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LMt week we began our search
into Ike development of Native
American art la Ike Eastern
Woodlands We saw that creations of
fine an (in ike form of carved and
polished nose otUul weights and
"effigy beads") date bnck at leaM 3,000
years before fee bine of Christ We
also saw tkat artwork became more
frequent and more elaborate in t"***?
cultures as the centuries went by.
One of the moat expressive ait
forms la ike ancient Eastern
Woodlands was tke pipe. The
smoking pipe seems to have been
associated very early, perhaps even
from Ike very beginning of Ms use,
with ceremonial activities. Many
researchers see in archaeological
pipes from early times ike same kind
of ritualism thai we see in modem days
among many living Native American
people, in which the pipe is often
directly connected with prayer (for a
discussion of this notion, see Ancient
Art of the Americon Woodland
Indians,byD. Dime, J. Brown andO
Penney. 1985). Masy traditionally
minded Native American people
today, those who see their culture as
being connected to a time before
Europeans came to America, believe
that prayer goes up to the Gneator with
the smoke from the pipe.
In the Late Archaic Period (around
3,000 to 2,000 BO we find the first
examples of pipes, relatively simple
tubes made of carved stone or fired
clay. These pipes have often been
located in association with what are
thought to be ceremonial objects,
lending support to the belief that pipes
themselves were puns of ceremtmial
By the Early Woodland Period
(beginning around 2.000101.500 BC),
these baric tubular [npes bad evolved
into art From numerous sites ia ike
Eastern Woodbnds we see tubular
pipes made in Ike shape of various
animals, and occasionally in the form
of human figures
By Ike Middle Woodland Period
(beginning around 500 AD) pipe
making kad developed into "an
impressive sculptural tradition
(Brose, Brown and Penney.
1985; 194)." During this period all
over ibe Eastern Woodlands Ibrie were
tubular and other pipes with elegant
artwork incorporated into their
(t^ty? Seme pipes in this period ate
elbow-shaped (where the mouth-piece
tube turns a 90 degree angle to
become the bowl of the pipe, similar
to modern tobacco pipes). Others are
in the shape of what is called
"platform" pipes (where the mouth
piece part of the pipe continues on
beyond the place where the bowl
rises out of the lop of the tube, giving
the appearance that Ihe bowl is sitting
on top of a platform)
Both dhow and platform pipes
from this period have animal (or
rarely, human) figures built into the
smoking part of the pipe. For example
the entire pipe, or just the bowl itself,
may be carved in the shape of a bear's
bead or a bird's body. In other
examples, an animal figure may
appear to be attached to the pipe in a
way that the smoke does not actually
pass through the animal's body (even
though the pipe part and the animal
figure part are really all the same
academic work at WCU with highest i
honors Forty-seven students '
graduated summa cum laude (with
highest honors). 58 graduated magna .
cum laude (with high honors), and 88
graduated cum laude (with honors)
Listed are area students in the (
graduating class, showing each
student's field of study All students
received bachelor's degrees, except (
where graduate-level degrees are
noted. Appropriate honors also are
Aom WariamQaariuui University are -<
Lumberton - James Luckey welsh. <
210 Walnut Cdve Rd finance and J
management. Max ton--Donna Lynn <
C ha vis. economics *
piece of MOW). Some of the animals
featured oa these pipes are coyotes,
bean, cougars, turtles and various bird
species One especially One example
from the Bedford site in Illinois, and
now housed at the Gikrease Institute
in Oklahoma, is a stone beaver
platform pipe with bone and river
pearl inlay far the eyes and teeth.
Most researchers believe that it
is no coincidence that to many of
these ancient pipes were made ? the
form of animals. The oral history of
many living Native American nations
tells us of the special relationship that
has always existed between man and
animals ?animals as tbe "spirit guide"
of humans; animal* as the teachers of
certain important lessons about how
humans should behave; animals as the
symbols of human families or clans.
It is logical to think that these ideas
which we hear told in the stories of
living Native American cultures did
not just "spring up" out of nowhere.
These are probably very old ideas,
which extend back into ancient times
in the Eastern Woodlands.
Thus the study of ancient Indian
ait can tell us more than simply bow
they dectraied their lives. The art of
the ancient Native Americans of the
Eastern Woodlands reflects a world
beyond their technical and artistic
talent, beyond their sense of aesthetic
beauty. It probably also reflects their
system of beliefs ? their sense of
connectedness to the natural world
and (he spirit world.
For more information, visit the
Native American Resource Center in
Old Main Building, on the campus of
Pembroke State University.
