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. . v 3t IT -t adj'te.th, the; profit.,
V- hich tiu; vryi!av$f could Jiafe fur-.
x.ished, if transported to the isfandt, ;
!.4ti(lit js rtaia that all the slave ii
carriedo Loiisianaire sc many hands! j
. . taken Wm' the islands,) we shall fifid ' 1
'that the actual kssof-tbenation, in
; "toe interruption of labour, will amount
to upwards i of 600, lirrcs.per annum,
-ao.that tbe"first loss for the ration in
heuntroduction. of 1000 alaves 'to
Ixuisiaaaywll be 600,000 litres.- It
;.i true, bat ii peaks' cantlniies, and if,
, t in opposition to expectation, the co'lb
4Pf ahotild prosper, ' the rich planters
.-.will jniake great -consumption df
-'. Trench goods, but that of the slaves
4iJrever,be tttf small or their labour
... -without profit, because, as I have? al-
Teady observed, -being employed to
VcuUivate: articles rwhich the islands '
vs can more easily supply forevery . de j
, ftnand, andthe sale of which is confirm f
. i-ca, by increasing; the quantity, they
,'jVdl euly lessen the prices of those
, -commodities which it is essentlar'for,
FraMo. to keep, high,T because- shepos-;
si.s;sse the most fertile islands. I know
I -there; is an opinion entertained by
. many, viz. - That l?rcnth goods, in
v their way to the Missisippvwill find
A a market in:, the'' western part -ofjthe"
, United, States.- The most complete
..dgoorance of (he navigation of that
riveit could alone have given rise
.vsuch ;ar opinion, which is likewise
.groundedonthe ignoranceef the wants
a of the inhabitants. It is certain that
.the frines of France arenot fit for
. climate as hot as' those, they 'must
.ros befort they arrive in. 'the Wes
jtem Ktittes j- that they are still less
f:uitedtothe means andtaste of the in
habitants, who are more accustomed
tTto ' their own liquors such as cider,
j beer, whisky , andpeaclv-brandy, the
' Utter, with timrj becomes superior to.
;.the best Freneh brandy so that in-
eiead of receiving thase articles -ihrV
: .Louisiana, they might themselves
'.supply the colony with them. Asto
the articles of glass and earthen ware,
.they are made in every part -of the.
- 'Western States,, here the raw ma
terials nre every where found. . The
demands' for China vware are6maH,
'but if Ihey were large, Fy-nch ware
,is too dear to hurt the sale of China.
" Large mm works are also wrought
on the -spot, and English hard ware
. has so well known a superiority over
'the French, that the latter would ccr- !
7tainly remain unsolrt, if both were ex- j
"posed at Market. ( The only articles.
'perhaps Vhich might be introduced j
into tlie tountrvv would :e silks, cam- 1
fbrics, and tpfew other articles of lux-"
pry. Bat even all these caa never
TasKhrough the river Missisippi.
"The dangerous navigation of the
giilph, the.long .and expensive dist
'tancctogo against the currant,' the
T-irge capitals of the Lnglish and A--tncrican
merchants, at Philadelphia,
,and the great improvements which are
( made everyday inthcroads and inland
' Navigation, will cause land carriage to
be preferred as far as the Ohio, and
- Mbcr rivers, whence they are carried
" to the setUementsve'aily and cheaply.
It is a veil knen fact, that dry eoedk
Tiave been carried from Philadelphia
to New-Orleans by. land, by that route
)n preference t sea carriage. It is
therefore, v'uionary to believe that
oods from France willhe carried tint
w ay ; whilst the enterprising F.nglish
who have the right cf navicatini: that
Vivtr,'andthpixjudices of the Ame
ncani In favour of tlurlr mnur:ictures,
r ever attempted .to' introduce their
toods that ray j because they will
know that'they -were more easily bro't
by Thiladclphia and Baltimore. . But j
ihrinld France be desirous f introdu. '
cirg that way, more bulky articles iiv. '
to lite Western States, and accustom
lht Inhabitants to their wines and ma-
"nufactnre,it could only be ty putting ,
"MW'OrUini into thtir honls, with the ,
ttttrttythat it thall tttr It a frtt Jott
'fi r frrnh end tctii wiilnut U-
r,$ufjttti&toxi:ii etntr duties, than
thoit f.iJ h thi Jmituaru. Jy this
lne!n the American merchants, scu
lied at New-Orleans may be interest,
rtl In their commerce ; instead of go
injtoT.ngland, their capitals ill go
to France the letter n ill have all the
advantages jf a colony viitluitit the
tspenre rf supporting it, end the mo
tley which American acivry clL.I.l
frynv the ' Spaniards would r.o to
Tiaurc, for Lngbnd, which haitot
thr unit mtans and hich pays higher
duties, coulJ not aupply tLye god
.at o low a rate.
