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0 / 75
TUESDAY, JULYS, 1803.
published weekly by Allmand Kali, at Thru Dohars i TeaeJ
ON THIS QUESTION WHETH
" ER. IT BE ADVANTAGEOUS
TOR FRANCE TO TAKE" POS
SESSION OY LOUISIANA
4t Presented to the French Government
by MriLiriNGSfoir, the American
'! Minister at Paris."
Translated by Mr. NKcaDE,
THIS question presehts.itself in two
points of view: First, in the relation
of commerce and manufactures s Se
condly, in those of the positive or rela
tive force of France.
v .Colonies do not excite interest for
'their own sake, but only as respects
the influence they may have on a na
tion ; and as one man .alone is more
useful by remaining at home, than two
by removing at a distance, a wise na
tion does not seek to colonize, 'until
she -has a superabundance of popula
tion, which she cannot usefully employ
in any other way.-
Though very considerable, tie po
pulation of France is very far from, hav
ing reached the term which renders
colonies necessary Her soil climate,
and local situation eive her, as a com-
mencial, and espe-cially a a manufac-
-.- -turlna nation, trreat advantages over all
; the nations of Europe. 'The spirit of 1i produce all they are capable of, Jlut
A- invention, ihe taste and industry of; how are they to be cultivated ? Ex
its inhabitants, place her in the first j periencetiai proved that the inhabi-
rank. Tt lit fVin ndvantairp. w wim. i ....... -ft . ,,:....... ...... .1. .,nn.
flcriully-abridged Ty the want of ca-
. , .... ... ... w..- r
pitals sufficient to make use of them.
A rival nation, greatly inferior in every
one of these particulars, has, by the
effect alone of an immence capital,
obtained the superiority, fnot-only .in
commerce, but also in manufactures ;
. k these advantages, by inoreasingthe.
national fortune,' furnish - it 'with the
means of maintaining-that very eupc
riority, Capi&ih increase the number -of
manufactures, by the : introduction of
tnachiuea, by tf.e regular payment of
workmen, by the reduction of the. in
terest of money, and especially by the
possession of new markets.
None but rich individuals can un
dertake those slow and expensive
speculations which often give the
superiority to a manufacturer A poor
merchant cannot undertake long voy
ages, rtturns from which are slow 5
they are' reserved for the wealth r,
'Who can give credits long enough to
"tempt foreign nations to give his ar- j
tides the preference over those of 0
thcr nations, which expect a quick re-
turn for their's. The want of capitals
in 'France, is such, that no manufac
turer has at his command a quantity
of articles sufficient to answer the de
mands ; and consequently no foreign
er can be sure- to obtain from hit
French correspondent wherewith to I
make his returns without retarding his
vessel in putt, or, at least, without be- j
ing obliged to take a considerable I
quantity of articles of inferior quality I
juincu up m a uuinuer ci uincrenr
manufactories; so that if he commits
any fraud, no one can be charged with
x. This render the character of a
manufacturer of very little importance
t in the eyes ora French workman.
Hence when a foreign vessel, ei
cially a owned at 1 great distance, sells
ber cargo in France, she is ordered to
. take nothing kut, wines or brandies,
because they are the only articles
. which the owner is sure to procure in
suT.ticnt qu.imitiei, in the fixed time, Ii
f in i.ngianu, on. me contrary, nc wiii .
find all sorts of goods, in one hour, !
from one-manufactory, the reputation '
of which would suffer, if the whole ,
upply were not of the same quality
with the sample. This coiuidcraVon j
T wijl ever induce a foreigner to apply to J
, an English, in preference to a French ,
merchant, for a purchase of goods of j
me same kmd. Hence cargoes et
old in France, and the proceeds car
ried Xo England, there 10 be sold fur
articles which France might supply,
it hex manufactures were ruh enough
to ana we r every demand, in a short !
utnt, without compelling the pur
chaser to hatt recourse loa jreat
rAimbcrof mionfictoi ics.