Western Carolina University
Chancellor Myron Coulter
RF mm | |tJ?S .Jlfr KjP 3
1994 spring commeiieemeat
In addition to presiding at the
Saturday afternoon ceremonies held
ta the LMloa B. Ramsey Regional
Activity Caesar, Coulter also delivered
is scheduled to retire June 30 after 10
years as the university's chancellor
Receiving diplomas were
candidates Hon WCU'sfive colleges
Then were 269 grsduetts from the
the College ofArts and Sciences. 214 c
from the College of Business. 234 ?
from the College of Education and b
Psychology, and 174 from tha*
Graduate School *
A total of 193 students graduated ?
with academic honors Of them. II S
itndems were iVslganMil University h
Scholars tor completing all of their C
The Lumbertoo Recreation
tepartment will sponsor tennis lessons
x aye 6 yean and up Classes will
egin June 1st and will be held every
fonday and Wednesday at 3 00. 6:00
nd 7:00. Classes aie $40.00 per month
nd will be held at Lumberton High
chool. The instructor is Kami
IcClaunn Please call the Bill Sapp
enter at 671-3S69 to register
During Campbell University's 108tb
Hyde The speaker for the
Commencement Sermon on Sunday,
day 8. was Dr James C Dobson.
ounder and president of Focus on the
From Robeson graduates are as
allows: Fairmont. Lisa Lewis Schaeffer.
id D Lumber Bridge. Wanda Kay
kmmons, Ed. Spec., Lumberton, Sandra
dart in Clark, Juris D.. Lumberton.
delanie Home. B.B.A.. Lumberton.
teborah J Stogner. Juris D., Lumberton.
>emetnus LaVonne Worley, B.A..
daxton. Mark Bowen Fleming, B.B.A..
'em broke. Shana Dial. B.S., Pembroke,
em ark Harris, M.B.A.. Pembroke,
.any Dean Jacobs, MBA, Pembroke,
lose Marie Lowry, Ed D , Pembroke,
urtis R Pierce. M.B.A., Pembroke,
iarry Revels, B.A., St. Pauls. Brian
tnllin K inlaw R A
The Honor RoD for Promect School
has beta released for the fifth ax
weeks grading period.
Seventh grade. Superintendent's
Crystal Bullard; Brandon Fmanurl'
Bobby Freeman, Christy Oxendiae.
Melissa Revels' Tyler Thompson.
A Honor Roil: Ccaeca Cunnings.
Porsha Dial' Jessica Lambert.
Coochata Locfclear. Misba Melvin.
Melissa Stricfclin' Eugenia Dial
B Honor Roll: Mark Bullard.
Jacqueline Cummings, Kanberiy Dial,
Reginald lambs; Brandy N. Locklear;
Jeanette Locklear; MatthewW. Tyler.
Carla Brewer, Derek Bullard. Tiff
Bullard' Christy Chavis; Phillip
Henderson, Jeremy Hunt; Constance
Locklear; Melissa McGirt; Robert
Pate. Cathy Hunt, Jessica Locklear;
John Locklear; Kristin Locklear. Tere
Locklear; Eryn Sanderson; Constance
Barton, Jan Benson, Jody Bullard.
Serena Jones, tara locklear;
Casssandra Oxendine; Pamela
Oxeadine; Lores! Revels, Ashleigfa
Sanderson. Melissa Blue
Eighth Grade Superintendent's
Honor Roll: Jadene Lowry Sabrina R.
A Honor Roll: Annie B Lowery;
April Williams. Jessica Bullard; Hal
B Honor Roll" Natasha Quick.
Jamie Blue. Lashawn Evans. Erick
Hunt, Tabitha Scott; Tori Woriax;
Ronald Sampson, Tonya Lowry;
Rodney R. Locklear; Randy Locklear.
teddy Clark; Joey Bullard, LeechefTe
Chavis. Star M. Chavis; Elizabeth
Deese. Tara S. Deese, Karen Dial.
April Locklear, Kirstina Locklear;
Ashley Thompson, Cindy M. Clark;
Christie L Chavis; Deidra Chavis,
Brenna S. Jacobs; Christina Barton.
Stacey Clark; Crystal Mariah, Kate
Locklear; Sayra Locklear; Shannon
Locklear; Amanda Lowery. Derek
Mr Wayne Royal, a volunteer
from the Red Springs Rescue Squad,
spoke to the third graders at Piney
Grove School recently. Mr. Roval
demonstrated many of the procedures
that rescue workers follow in order to
help those in need. Pictured above are
Mr Royal and Mrs. Sheila Locklear,
a third grade teacher at Piney Grove
Piney Grove School Child
Nutrition staff celebrated National
BreekfijjtWwk recently. They started
displayed in the cafeteria dining area
Letters were sent to the teachers
explaining what we would be doing
during the week. On Tuesday, March
8 each student was presented a puzzle
game and coloring placemat The
students were very excited on
Wednesday, March 9 when they had
a contest called "Come on down
Number 140th student." One of our
kindergarten students was the 140th
student to eat breakfast. He received
an extra treat. On Friday. March 11
each student received a Food Guide
Pyramid Sticker. It was an exciting
week and our staff worked very hard.