Jlut shoulj France, en the other
iaiid. trioUe tokerpthc Ulnd,agrct
f ri'jK.rtion ftl the capitals olire com-
n.trcff tn New-Orleans, birh ate
'tI-i ually In the rwndj of the English
tt.J Arutricaits, wii! nntiuallj UVe the
covimc which the United htttct shall
f nnd Out tinut lc a tial t!a( uf
roi!ii?rf with Nrw-Oilean, ihick
- h$ r.d of the vewticni conjura !
. ..tvi..l. . .1 . . '
J n the nrrr.itn, i!l draw, in ptc
X all the Uilli;ri .f it itution,
tV.c : whole tnotnerte cf vth'uhtjie 6
thrrh M tt.ii ay the ftuttr. ,
; The l-undrUstuLrihcdbcirVtn
paln'aad the IJnited.State and very
lately bet ween. the tngush-and bpan
nish possessions, have deprived the
iahabitantl of, Louisiana of ther share
of the Fur-trade, which it must be
confessed -was not,-nor could-ever be
yery important, as the peltry, of the
South are of but little value, the. few;
skinsarc of no importance-tocoromerce
as maybe seen in the.tables of impor
tation 'of New-Orleans.-' Goods are
1 ever to be transported from the Misi
''sipnI in the'Uriited States, that way. -
In these considerations I have kept
;to 'account of the pains, expentes and
loss M 5m?a, which are mseperaoie
from new settlements m a marshy.
country, and a burning- climate J tlie
Tif slaves-; the insubordination : -of
lUViiaiUll Ml 11IU1UI19, lllV. llliuui-wiivii
the troops ; the abu-ies committed by
-olhcrrs, remote from the sovereigiv s
vjguant eye. AH tnese lnconvenieri
ces united , or vnly a few of them are
enough to sto),'an undertaking, and
Twin a settlement.- A very important
observation, is however,' " to be made,
and that is of some' weight, Many of
those who wdl Carry their families to
Louisiana,' TSbseiVing that the' lands
ire as cheap on the American side.
1 will prefer settling there, even m time
'Oi uccc ; some, '.octausc intry
p.reier ine government oi mat coun
try, otbers by caprice, -others through
spite, or to rid themselves' from a mi-
iitary government, sudh as that of-Lbu-
WISH ULUl UClTCIICrUl IH W3C'1 Yttl .
between France and England, for" ad
! mittinpr that the latter maintains her
naval superiority (as I lvave: already
proved in another place, sue mnsi, un
less France changes her commercial
system in order to establish it ipon
more liberal principles,) the mouth of
the Missisippi will be blocked up, and
the planters in the French colonies
will he rttduced'tQ thegreatest distress
while those of the United States, will
derix from the war the greateit be-'
ncfit. ' '
' Then it will be, that a great part of
the capitals brought from r ranee 'to
liOiusiana, will pass into the United
States, where arc found farms, alrea
dy cleared, or one halfofwhdt it
weald have cost a French planter-to
clear his ( because an American fami
liarized from his infancy to the. vse 6T
toe axe, has. acquired a dexterity
and a nmscnlar strength which are
never obtained by a man used to ether
business. ' ' '
The experience of the past isi h6l-
ly in support of these observations.
I hmrgh settled fur one century, Lou
isiana has never prospered under ei
ther-the French or Spanish govern
ment. And vine half of the commerce
f New-Orleans, is 'now carried on
with American earitJls, nnder tire
guarrantce of their treaty with Spain.