This inconvenieney tan only be re
moved by increasing the capitals of
manufacturers. It would be too great
deviation from my subject, lg poiot
at the means of obtaining those capl
Mil but it. Is evidcnt,thatthty must
be considerable lessened by the form
al ftf a Nat Ti at the tspense cf man-
fnture,&r by using the capitals rf
baiiea ii disunt 10 a nines. II U
beyond doubt, "that "capitals open new
channels-, for nothing is more natural
for merchants whose, capitals are small,
thanto contenUhemselves with acting
the part of Brokers or Commission-Merchants,
to those who can supply them
with goods on credit ; and for this very
reason, England lost nothing by the
intipnpTirlfnrs nf America. Hef im-
rmense capitals have created a monied
dependence, which, in a commercial
relation replaced the supreWcy she
had lost in the government. The in
crease of capital in America, frees it
income degree fcon that dependency,
and by turnishing her witti the means
of extending her commerce, and even
L tot-offer capitals to other, nations, which
know how to calculate the value pt the
markets which she offers to manufac
tures and to the -luxury of Europe-
, It will be readily granted,"that Colo
nies beyond the seas add nothing to
the force of a nation, these are, on the
contrary, weak, points, which are guart
dedat the very great expence, both in
men and money,-especially if they
be in hot and unhealthy climates.
The question, therefore, is reduc
ed to this. Has France a superfluity of
vtett and money great enough to justify
the settling of a new colony ?
Those which France already pos
sesses in the West-Indies and at Cay
enne, are more than sufficient for her
wants, and even the wants of all Eu-
rcope;,.iLthey-wert-cultivated, so as to
, want: Force alone can supply the
mms oj uui tiiuiaica ti wuikiiuui
two great spurs to labor in Northern
climates, hunger Sc. cold, which nature !
has placed in those severe climates.
Hence slavery alene canfertilize-those
colonies, and slaves cannot'bc procur- i
j cd but at a great expence. j
j The Spanish partof Hispantola was
almost -uncultivated for wantof slaves.
I It is now possessed by France ; and,
to render -it of advantage, it will be
necessary to lay ont immense capitals
in slaves, In buildings, end in improve
ments of Bncultivatcd lands. . Others
win be necessary to make up for the
losses of the French part f that, not.
tolnention the other islands. - Where
are those capitdj to bv found ? Men
who travel into distant and unheviihj
climates are seldom we ;Uhy. Those
riches must therefore" be found in
France, or in some country that has
a superfluity of capital. If they are
found in France, it can only be, to a
certain degree, at the expence of in
ternal manufactures. It may, how
ever, appear advantageous, in. a na
tional point oTvicw, to encourage the
use of the riches of Frauce'for that
object ;considering the extreme fertility
of the French West-Indies, k the pre
sent situation 6f culture, those-funds
will soon yivld a profit. But as long as
money will command so high an inter
est t so Ions as the interior of the
Republic shall olL-r monied men a
source of-spetuUtioni, and property
shall lie In so few hands, it will be
difficult to induce the majority of
thera to dispossess themselves of this
caphul to send it it a, distance, and
run the risk of the integrity of their
aeeats and all those whem recent
examples have taught them to dread.
Foreign coin was fomcrly introduc
ed into France through the United
.Provinces; but the present state of
, the Data tun Colonic, and the losses
; they have anstained by the wir, leave
, but little hope, that much may be used
in the restoring French Colonies.
The United States possess consider
aUe capitals in money, and produc
tions mccary tothc restoration of the
islands. No crest credit, in money.
will probably be given tothe planters j
but with suitable encouragements,
there is nu duubt they will be able to
obtain those productions which must,
were it not for that ciminutancc, be
paid for in cash, and the cornmctclal
spccuiaiions o: me unnea oiatcs win
extend to the French Islands, wlicn
the public and private credit of France
shM have been restored, attd htn
cxpeilrnce shall have conviated the
people huw unwise it Is to esublish'a
revenue upon foreign trade, while it
is in fad collected from their on citi.
trns. At Hispaniolar duty of CO
percent, is pshl upon articles Intro,
duced by strangers. This duty is in
fact pud by strangers, and it happens
that fraud, and the bad administration
of Custom-llouKs, Is, as usual, a
source of vexation for foreign mr
chant' . Hut it is the planter who fur
tiishet the money, for this tax it al
wys ttklcd to iht price, and tun
an interest is advanced upon kas a
compensation for the vexations which
.the captains experience in their com
merce. . What then is the effect of
that operation, if not to take from tbe
planter . one forth part ot the money
which he "had- ao much difficulty to
get from France? Or otherwise te atop,
by that means, partly the re-establishment
of the capitals which alone can
render the islands 'finally productive?
