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Along the Robeson Trail
by Dr. Stanley Knick
Director, VNCP Native American Resource Center J
As part of the on-going series on
Lumbee context, for the past four
weeks?we have been discussing the
prcbistoriccontextoflheLumbee. We
saw that prehistoric Lumbee context
can be understood in four major
divisions, the first three called "PaleoIndian,"
"Archaic" and "Woodland."
We learned that the development of
agriculture (beginning around 2000 B.
C.) changed the lives of Native people
forever, and that this invention was
accompanied by the inception of
Although to modem sensibilities
the earliest Woodland ceramic vessels
might appear crude, they must have
seemed truly remarkable to the people
who first made and used them. The
vessels had symmetry, which
physically expressed the important
symbolic value of balance and order in
the universe. They were made by
human (most likely female) hands,
and thus could be invested with
personalized touches ? subtle
differences of temper, paste, form and
surface treatment Surely in every
Woodland village each potter's work
was known from the others, and
family tradi tions of ceramic techniques
developed and were maintained.
The earliest Woodland pottery had
a rather plain surface and thick walls.
As the generations passed different
surface treatments were invented,
including cord marked, fabric marked,
checks tamped, punctate, incised and
other types. In later Woodland times,
burnishing and paddle stamping came
into vogue. , Over the centuries,
ceramic vessels typically came to have
thinner walls, probably reflective of
improved techniques of manufacture.
All of this pottery was made with
acoiling method, building up the walls
of vessels by coiling narrow ships of
processed clay around on top of each
other until the desired form was
produced. The coils were then
smoothed over and fastened to each
other using tools such as shell
scrapers. Once air dried, vessels were
heated in semi-subterranean fire pits
to make them hard and durable.
Woodland ceramic production
evolved various types of surface
treatments and generally finer vessels
into the early colonial period. What
may have begun as a purely functional
invention became a means of artistic
expression as well.
A third major invention at the
beginning of the Woodland period was
the bow-and-arrow. Until this time.
Native men hunted mainly with spears
(sometimes using atlatls). They also
used blow guns, darts and lances, as
well as various snares and other traps.
Thousands of stemmed^andpointed
stone tools (collectivelycalled
projectile points) have been found in
fields here in eastern North Carolina.
Most of them exhibit some form of the
basic "Christmas tree" outline (there
are a few exceptions), with a narrow
stem at the base which broadens out to
"shoulders" and then gradually
narrows to a point These are almost
entirely spearheads. It is only with the
coming of the Woodland period that
we begin to see true arrowheads.
These true arrowheads are
usually triangular in shape and have
no stem (there are a few exceptions).
They are also usually relatively small,
commonly no more than an inch to an
inch-and-a-quarter in total length
(some Archaic spearheads may be two
to four inches long). Arrowheads are
also generally quite thin when seen in
profile. The hue arrowhead is a small,
thin, lightweight stone tool as would
be necessary to function well on the
end of a narrow and lightweight arrow
shaft. Native men continued to use
spears, blowguns and other items as
hunting tools and weapons, but the
highly accurate bow-and-arrow
apparently became the preferred
method for most Woodland hunting.
Along with the shift to Woodland
technology (agriculture, ceramics and
bow-and-arrow) came the move into
settled, year-round villages. Now that
farm crops produced a steady source
of staple food, it was no longer
necessary for Native people in the
Woodlands to move from place to
With this change of lifestyle came
increased population. Typical group
size grew from the 50-75 people seen
in Archaic times to villages of 100300
people (some were probably even
larger). Increased population and the
more sedentary lifestyle made it
possible for these Woodland
ancestors of the Lumbee to develop a
complicated culture and social
organization, with clans and other
social structures within and among
In the next segment, we will
discuss other elements of Woodland
culture, as we continue to examine the
prehistoric context of the Lumbee. For
more information, visit the Native
American Resource Center in historic
Old Main Building, on the campus of
The University of North Carolina at
Mclntyre to host Washington Issues
Seminar on Busienss and Commerce
* " ? i .:V..
Washington, D.C.. ? Seventh
District Congressman Mike Mclntyrcannounccd
today that approximately
75 Chamber of Commerce
members and key business officialsfrom
southeastern North Carolina
will attend his 1997 "Washington
Issues Seminaron Business
and Commerce" on September 89
in the nation's capital.
Congressman Mcintyresaid, "I
am very pleased that so many Seventh
District business leaders have
decided to take time out of their
busy schcdujc to attend this important
seminar. Congress and the
Administration are often debating
important issues which affect the
business community. Therefore, it
is important that federal officials
have then knowledge and guidance
before makingdccisions. This
seminar will allow North Carolina
business officials the opportunity
to listen and question key federal
officials. I am looking forward to
their input."
Scheduled speakers at the event
include Attorney General Janet
Reno, Environmental Protection
Agency Administrator Carol
Browner. Minority Leader Richard
Gephardt, and Senator John
Mclntyrc is co-hosting the event
with his North Carolina congressional
colleagues Congressman
Bill Hefner and Bob Etheridgc.
Total attendance at the event is
expected to be approximately 200.
Anyone who is interested in
attending may call Congressman
Mclntvrc's office in Washington
at 202-225-2731. There is no
charge for the seminar.
Say You Read it in the Carolina Indian
Voice. To subscribe call 521-2826
Annie Locklear, Supervisor of Residence
Hall at UNCP Retires After 18 Years Service
"Ma" l.ocklear counsels VNCPstudent Natoshia Revels.
Photo taken by Stephanie Ann Eaton . ;
The molhcrof 200 girls will be
leaving her home after 18 years,
but she is not abandoning them.