As soon as the French will pLint a rj
Vrceijny, that commerce will be
carried cn in any other place in the
United States, which the policy cf the
govemmcirt may judge proper to en
courage. If the settlement of Louisiana isnot
advantageous to France in a commer
cial view, because it diverts capitals
, from a much more important channel,
it u still more contrary to her inter
ests in a political point of view. A
lnenca i ot mc mnui luiponaTicc i o
. r 1. ..4 . a .
i France, whether cotvj.idtful as a com -
I vncrciul or m-iritiinc power. I have
; explained m.v unuiinn univ in ims
. r . ,
first relation, on another occasion as u
the other, there is no question that an
agricuhirral nation, which, by hgfin
duvtry and her raw materials, is able
to procure all the superfluous luxu
nes of I-.urope, and whose habits and
occupations prevent them from maim
Uctunnir for themstlvet there can be
n qncMtion .that such a nation must
afford a very important market to the
inhabitants ofthe ld world.
In this siew the commerce tfthe
United Statu ts considered as very
profitable to England, hutmrtenFrer-rh
minulactures shall have obtained all
the improvement ef which they ire
capable ' when commerce shall be es
tablished upon a suitable bas, it will
present a 'much greater vaiiety of art i-
; clesvpon vunch to iupport itself than
i the commerce oi Lngland. w!cn
articles and hardware are the only
wiiclet which America receives .from
1 Enr,!nnd j but France slull furnish tiot
enlf these arth Irs,' mit her igtitul-
ture wtii gain py tlie sale ol her wines.
herbrandies, ami Iter oils. Those
advantages added to the rttativt situ-
ttion of Fanr and the United States,
which, removes emy suspicion of ri
valry hetwemthem, Uith by sea and
land, nave fshiintrrt hrtrnt at th na
tural airy of the United States, t the
M afthove who hive conildercd.;
in.rricn,o ner power, anew picflge
it,tpr..i..MVr....n;f. ii... I...
tlcien who at ihr ronchitfnnf
Trance oiU fain mrsre by seturirr
ti e solid frieadhio of the U. Statu, flow Jtiflicc. -- Hailed will take
I than by acpiiilni; a Irrritory which pia.e between the two people the
v wouia nt ior Hit iia ancMttt cl ica:o. 1 Oonjs ot tnendlhio will Lc dtQttsw.
m . ,
syjf and might again force them under
the domination of a people whose
yoke they had just assisted them to
shake off. - ""'.'.';.'' V:
: I ara not ignorant how Selicate it is
to foretell political misfortunes; which
might result to France and the Uni
ted States from the possession of Lou
isiana, and the Floridasby the former.
I must either, conceal that which truth
would have me say, or, on the other
hand frighten certain querulous minds
who may fancy they see a threat in -.j
my frankness. Nevertheless, a citizen
of one of the two nations, and strong-
y attached to the other, I hope that
those to whom this memorial may be
delivered will be able to set a just va-
ue on the motives of my cbnduct, and
will see in it, nothing but 'my exer-
tiens to remove every suoject oi dis
pute between two people formed to as-r
sist oneanother ; and although I am
too well acquainted with the resources
of my own country to dread the pow
er of any 6t the. European natiotis, it
will easily he seen that I am incapa
ble of conceiving the ridiculous idea
of threatening k government which
has seen all Lurepe bend the knee be-
'fore its power.'- . L -
I have observed, that France and the
United States'avey-in a respective si- ,
tuation, so fortunate as to haVeno point
of xroKision. ' They may assist without
beingtempted to hurt one another in
any manneT. This commerce is use
ful to both nations ; this union of sen
timents and interest rests upon prin
ciples which ought to for'rri the mari
time code, and deliver, the universe
from the tyranny founded by Great
nritain, which she' maintains, and
which never 'will be combated with
success, until the other powers, by uni
ting, will abridge her means by trans
faring to nations more moderate a
partofher commerce j. and as there
are no nations on the globe whose con
sumption ofl'crs to foreign' manufac
tures resources as vast as those olTer
edby the United States, if we consi
der with what rapidity this consump
tion increases, the means which Ame
rica has of creating a navy when her
political situation shall render it ne
cessary, we eliall be obliged to own
that France must have very strong
motives and very powerful, to induce
her to abandon these advantages, and
change a natural ally, from a warm
friend into a suspicious and jealous
neighbour, and perhaps hereafter into
a declared enemy.