I say finally, for it is folly to believe
that they "will yield to France; a com
pensation for her actual outsets, un
less it be after a great many years. 1
will even say, that unless the ports of
Hi:paniola V Ppen to every yessel
loaded, with articles of necessity,- un
less the inhabitants" have the right of
bHyinjr cheap and&tfftng dear, by en
couraging the rivalry btttweefi'tne sel
:1ers and purchasers, unless every sort
of vexation is removed, &, strangers re
ceive every possible security for their
capitals 'in the Islands, ages will pass
away before Hispaniola will cease
draining France of its riches k strength
without offcriuglicr any equivalent re
turn. It is, therefore evident, that if
Fraftce had rto other possession bo
yond the seas, excepther islands, it
might easily pace all the capital of
which ' she now -can, and probably
hereafter will be able to dispose iji a
lonsj aeries of years.j '
lnutlif to il this, Zwe add the im.
mense posnessions in Guyahna, her
productions, and the capitals necessa
ry to carry the whole ol it t its mil
value f if we add the setfiement ne
cessary to be made in India, if the de
sign be to bring .into the -polls of
France that variety of articles which
invite exchanges, and r,ive cornmerce
its due activity, we shall find that mw
centntv at KsvstwiII pass away brfre
France may want p:Mscss4otia of aa.
Hut a Fiant-e hus, like otlieT conn-
tries, bvt a don lined capital, the on
ly question 4s, where shall this capital
be placed? shall it be lie re? in the
West-Indies? at-Cayenne? h fiulia.
or at Louisiana ? For it i obvious that
vrnai wrrt ns piuceu tti one l tuose
settlements will be at the exf ence of
another ; it is e-juully so,. hat the na
tional expenditures will increase with
her colonics ; and that, in case of war,
tie points of attack and defence will
hi multiplied. in the same ratio.
Able . statesmen ' have questioned
whether colonies wcreusefuKb a coun
try situated like France ; but my de
sign is not -to examine this theory.
France has colonics; ahe has invit
ed her citizens to 'go and carry their
riches to them t honor rcquircsahat
she keep and protect them t but she
is under no obligation to create new
ones; to multiply poiats of defence ;
te squander away the capitals site
wants at home and abroad. How could
the possession of Lousianabe useful to
her? In the first place, hs cultivation
is to be -earned -on, as in all warm
countrie,"by slaves; the capitals spent
in buying them, or the slaves them
selves, would bsve been carried to the
Islands, if this new channel bad not
opened. This rivalry will raise, the
price of slaves for the planters, and
may thus much rctird the settlement.
On their arrival at Louisiana, the
slaves will be employed In the barren
occupation of felling the large forests
with which this immense country is
covered, a labour but little suited to
slaves, for it requires being long ac
customed to the ax; and force and
activity are seldom found in slaves.
They, must be clothed, fed and main
tained during whole years before any
proat can be flerived from them.
What I im abopt to relate may serve
to determine that period. In the North
thern and Middle Stales of America,
the usual term of a quit-rent lease in
the new lands is ten years free frvro
tent, and afterthit the lessee pcys 13
bushels of wheat for every 100 acres
forever. It Is, therefore, , oh igvis,
that tbe first ten years are considered
as a time of expence. during whiOi
torn the owner requires no payment.
But in the Southern States, new
lands cmit even be given out on
those term, because the vhite plan
ler sets a licher value on his labour,
and the clearing of forests requires
too great outtatt for auy one but the
owner of the lard.
