S.
ilitary nor the Saigon regime ever wanted
to negotiate. The Paris talks for them only
ake it easier to continue the war. There
s a steady flow of optimistic stories from
^■gron on how well the war is now going.
It is clear from the recent statements of
President Nixon at the United Nations and
Generals Thieu and Ky in Saigon that the
United Nations and South Vietnamese gov
ernments are now running into a serious
crisis over their divergent objectives in the
The main difference between them is that
Nixon says he is fighting for what the
South Vietnamese people want, and this
cannot be ascertained without free and fair
elections which Thieu and Ky oppose.
The dilemma can be reduced to a simple
formula: no coalition, no elections; no gen
uine test of the will of the people; and no
By Dr. Errol Clauss
1863-1893 French colonial takeover of Viet
nam, Cambodia and Laos to form French
1908, 1916 Abortive revolts against French.
1914-1918 90,000 Indochinese soldiers and
workers participate in World War I on
side of France.
1919 Ho Chi Minh refused audience with
Woodrow Wilson at Paris Peace Con-
ference.Sought greater Vietnamese polit
ical participation /within the French Em
1920 Ho Chi Minh becomes founding mem
ber of French Communist Party.
1927 Viet Nam Nationalist Party organized.
1940 Japan forces Vi c h y government of
Indochina to allow movement of Japanese
into northern Vietnam to surround Na
tionalist China. U. S. protests, but does
May, 1941 Ho Chi Minh’s Communists create
broadly based front organization to chal
lenge both French and Japanese—the Viet
July, 1941. Japanese troops occupy southern
Vietnam, thus threatening stragic areas of
Southeast Asia. U.S. begins economic
pressure upon Japan that will lead to
attack on Pearl Harbor.
1944 Franklin Roosevelt suggests that Indo
china be internationalized after World
War II, rather than returned to France.
During World War II, Viet Minh guer
rillas cooperate with American forces be
hind Japanese lines.
Spring, 1945 Japanese disarm French and
declare Vietnam independent under Em
peror Bao Dai.
September, 1945 As World War II ends in
Asia, Ho Chi Minh proclaims the Dem
ocratic Republic of Vietnam at Hanoi.
Bao Dai abdicated in favor of Ho govern
Late 1945 Nationalist China occupies north
ern Vietnam to receive surrender of Jap
anese, but does not disturb the Vietnamese
government. Britian occupies southern
Vietnam, but allows French military forces
to recapture political power.
1946 France initially recognizes Ho’s gov
ernment as a “free state within the French
Union.” Misunderstandings lead to fight
ing between the French and the Viet
Minh. Beginning of the first Indochina
War which would last until 1954.
1948 To undermine the Ho Chi Minh gov
ernment, the French create a rival State
of Viet Nam headed by Bao Dai (within
the French Union).
1949 Mao Tse-tung’s Communist Party wins
Chinese Civil War and ousts Nationalist
Government. U.S. now views the French
war in Indochina as an anti-communist
struggle, rather than an anti-colonial
1950 U.S. recognizes State of Viet Nam and
agrees to provide indirect military aid
through the French.
Va. Schools Undecided
How To Participate
Students Seek Observance of Oct. 15
Campuses across the state of Virginia
stand divided, as does the nation, on the
question of how the “Vietnam Moratorium”
will be observed if at all. At the University
of Virginia the student council voted to
participate in the observance of October 15;
they ask now that classes be suspended for
the day. However, Young Americans for
Freedom conservatives have threatened vo
prosecute the University if classes do not
run as scheduled.
Some members of the student body at
Old Dominion University say they will
observe the day on the steps of the federal
courthouse in Norfolk, reading the names
of those who have died in Vietnam. In
contrast, officials at Virginia Common
wealth University say classes will be held
as usual, no matter what students are plan
A final course of action has not beer,
reached yet. President Edgar F. Shannon
in Charlottesville has not commented on
the University plans although some faculty
members, including eight department heads,
have emphasized their support of the
moratorium by signing a statement and en
couraging students to join them in their
October 15 discussion. Editors of the stu
dent newspaper, who have called the war
“demonstrably outrageous on a moral basis
and exceedingly stupid on a diplomatic and
military level,” are backing the professors
and seeking Shannon’s “serious considera
tion” of the matter. The Student Senate at
Old Dominion is supporting free debate on
October 15, giving the professors the option
of cancelling classes as many have done.
