3ALCM COLLhG^ LIBRARY WINSTON-SALEM. N. & Volume LIV Salem College, Winston-Salem, INI. C., Monday, October 30, 1972 Number 11 Life Conceived in Lab Test Tube Babies? Just imagine, people used to carve jack o’lantems out of turnips— the Great Pumpkin would be offended! I Celts Originated Halloween Custom The tradition of Halloween arises from a medieval celebra tion of the Celts honoring Octo ber 31st as All Hallows, the eve of All Saints Day. In the Celtic calendar October 31st was the eve of the new year. Conse quently, the festival marked the beginning of winter and paral leled the May Day celebration held at the start of summer, which heralded the arrival of the only season in the Celtic year. On All Hallows, the Celts be lieved the souls of deceased rela tives revisited their homes to witness the advent of the new year. Every home rekindled its hearth fire as a symbol of new life and warmth for the ap proach of both the coming year and the cold months ahead. Thus, fire rituals were intimately associated with the celebration. Since November brings in the gloomiest and most barren half of the year, this autumnal cele bration assumed a sinister as pect, primarily the idea of ghosts, demons, and as pre viously mentioned the return of dead souls, as apparitions haunt ing the air. The Celts felt it was necessary to pacify the supernat ural forces controlling the pro cesses of nature and responsible for the death of all verdant plants. Evidences of sacrificial rites have survived from this past age. now.” It was then thought if the girl peered over her left shoul der, she might see an apparition of her future spouse. In divining the possibility of good luck in the coming year apples, the sa cred symbols of early Celts, were employed. Any person who succeeded in pinning an apple with a fork in a basin of water or in extracting this apple from the tub by his teeth was destined to have a lucky year. Halloween, having its origins in such a pagan atmosphere has now become a time for all chil dren to enjoy themselves and let their true nature as “little de- inons” show through. Irish immigrants introduced secular Halloween antics to the United States. In the 1800’s boys overturned outhouses and threw rotten apples at wood sheds. The jack o’lantern, sym bol of Halloween, was originally a carved turnip rather than the native pumpkin which appears in every American window. All information drawn from the 1971 edition of Encyclope dia Britannica, vol. II, p. 15. An av/esome event is about to be consummated: human con ception in a test tube. Indeed, Robert G. Edwards of Cambridge University’s Phy siology Department has already done it. That is, he’s taken an egg from a woman’s egg sac by inserting a needle-like laparo scope through her navel, united the egg with a sperm cell in a glass dish, then nurtured the re sulting embryo through more than 100 divisions. Now, however, in a hospital in Manchester, England, Ed wards is going to carry the con ception process to completion by reimplanting the embryo, again with the laparoscope, through the navel into the wo man’s uterus. Nine months later, if all goes well, she will give birth to the world’s first human baby conceived in vitro. The mother will be one of fif ty volunteers, all of them doc tors, doctors’ wives, or nurses. These would-be-mothers are ster ile because of blockages in their oviducts, which make it impossi ble for the ovum (egg cell) to make contact with sperm. In spite of these mothers’ wishes, even longings, for the ex perience of giving birth, some first-rate scientists have publicly called for the stoppage of Ed wards’ experiments. Harvard’s James (“Double Helix”) Watson calls in vitro conception “an abominable act.” Max Perutz, an English Nobel laureate bio chemist, says that the “whole nation should decide whether or not these experiments should continue.” These scientists are worried that the child will be born with deformities - remem ber thahdomide? - and that this will create a revulsion against all science. They’re more worried that the experiment, if success ful, will bring the “Brave New World” of genetic engineering upon us before we’re ready to cope with it. The Anglo-Saxons continued this Celtic celebration, adding the practice of divination. Octo ber 31st was believed to be the most favorable night in the en tire year for this art of foretel ling the future. Children born on All Hallows supposedly pos sessed a special power for con versing with aerial spirits. One could employ this art to discern whom he would marry during the year, whether it would be a lucky year, and whether the year held death or good health. It was the only day in which one was allowed to evoke the devil as an aid in divining these matters. Marriageable young women planted hemp seed in furrowed land at midnight on All Hallows repeating the following phrase: Hemp seed I sow, who will my husband be, let him come and Come, En|oy Funkin' Festival by Winn Currie Pumpkin Day hits Salem Col lege in the biggest sort of way. Through the efforts of IRS, APRIL ARTS, the Y and 2,000 says “salute' to Halloween. In terclub Council even throws in a Horror House, complete with Ann Moore. In addition to students, facul ty and their spouses and off- consenting Moravian ghosts, Hal- spring, there will be several other loween will definately be worthy little goblins, as the Y treats for getting out of bed for on Tues- ty children from a nearby orph- (jgy anage to a real Halloween. After IRS