Who then will tultivste Iuislsna
with slaves f Who ia the rititen win -
- a . a
ing to bettow .large rtpilali upon so
precarious a property lh the pros
pect of s distant rcturfi f
It may be asked, why does It not
happen lis the Sotlhert Slates? It is
answered, firjt, icianit rn vt
southerly nough to be wholly free
from the colds of winter, which ren
ders savage life very difficult to men,
bom in hot climates ; and second
ly, because the Southern States,
are ', mostly surrounded, by the sea,
and by mountains, the whole popuja-
tion of which ts white, and which cut
' off th$ communication between the
. slaves and' the vast forests of the in
i terior ;partsi .; v -;" ,,r
! Bat let as suppose all these difficul
ties overcome, what commercial ad
I vantages can France. derive from, the
j settlement of this cobny ? The pro
ductions ot Louisiana beinx the, same
with those of the West-Indies, no
advantage Is to be reaped, for the UW
auds', being-well cultivated, will suf
fice for the wants of France, aad Yen
alLEuivpe. Th introduction of those
from Louisiana, would only lesseu the
pripe without adding any thing to the
value, ad France would be obliged, to
prevent the ruin of those who had em
ployed their funds in the colonies, to
imitate the Iatch, who destroy their
spices and teas, when the quantity of
these commodities in Europe is large
enongh to cause appreciation of
their vaine. , '
The productions of Louisiana, which
do not growjn the West-Indies, are
only lumber, and perhaps rice; but it
is certain that those preductions, con
sidering the difficulties of procuring
them' in a -hot and nnsaluhrious cu
tis Ate, will not .cover the outsets, or, nt
least, will not )ield the samo profits, as
would be procured by raisingthemirt j
the islands, in procuring the same 1
or otacr ami more valuable articles, j
The proof of this is found in the ,
United States. It is not from Gcogia 1
nor South-Carolina, that the West-1
Indies arc supplied with lumber, but
chiefly from the Northern State,
where f-.t evts are more scarce and
I more vallrhle than in the Sniifh.
The ruane of this js, that the-tupply.
in; of lumber, the mills necessary to
prepare . them Tor sale, all these are
the work ol free hands, which are sa
tisfied with a aiodui-ate price. - v
I ehall presume further ti lay down,
however, paradoxical it may seem, that
it is not advantageous for France to
supply herself with lumber even if ahe
conld procure it from Louisiana. I
have . two reasonsta ofFeri What
lumber, the Northern States supply
i,-...i;.. ..:,k-i.-H.M r. lll
t a t
ner colonies wun rs paia lor m mo
lasses and some .rum. '. The first
article costs the planter nothinp.
for, were it not for that, this would be -an
useless production of Ksuga, and
the second i!nrt a very ntodcrate ex-
; pence for distillation: If it were con
sumed in America, molu&scs would
be thrown away as useless, and this
wan the case when America wasa '
RritWh colony, because French com
merce ds not offer any other market
fey that commodity. ,
It may therefore, be said that the
jloolonics have from tle Unhed States,
lumher fir nothing-. Should, 'on the con
..i ...f .
irai t, a arutcuicm u firincu in i.oui
aiaiia tor 111c suppiyinj; 01 mat aniue,
every expence and outset of this es
tablishment, A the labour neccspiy
to cut, saw, and transport it to the
place where it is tobe sold, would be
a real loss to the nation, even admit
ting that the cutters and other men
employed, should take, as payment, ;
mohssesandrunsj because their la-
lour would produce ootlurrj to tbe
I)ut it is certain that Louisiana could
not furnish a market for nsulasses or
rum. ItissMilyinN. England, (Northern-States)
that ihc.e articles arc con
sumed. The inhabitants af the South
prcur ardent spirits di.ULIcd from
gram, apples aud peaches, to those
distilled from molasses. .
On the supposition, thercfure, that
the punters supply thentselics with
at Iuisiana.thi-v m An!.i be (,treA to
psy far it in money or objects of real
n ut. lfih ri7ht iriuim1 inotr..
cjusive, it is null because the labour-
er afa .oathem. climate cannot woik
si cheap as the robust on tr the
North. , , '
. t, .'...v, 1. it.;,..i ."1
ilUHtlll ' V mMMBIIl IIM, 111(1 ,,(
would still find a market in New.K).
land, thou-b U wrre nn longer the
price rf lumber- It would le an error.
They nave no other reason to take it,
than it being offered them in ex-
change foran article fyf which they
!' have few other markets. Let the co
ll.' . . .. K.
' lon'ita frfuo lumtitp frnm lK N'nriK.
1 .. .
spirits Lvm grain. spples.kr.V ill im
mediately U substituted fi r tKosc from
sugar, because Reprice cf rurawouU
mm..i:.i.u k st. 1... ti !.
I llM.XI.l T, IHUIH I Will
le that every sort cf commute Vs.
tween them and the colonies will cease)
unless it be for provisions which they
will necessarily tequire to be paid for
in money, or in what will pass in (g.
reign markets for money.