But teachers in the technical departments
have expressed opposition to this plan.
Virginians are turning the question over
in their minds. Until the day of protest,
October 15, arrives, who can predict what
action will ensue on the college campuses
from Richmond Times Dispatch
Friday, October 3, 1969
1951 U.S. economic aid to State of Viet Nam.
1954 U.S. decides not to intervene militarily
in support of the French war effort in
Indochina. French suffer decisive defeat
by Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu.
Geneva Conference on Indochina—Bri
tain, USSR, France, U.S., China (Peking),
Vietnam (Hanoi), Cambodia, Laos, Viet
nam (Saigon). France sought a negotiated
settlement. Peking and Moscow urged
acceptance of settlement upon the Viet
Ninh. The U.S. is quite unenthusiastic
about a negotiated settlement.
Vietnam temporarily partitioned
into a northern (Hanoi) and
southern zone (Saigon) for the
purpose of disengaging military
forces. Elections to be held in
1956 for unification.
Neither side was to allow for
eign troops, bases or alliances in
its zone. French remained in
southern Vietnam until 1956.
U.S. agrees to refrain from
use of force to disturb Geneva
1955 U.S. begins direct military aid to Sai
gon government and American military
advisors begin training South Vietnamese
North Vietnam offers to begin discus
sions about elections, but South Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims Republic of
Vietnam (Saigon) and becomes President.
1956 Diem government moves militarily
against political-religious sects that oppose
National elections provided for in Gen
eva Accords not held.
French leave South Vietnam.
1957 International Control Commission re
ports that neither Saigon nor Hanoi has
lived up to the Geneva Agreements.
Armed insurgency becoming serious in
1959 Supporters of Diem government con
trol National Assembly. Authoritarian
government. Lack of land reform.
1960 Opponents of Diem regime demand
political and economic reforms.
U. S. announces increase in number of
military advisors from 327 to 685.
Sept. Hanoi sanctions formation of Na
tional Liberation Front in South.
Nov. Army coup against Diem put down.
Dec. National Liberation Front (Viet
Cong) created in South by former Viet
Minh and other dissident groups.
1961 Pres. Kennedy declares that U. S. will
do all it can to save South Vietnam from
communist insurgency. Pres. Diem rules
by decree because of national “emergency”.
1962 American military “advisors” increase
1963 Buddhist demonstrations against Diem
government. Martial law proclaimed. Uni
versity and high school demonstrations
Nov. President Diem overthrown and
murdered by South Vietnamese Army.
Military government suspends constitution
and dissolves Assembly.
1964 American advisors increase to 17,000.
No organized units of North Vietnamese
Army in South, although agents worked
with Viet Cong guerrillas.
August U. S. destroyers Maddox and C.
Turner Joy attacked by North Vietnamese
torpedo boats under mysterious circum
stances in Tonkin Gulf. U. S. air strikes
against North Vietnam.
Pres. Johnson seeks congressional en
dorsement of a policy of escalation. Ton
kin Gulf Resolution authorized President
to “take all necessary measures to repel
any armed attack against the forces of the
United States and to prevent further
aggression.” Johnson regards the resolu
tion as a blank check for open-handed
escallation of the war. Congress later re
grets hastiness of resolution and unclear
circumstances surrounding it.
1965 Feb. U. S. base at Pleiku attacked by
Viet Cong. Johnson orders retaliatory air
attacks on North Vietnam.
March Opening of sustained air attacks
on North Vietnam and against Viet Cong
guerrillas in South Vietnam. 27,000 Ameri
can troops in South. About 4(X) North
Vietnamese troops in South.
June. U. S. troops openly committed to
combat in South Vietnam. 165,000 Ameri
can troops in South Vietnam by late 1965.
(Continued on page 2)