Experience has provedthat two na
tions could not tc neighbours without
being -rival ; 'and if this be true of two
neighbouring nations, it may be-said
with still more truth cf a colony form
ed by a greJt and powerful nation, re
moved from the'nittropolis, and of a
people bordering on the territory of
the other. .The reuson of this is plau-'
sibl? ; where twfrj'tionsKtri'G neigh
bours every thin-; pauses under the in
spection of the sovereign ; but when
j the governor of a cub ny calculating
upon the protection cf thewctrupuUi,
is guilty of an act of hoit'ditr, the
.wound gets gangrened before a physi
cian can be called. I he oiTcndcd so
vereign who aho thinks that the oll'cn-
ders will be so much the more strong
ly supported, as his nation is more
powerful, tries every means in order
I 1 . - . . I l
1 1 to anticipate on tne nosiuuics which
l he dreads, utcsrei
s, utcs reprisals, and both na
tions are at war before any explana-
. ! M V. . 1 ... 1 .W. . '
It there be a hTuiMon in the
wor-d which may be attenJcd with
thefe confequence, it certainly is
that of France, when (lie is in pof.
feuionof New-Orlcar.i. itisfmi.
ated,in Tuch a manner as to block
up the greaf paiTage towards the
fca, from a great number of States
and a vert ettenftve population
w im.il incrcaio lapiuiy.
A military government it ahmit
to be cQabtilhc J on the ifiand. The
General, proud with reafon, of tlie
glory of tut nation, will call on e.
very thing that, furroundi hnn a
look of fuiicridrity : commerce wilt
beriegraJcd ; and merchants Tub.
jected to thedefportftn of fnen who
will feek in the laying tip of tiches, I penle fuf I ranee, and an Inexhau.l
a iccompenfe for their privations 1 ble (ource of jealoufy between
in the remote anJ inlalubnous
country whether ihcy are fent. The
co!pny prefents nd lawful meat.! of,
- ' . .ir. in
iwm ih.ii, csicpi iuoic uo
and progrtfiive) of dtnmerce and
apiculture ill fuitcd means for
foldicri. However .vigilant the
mother country, fhe will not vent
it that diifaiicf. the vexations
' whKh may be tietciftd. Ou the
ii . . ' -
ruber tn d the fuvernnient of, the
la Uni(f j 5(1,f, wi'n no b hk L t
.,,,lt.rjn(1 :llft.n,f. ioffnin .h.
It r .envC of the near Uhabnanti
In Jj . '
' fr"m n'P1omatic reprtfentation
ed, and the government of the Uni- i
ted States, wnicn ever zaarc me
fentimentf of the people, wiir be
tor,ced, by it muaiion, io iici-ni.
political relations. i nen ior ins
fake of guarding themfetves agaiiift
their old ally, for a pretended ad of
noQrlity, they will form a caution
ary connexion with England,,
which will be fedulous in obtaining
her alliance, and will excite her
f efentment againfl France becaufe
in that alliance (he will fee the
meahs bf prefejving her commerce
with America, which flie now pof
felTes almoft exclufively, fecuring
her colonies to be able, in cafe ,of
war, to Invade the French colonies,
and cfpecially of preventing (he
union of the commerce and, nav.y of
France and the. United States, up
on which alone France can engraft
her naval fuperionty
I tm ay be-lkcd,- w hf tlioTeiea
loufics which-I-fecm fo muchto
dread fdr France, 'have riot taken
place for England in pofTelfion of
Canada ? Firft, becaufe Great
Britain has prudently (eparated her
territory by a natural limit which
prevents the 'contact of the two
nations, While (lie occupied the
weftern polls, the UnitedSfates
faw her with jealoufy, and it, is be.