Tk arrrtrirt ', iiwn uk rMi.
ought not to get her lumber from
Louisiana, even tho' the might do it,
is, .that, in case of war, supposing
England shoild preserve her naval su
periority, no sure calculations could ba
made upon receiving provisions and "
they could not be supplied from theTJ.
ulted States, for that commerce, hav
ing oeen aoanuonea since' the peace,
those whom it then employed have,
sought other objects of iodnstry j and
saw-miHs,' erected to prepare that lum-'
ber are out of use, and will not easily
w ow. VT Va-MUl SHW Vl. TV 4 VI UVI
tilities, so that the misfortunes which
are the, consequence of it -would be
doubly distressing to the colonies.
It is, therefore, rery evident the co
Uniting of Louisiana would, in a $on
inerciau poincoi view. Do very injurious
to France, because it would employ '
capitals which would be more usefully
employed in the other colonies be
cause those capitals, would' lie dor
mant for several years, and because,
admitting they should be productive '
for individuals, they would add notV
ing to the national mass, tnd would'
have no other effect thanto lower the
f . m vuiu4iiut . (jivuuvc, gnu lea
ses the profits of their labor. ' ' 7
.It might however be thought that'
1 nc possession 01 uoutwana would at
ford one more market to French ma
nutactures, and thtts compensate the
expence of the natiwn for its settle
ment. This question deserves a par
ticular examination, and the provi
sioning orthe consumption of French
man n fact 11 ret ma v rrlat- WKh
1 free or bond population.
irUhe the free class that Is to be
mustered hy emigrants from France.
it will be composed of that portion
, of the people which aot only could
i support themselves in France, but,
besides, increase the national rk lies by
it their industry. For France ts not over-
burthenedby her population, and con
sequently every emigration will form
a vcum somewhere, or abandon some
i useful branch which will no longer be
1 carried on The -emigrant carries a
t .k ,V. TXr J? V
' tpod.m the mass of the productive
labour of the mother countty; he al
so carries away with him a portion of
the capital, for he never goes with,
rmpty hands, and, as I have already
observed, ten years must pass away
before his settlement produces beyond
his first necessaries. He must, at the
i same time, live with the Strictest eco-
j fcomy, -for having nothing tJ offer in
I exchange, he receives scarcely any
thing from the niotheT country, and
the nature of the southerly climates
requires very lew or tne articles no-
cessary in Eurcpe. 1: la, therefore.
' J,'W?d f" M to ! prt
--ent emiirraat, . the few arUc ta fur.
grant, . the few articles fur
listed him by the Frencb marpfaa
turer win not cover the loss which the
nation will s'ustaln of his own lafcour i
betides, he will consume much leu in
America than he would in France, and
besides his labour, the manufacturer
. win) supplied his wants In both coun
i ,.7 " Dn. SraiiMi.
' J c P"0" d less ccn-
( ufacturcs, becaase their consumption;
in articles of dress ts very small j anJ
even in South-Carolina It does not
amount to more thsn fortr lirres a
year for each negro. At Louisiana,
where the winter ts still less severe, it
will be reduced U fro port ion ; Jt ill
consist io cotton, prirvdpally worked
. in the Country, and still more smug
gled from the United States. But if the
whole were brought .from France,
"' w iujyii vi a rsnen man
neQ1 c in2 '
.MChTHUst be pu
siiLk -a m . . .a
ner ueaucun-T l ra-ML:ii.!a
rchased, the whole
P1? r rench manufactultr
u amuunsio more man JO litres
I for 5c,h ftcSro' rcr7 ss
' ,"ch fcUv5 wU! l ,t5on loca
,,Tr, " P'tl ould fcav'
I ProJuted, in France, st least 10 pr,
cent, in evenrothrr commerxabrtnan.
f - "
w nine, in aincrence oeswetn iwQ
Huts French produce, snd 30 livrei.
produce of the LouUisna ckairg,
fives the resl loss tobe sustainedly
Frsncein the Erst ten yurs, durirr
which Uey can orly, ss I hare sail
bef7TT, supply their first wsr.ts, If s
much; and. as a totslo tuo.Uf
. a:- iv.t. .1 .
V' u" inc " sjnmate.
, ,ll"tnbc' '"sy, t l
,0,M !7r7 ln-prt
ra sndemrloved in LcuUiara rruitta
I, . ,.
uo "try ;car.