Annie Locklear will retire after
18 years of service as the superv isor
of North Residence Hall at The
University of North Carolina at
Pembroke She was responsible for
t he safety and happi ness of the 2(H)
women living in the residence hall
every year
"I fell that the girls were my
girls."' Locklear said. "They
would come to talk to me and ask
my advice."
To UNCP, she has always been
known simply as "Ma Locklear."
Locklear rccalls_?4imc when a
florist came to the residence hall to
bring her flowers on her birthday.
"None of the residents knew who
Annie Locklear was. They came to
me and asked if I knew where she
livtd. I had to laugh. They just
simply knew me as Ma."
Locklcar has many food memories
of her job as supervisor.
"I can't pin it down to one
memory ." Locklcar said "The job
has been very rewarding, fulfilling
and definitely not boring. You are
very confined, but you don't feel
conf ncd because there arc so many
around you."
Locklearbclieves hermaingoal
was to make her charges feel at
home. .
"1 wanted to be friends with
everyone of them"
Dr. JosephOxendine, chancellor
of UNCP, feels Locklcar has
left a tremendous impact on the
"Annie Locklear is the kind of
person who lends a positive personality.
and character to this cam
pus," Oxcndinc said "She will be
sorely missed
Locklcar says that she is going
to miss UNCP
"I am going to miss all the fine
jpcoplc on campus. It is not something
you walk away from without
mixed feelings "
Locklcar has some advice for
Tony Lofton, the woman who will
be replacing her in the apartment
suite in North Hall
"No two days arc the same. "
Don't be surprised at the knock on
the door, and what you arc going to '
face. You have to be flexible, and *
you have to be very sensitive."
Locklcar is planning to remain
active inhcrretirement years. She '
plans to move to Jacksonville. N.C..
so she can live closer to her two
Locklcar is planning to remain '
active in her retirement years. She
so she can live closer to her two '
Locklcar plans to volunteer.
work within her church, visit'an
other daughter who lives in Miami
Beach. Fla.. travel, and visit her
friends she has left behind in Pembroke
"I will have to reprogram my
life. It will take a lot of adjustmentto
move from a home with 200
girls to living alone."
Locklcar isa caringw oman who
touched thousands of girls lives
and playcda vital roleon the UNCP
campus. Locklcar will be one
mother that UNCP students will
never forget
rCarolina Indian Voice*
To Subset ibe Call
c (910) 521-2826. j
...Down on
the Farm
Shown above are the grandchildren ofMr. James and
Tessie Blue of Ruyhnam. They are shown milking the
cow down on the /ami. The cow recently gave birth to a
baby calf and later on she adopted a baby buffalo. The
baby buffalo is about three months old and she was born
blind. The cow was giving four and a half gallons of milk
a day, after the calf was born. Now that she is feeding
the baby buffalo, she is only giving two gallons a day.
The grandchildren live with the Blues and help with
the chores every day, includingthe milking. The children
are Kelia Renae Blue and Jamie Utah.
Life Underwriters Elect New Officers
Buddy Howell
Lumberton, NC,?Buddy
Howell of Lumberton was elected
president of the Robeson County
Association of Life Underwriters
for a one year term. Buddy Howell
is an agent of Southern Farm Bureau
"Life Insurance Company in
He has Been an active member
of the associat ion since 1984, having
served as National Committeeman
and Chairman of the Life
Underwriters Political Action
Other officers elected by the
Robeson County Associationof Life
Underwriters are: President-Elect.
Tony Parnell of United Insurance
Company, Vice President, Jerry L.
Stephens of Integon Life Insur
: 1
ance Company, Secretary/Treasurer,
Patricia W. Cain of South- ,
ern Farm Bureau Life Insurance
Company, National and State Committeeman,
Joel T. Holland of
Southern Farm Bureau Life Insurance
Company, and Association
Staff, Wilton Wilkcrson.
The Robeson County Association
of Life Underwriters, fbuncfcd
in Wi9, has61 members, ltispne
of the 1,000 state and local a'ssb
ciations tKatarc affl Iiated with tWe'''
National Association of Life Uhderwritcs
founded in 1890, represents
135,000 sales professionals in life
and health insurance and other
related financial services
"Today* s marketplace of fi nancial
products is becoming increasingly
complex." explained Buddy
Howell. "We as life underwriters J
arc committed to serving the needs \
of consumers and helping them to !
provide for their financial sccti- Ij
rity. My goal is to further strengthen >
that commitment," he added.
The mission of the Robeson
County Association of Life Underwriters
is to enhance the profes- It
sional skills and ethical conduct of \>
those providing life and health in- ^
surance and closely related flnan- ;
cial products and services which
foster greater financial independencc
for the public _/^
^ Haye you discovered thai running your
own business is more than a full-time job?
Are you CEO, coffee maker,
receptionist, CFO, and sales
force? We are here. To make sure you have
the tools you need to keep your focus on the
business at hand. To help you customize those
tools to the needs of your unique business.
To make things like paying federal and some
of your state taxes over the phone a convenient
reality. If your board meetings take place
around the kitchen table, give us a call. Because
in our view, every business has a personality
all its own.
/?i?;? ?\i
Carolina Indian Voice ,/
is published every Thursday by
First American Publications j
304 Normal St.-College Plaza '<
P.O. Box 1075 [t
Pembroke. North Carolina J
28372 {
Phone:(910)521-2826 >
Fax (910) 521-1975
Connee Hrayboy, Editor \
One Year In NC $20
Out of State $25 r
Second Class Postage Paid at \
, Pembroke, NC i
V 1
f - \_ *
'( ^Moeuci 1
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