yond doubt that hoftilities a rid. a na
tional increafc of American popu
lation in that part had taken place ;
when thofe forts were given up,
mi'rerous fymptoms had already
Secondly, becau.fe the ufual rdad
of exports from the United States,
being iriade through '"their own ri
vers, there is no important com-
-municatioH between ihcm and Ca
But it is chiefiy becaufe upper
vanada is inhabited by American
emigrants, who, in cafe o( a rup
ture, would join, according to all
appearances, to the United States.
had not the fpirit of their govern
ment been to prevent the extending
of their limits.
s But,' after all, what political "or
commercial advantage can France
! receive from the poffcluon ot New
! Orleans, and of the Ealt bank of
j the Miflifippi, that may balance the
; lofj, which in thefe two points of
view, uie win uiiiain in me rivalry
with the United States? The Flo.
ridas'are a narrow rhip of barren
land, incapable of defence, in cafe
of a rupture, and which vail I coll
more than-it is worth to guard,
garrifnn, and the prefents to the In
dian Tribes. However advanta
geous Mcw-Qricahs might, be fur
the'Uniicd Stated, it will be of vc
ry iticonGdrrable value for Frjnc,
wli:n the foreign capitals (ball be
taken from it, or a rival city Hi all
be eflablUhcd on the American fide.
From the beft information, I find
that one third of the bed commer
cial houfes employed in New. Or
leans, are American. No fooner
will a military government be ell a-
bliflicd in the country thin all there'
eommcic:al hjufei, with thecspitali
which furport them, will psfj into
the U. u ted States to that place af-
Ugned them by .the ticaty with
Spain, or to the Natchez, where
every velLl which may goto New.
Uricans may be received. Large
veffeli from France have already
arrived there, and unloaded their
carcoei without difficulty, and as
the foil it fo much the more advan
tageous at we penetrate further.
mere is very imie ooubt thu efla.
hlilhcicnt will foon rival that of
New.Orlcam, when hc American
capitaU flu!' have been taken out
of it. When the United Si.ict
fball have declared the Natchej a
free port. New. Orleans will be ve
ry little as a place of co nmercc.
1 on'y n obicil of tifelcfi ex.
I rrancr and the Umtcd Statei.
The celTion f Lemiiiana Is ne
venhclcfs very iinrofttnt toFrirxc.
i tf V. !. . " .i . ,
ii imc i')icii if to me oniy uie
whicrt lound policy leemi to didtate.
1 Iprak oi Louiliana alone, and by
this 1 do notmraq to comprehend
.1. I.M ..! I.. t - r m . m
me rion.iav, oceanic 1 think' ihcy
are nopartidthe (tlHon. Aiitca iby
i ins cruion arauir
ryifiBOit the Mifli
if (he knows hoy in profit of this
cnoimltanct, bv a ptrfeft ntidcr
Uanding wiih the United Statet,
(he wiil find maikets tor a ttt
crtat vatiety ofirticlrs,- when fhe
has accu Homed the Inhabitants f
tne weitern coiintrtri in rtelct
.t . . i . I, i-rt ... v
1 obtain bv tiHfnP ihrm rh Hnd, that he celebrated James 7.
A,. ' i r.?i .v . I Vernier ftft drawnedt 7amr Rt"
. 7 Ku.ncn cneaier, ,pp,;te Ruhe,1, Si,U,i." '
by interefting the American mer. V
c'lmts to leu taem to narc the ufe
of their capitals, and by engigin; f
the government or the Untted States
to give thera the preference. All
this can take place only by the cef. "
fionof New-Orleans to, the Uniied
States, with the referyt ij 1 the tight
tf entry, at all time free frtm'all
thet duties than thole fat A by imf.
rican vejfelt, together witk the right
of navigation on the Mifftftip'u This
would give ner veucis an advantage "
over the veffels of all other nations.
will retain ana even increale the cv!
pitals of New-Orlans, where the
prayifions for , the ifland. will be
bought at the cheapeft uto poffible
and where the articles "or her manu.
facAures vill be ,intro4iiccd in the .
weitern couatnes : The United
States will have, no intereft in ore:
Renting it for every reafon of rival.