kicks off the way at 4:00 joining in the festivities in the P.M. with ftin and refreshments Square, the Y will take these lit- in the Square. Shortly before the Moravian Blessing, APRIL ARTS intervenes with a pumpkin carve- —byop. After a ghoulishly gourmet delight in the bubbling campus cauldron, things begin to haunt again in the Square. With Pumpkin Lighting, apple bob bing, Pumpkin caroling and oth er fun and games, APRIL ARTS tie Pumpkin People to the recep tion rooms of the dorms trick or treating. Legends have it that some pretty strange things happen to people who don’t take Pumpkin Extravaganza seriously. Be safe- Come to Salem Square Tuesday, October 31. You don’t know what you might see. Aldous Huxley, in Brave New World, predicted that we will use genetic engineering to create ar mies of identical humans who would live in a genetically deter mined hierarchy. In such a world there is no such thing as indi vidual freedom - although there is efficiency, sufficiency, and even happiness. The complexity of problems that genetic engi neering will bring can be glimpsed in Perutz’s own state ment: the whole nation should decide the behavior of an indi vidual, in order to prevent a Brave New World, a world in which the behavior of the indi vidual is decided ahead of time. The cmx of the issue is, who is to decide a person’s behavior? We would like people to be self- determining, but at the same time we’d like them to co-oper ate with each other. The conflict between these two wishes is the basis of most of our problems. Because this conflict would be minimized if we were all biolog ically identical, many thinkers believe that the very existence of methods to bring about bio logical identity is likely to lead quite quickly to their being used to this end. We object to unifor mity because we do not believe in the genuineness of the self- determination of identical enti ties. But there are other things we could do with genetic engineer ing. We could use it to create greater self-determination in a world where more meaningful cooperation is possible. It may be enlightening to list some of the things that genetic engineer ing is likely to be able to accom- pHsh in the not-too-distant fu ture: Amniocentisis: prenatal sam- phng of the amniotic fluid around the fetus has already be gun. By this method some gene tic defects can be detected and therapeutic abortion recom mended. Many parents regard this as a gain in self-determina tion - for themselves, and in the long mn for society. Gene therapy, modifying genes, adding genes, subtracting genes, either before birth or af ter. A gene has already been suc cessfully added to human cells in tissue culture, so it is clear that this affects not just future generations but the present one as well. And this forces us to ask questions such as. What genes do we want? To what extent should individuals be allowed to choose what genes they add or subtract? If the past is any guide, there will be fads, fashions, fraterni ties, and rivalries in “gene appar el”. Of course this is quite futur istic - but we may well live to see it because early gene therapy may halt aging and extend our lifespans. Cloning: making a replica of an individual from one of its cells. This may seem far out, but it’s already been done with frogs. It’s the obvious way to make Huxley’s army of identical entities. But it may be possible to use a modified form of clon ing to grow, in tissue culture, just an organ necessary for trans plant. It could be grown quickly by the use of growth hormones, or it may be possible to store organs in some way. In any case there would be no rejection pro blem, because one’s clone organ would be genetically identical to one’s own organs. Self determination is surely enhanced if one has some choice not only in one’s life style but in one’s body — or even brain - style. Cooperation that is neces sary for adopting a particular body (or brain) style is certainly a deeper cooperation than what is now possible. As for the in vitro conception issue. I think it is similar to the abortion issue, in which the burning question is, “Does a wo man have the right to deter mine what is done with her body? ” When gene therapy be comes available, the question will be, “Does a person have the right to determine what is done with his or her body? ” We had better, at least, talk about it now. Plays by Mary Dorsett Unfortunately, we will not be able to send you back to your childhood, but we will be able to send you back to your dorms chuckling. This fall the Pierrette Players have chosen three comi cal one-act plays; “Twelve Pound Look” by Sir James M. Barrie, “Fumed Oak” by Noel Coward, and “The Marriage Pro posal” by Anton Chekov. Each of these plays depicts a man caught in a situation that is de termined by the women around him. How each one of the men finally comes out is different in each play. Brant Godfrey is con fused by Lynda Cassanova and Holly Crum with Peggy Whit tington helping in “Twelve Pound Look.” Sally Burnett, Laura Boone and Zel Gilbert dominate Brian Meehan in “Fumed Oak.” To finish off the evening Meg Hutchins and Ann Aultman infuriate Vinney Whitt. We will all be waiting for you in the Drama Workshop on Novem ber 1, 2, and 4 at 8:00 and at 7:30 on Friday, November 3. See you soon! INFO IRS DANCE Friday, November 3 American Legion Post on Miller St. (near Cloverdale Ford) Music by: “Mainstream” 1'; ; 1 '.:i BYOB til 12:30

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