They are Linda Baldwin, Manager.
Grage Jones, Assistant Manager.
Gracie Locklear. Betty Hayes,
Rhonda Locklear; and Cindy Bryant.
I ||6 IIG | U
I ? I ? I I ? I ? I ? II
If you neat an apartment or house,
you will protxablv have to pay a
Kcunly deport to the laiklloul before
you move in. While aeecurity deposit
provides the landlord with some
protections, you alao have legal lights
regarding the security deposit
A security deposit can become
the point of contention between a
landlord and tenant when issues arise
about repairs, rent or other matters
State law limits what the landlord
can charge, how the deposit can be
used, and says how you get it back.
The law limits the amount a
landlord can charge for a security
deposit according to the length of
the lease. For a week-to- week lease,
the maximum deposit is two weeks'
rent. For a month-to-month lease,
the deposit cannot be more than one
and one-half month's rent. For any
rent agreement longer than a month,
the security deposit cannot exceed
two months rent These limits apply
whether the lease is written or oral.
A landlord must either deposit
your security deposit in a trust
account of a North Carolina bank or
give you a bond from an insurance
company licensed in North Carolina.
The landlord must tell you the name
and address of the bank or insurance
company within 30 days after you
The landlord may only use the
deposit for certain reasons. If you
break your lease by leaving before it
is over, the deposit can cover rent
for the rest of your lease, as well as
the costs or re-renting the property..
Whether or not you leave early, the
deposit can be used to cover late
rent, damage you caused to the
property, and electricity or other
bills you did not pay that are a lien
against the property. It can also be
used for the cost of moving and
storing your property after ajudicial
eviction, and for court costs
The law says that your landlord
cannot use the deposit for any other
purpose Specifically, it cannot be
used for normal wear and tear on the
property Furthermore, she can only
keep the part of your deposit that is
actually needed for the costs listed
The law does not say what your
landlord has to pay you interest on
the deposit Earning interest for the
landlord, however, is not one of the
oermitted uses of the deposit. You
could argue, if any interest is earned
in the security deposit account, it
should be paid to you That is
probably an issue that a judge would
have to decide.
Within 30 days after your move
out, the landlord must return your
deposit. If some of it was used for
allowable expenses, then he must
return the remaining portion nd p ve
you a list of the expenses for which
it was used. If the landlord does not
know your new address, he must
bold the deposit for six months
If the landlord does not give you
the list or refund your deposit, then
you can file a lawsuit. You can sue
without an attorney in small claims
court. If you hire an attorney and the
court finds that your landlord
willfully violated the law, then you
can get reasonable attorney's fees in
addition to the refund.
Practically speaking, it will cost
time and money to get your deposit
back if your landlord does not fol low
the law. The best way to avoid a
problem is to maintain a good
relationship with your landlord and
keep your home in good condition
while you live there. If you have
done that, ask your landlord before
you move if she will agree to keep
the deposit instead of your last
You can consider just telling the
landlord to keep your deposit instead
of rent. If you do that, the landlord
may sue you for eviction or for the
rent. Some landlords, however, will
not go to court if they have your
deposit, you move on tune, and you
leave the unit clean and undamaged
In any case, it is a good idea to take
pictures of the empty unit after you
clean it and keep good records of
your rent payments, in case you
need them for court.
If the landlord has charged you
an additional fee for pets, this fee
does not have to be returned. The fee
must be a reasonable amount
If you have a security deposit
problem or another problem with
your landlord, call an attorney or
your local Legal Services office for
advice about your specific situation
The Legal Services office can devise
you about representing yourself in
small claims court and may be able
to help in other ways. I
This column is u public service
of Lumbee River Lego! Sen-ices.
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lb ensure regular mammogram appointments,
women should consider going together for check
ups. Go for lunch or go shopping...make ft a special
time to enjoy each other's company.
If further treatment is needed, quality care from
the start, even for a routine procedure, can
maximize ycyar chances for a successful outcome.
Consider seeking out a doctor for a breast biopsy
who specializes in breast-cancer treatment
For a referral to a medical center with breast
cancer specialists, you can call the National Cancer
Institute at HOO-4-CANCER. We care about tfiw!
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