ry will be removed 1 hen trance
will command refpeft without in-1
fpinng fear to the two nations
whofe fricndrtiip is the mod impor.
tant for her commerce ; and tfej
prelervation of her llunds and
thefe advantages .will be obtained
without the expense of cftabiifli.
mcnts which ruin the public : trxa.
fare, and divert capitals frsm their
true object., t ;, t
But if, on the one fide, .France
keeps New-Orleans, by attcmptinj;,
. i ..:. t ..:r. n,j...u l v
iu luiuuic irfUUiiiua, lite win QC-
cotne an object of jealoufy to Spain, '
the y nited - States and England,"'
which powers will not only difcour
age her commerce, but will com',
pel her to makeexpenfiveeftablifhv
ments to fecure the polTeffion of it.
, In the foregoing obfervations I ,
have confined riiylelf to obferva.
tions which" prefented themfelvei,
without having recourfe to fubtili.
ties, which only ferve to miflead
the judgment, I have expofed fira
pie fails' with candor' and all the
iimplicity of language. If a reply
is made, it will be by purfuingt
contrary courfe. With eloquence
and fophirtrs they may be combated
and obfeured ; time and experienca
will demonflrate their folidity.
II it (iTobible ihi it Condition of the ccfl-.o.
TussDAr, 7y 26, 1803,
Wt hat accovnttvia Alexandria uhith .
confirm offidaily, the capture of St, Luiia '
by the British, on the 72J June. Com
moihre Hoid and L,ieut. Gen, Grieoficld
contmanded the expedition, of the force of
which they hate given no acccur.t. The
number of Trench prisoners is stated to ie I
619, inclusive t no mention is made of the
krlUdn.niwour.dcd, except on the part cf j
:he English 133. t
j Mr, Monro', says the Morn. Chronicle
, u is prciumea, fits ncr.J gone to tne ipa
nuh Court to complete the object of hie
mitsion bf netMiating fr the possession
of the fioridas. lltere is little douLt but
he'will be as successful at Madrid, as Mr,
Livingston has been at tlx Ciurt vf Paris.
Two British frigates, the Raton ani
Andromache, are said to be cruizing e
our coast. K.T. Com. Advertiser,'
. Aicttet from Nevis dated Jure UA,
teys, Comthodore Hood has sent intt
Bjrbnduci two French frigates and three
transports, bound f rem France toUucJj-
hapr." - : , ,
By an arrival at X(WVurkfrom Haxrt
de Grace, Paris paters to the 2 lit My
inclusive are received. ' From bne (ffhet
date, printed in the F.rglish language, the
editor of the Mercantile dtc-tiser hat,
copied the counter declaration of the r
French government on the subject of the
late nrgociations. Tfiis important stale
paper shall hare place in the Catctie
nexfweei. '' , '
The Mercantile Advertiser states, uvt
have also seen Utters from a source' ef
high rttptcttbility tn Paris, which men' .
lion that Louisiana it ceded I j the Unitti
States for eighty millim of Hires (aLul
1 3 miLion ef d.-ll.trs )nefsarth parable
1 debit due to the ciliiens tftheUMUl
Siaies from France, to be liquid ttci et
Par it t 0414 remainder in C fer ten',
stock. ' i
The F.Hterpritt Uf Havre on the 23J,
and was boarded the dar follcvinf bt ci
F. ngltrg frigate, who, (as reported by her
ejiiert) had captured sit French vttscl.'k ,
ani sent them into British crts.
Came butengert Mr.Ffcuron, If Mr
G, A. it ight t, f Baltimore, i The tatter
it the Be a'er of thtTrefy retpecti'rg
Louisiana, end prtctedeS tmmdiatrlt JSt j
the sent mf government.
A Ba'timgfepaf'ercfthe I !. i.irt". ,'
taye T,Aai Ltar F.tj. is epta'ntrd
h tSe P,e drit, Consul Gr.t'a! ft the
fiatbary Pnvrrii he, vlth hitSectian
anifaily, ae expected in ihiton in f
nrdtyt, o take passage tn the frigaii
Constitution, Cemmcdie Prel'.e,
i Peitnburg paper f the 9th Inrt,