Wff rv v ' aa . a ' v mm. .. ' . a. .. t . '. a m m . m saawssaa s. m, - i , i t : - - - ti j- 1 - . ' . " - - ttfBLI3HED (wttiatr) St ALLMAND UTUESbA, JULY 23,' i805. ifr. 449. raox the Virmosj journal MR. ELLIOT, ' v ' - 'TO HIS CONSTITUENTS , i v;;- : Lettvhh A ; '' i THE constitution of .the, United Stales Js the most "illustrious monument of human wisdom that has existed in any age or nation It combines energy with liberty ; the great desideratum of the most celebrated states linen . of ancient and modern times.' The provision oi the constitution twhich renders attainable such amendments as time and ex perience may require, is one Of its most esti mable characteristics Dut an instrument so fiacred should be touched with a gentle hand. It U time for every .theorist;' aqd few have been more ardent theorists than myself to sacrifice the visions of his, imagination .upon the altar ofnationat union V : Many of the jjreatmt and best men in Vir g!nU were opposed to the adoption of th ; Constitution Could this circumstance' be considered as a reproach," it would not be ap plicable to Virginia alone ; it was the case in ' large majority of the states. . Opposition generally speaking, proceeded from the best tof motivss, from an attachment to liberty, and from a fear, that Were ilie constitution adopted, " liberty wouldhebut name to a dorn the short historic pare of the halcyon days of A ill erica.' But there "were peculiar features in the constitution which rendered it peculiarly obnqxioui to Virginia The states were to be equally represented in the Seiute, an. important brarich of the government, a two edjed sword, pUced in the avenue to the overeijjatie of the individual slates, and Checking equally th President and the re presentatives of the psopls, shoulJ th;y attempt td exceed their comtilutioiial limits. Many of the greatest men of Virginia thought radically wroag that, the adall state of RhoJc-Islan J should have an equal , "voice in the Senate With tlte largest state t and as that idea still prevails in Virginiaand that state piuesscs a threat aiij increasing influence over the snnill states, it is reasona ble to conclude that those who think the con stitution wrong will endeavour1 td make it ttht, as soon as trie obtain the power. Nothing else can be expected so long as ' man is man." Although jealousy has been considered by many as a republican virtue of the ftrit order, we ought not, however, to indulge a groundless je'Mdusy ; nor ought we to aoejss any portion of the union of a design to change the constitution, without unqties lionable evidence. Upon tHis subject my Blind h3s been perfectly convinced, and ( always express with ttue republican free dom, opinions of correctness, df which I feci ' perfect conviction. ' The sentirrients of the Celebrated Patrick Henry, of Edmund Randolph of .Mason, and many otherdiHtinuishd Virginians, re pecting the constitution, are on record, and the record cannot be obliterated; The equa lity of suffrage In the Scnattf was a promi nent objection. The mmd even of the great Washington hirbourcd a strji,j prepostcs sioit in favor of the largi states. 1 have been toli by a Venerable member of the conven tion which funned the constitution, that Washington was decidedly of opinion that the smill states took too high ground, - and that nothingbut the indispensable necessity of forming a constitution previously to thd dissolutisn of the convention, induced him to support what he considered as too great a concession on th ' part of the Urge states. .Various publications oft recent date, under the signature of the veHernble patriot, iui.' tnund Pendleton, Inculcated the propriety of . severs! Important alterations of the constitu tiont tod there Is every reason to believe that those publications were correct indica tions of the getvetaj sentlmenti of Virginia, Ilr. Eppes, a member of Congress from that lUte, m the address to his constituents, in consequence of which bt obtained bis elec tion, announcc4 his determination to advo cate several very important alterations of tha constitution, one of which should have for Its abject the reduction of lime for which' the Se niton ere elected, and also, if my recollec tion be Correct, to' render them liable to be rtcslled by Ibe state legislatures. Mr. Drtc tenridge, a native of Virginia, and a distin guished member of the Senate, declared in the debate epon the late amendment that no thing could be more aristocratic in his f pin Ion, thsn the election of the Senators for sit years but that be wished not to conned an alteration of the constitution In that respect, with the amendment' then under considers tlon. Another V' member of the Senate declared In my pretence, tint rrothing could be clearer than that it Is totally wrong to fcste a Se nrte at ill in a ttpublican Rovem mem. It imi ttrifsLiCAiM, of other states as well as Virginia have declared to me that eery Important amendments oMre constitu fi1n must and will take place in a few years. One member from Virginia In the presence f several members ef both pnlitieal psrtici, teM me, that the time for which the Sena too are elected roul be reduced to two years that this ilttrstion would uott te agl--HUd that it ttedd be tut by vib'cb la try the republicans ) atld that no member ' could be consiuered as a true republican who sttotua oppose iu i nave ascertained mat a very great proportion of republicans in Con gress are of dpinidn that tha constitution is , too aristocratic', that the small states possess , Joo great Weightr that the judiciary is by far too tiide pendent, arid.hat the following ' alter-' Rations of the constitution piust be made, as sdon as the public niind ban be prepared for them.' ' , - '' ;''. ''.. ,' ' ":. A ; I . Td Wddce thte time for which the Sena- tbrs are elected to two years. ' 'I his would soon fender. the senators from the small slates the mere toolsof the large states, and would lead to the total destruction of the senate. , - v 2 To carry the election of President td i the people at large. This would destroy all the remaining Weight of the small states, as statesj in the lection of Pre s Went. . The height of Vermont relative to Pennsylvania, in thatelection, is nt?w in the ratio of 60 to ; ip it would then be only as 4 to. 18: . - SiThat the judges shall be appointed for a few years only. Qonlment is here unne cessan . ;'''.' r Possibly there may be rib jiist grohnd for my alarm upon this subject, but although I may be too credulous I am certainly sincere in my fears. Should no attempt be made to alter the constitution, I shall be Willing to be .considered, not only as a weak alarmist but a vhionary politician M ich is said of a plot td divide1 the itniori It W imputed Chiefly to the federalists, but at tempts have not beeu wanting to implicate the northern republicans. I have expressed im'self in favor of a union of the people in the northern states in general sentiment, for the purpose of securing to us our dde Weight in the councils of the nation, and for preser iin "instead of destroying the constitution but I wjh that union to take place upon re publican principles, and no other ; upon the" genuine principles of the conitituiion alone; Were the northern states as well united as the southern, we should not be so unreasona ble as to deire ni tre than our due degree of political weight, and that the southern states would be Willing to allow Us, for they must ;.dreid a dissolution of the union equally with ourselves. No person in the United States can more ardently desire the preservation of the uti'ort than myself. I .shall always be ' prepared to spill the last drop of my blood in Its support I believe the only wav to pre- , serve the Union is to preserve the tonstitu tidn. May Both be preserved I May the Constitution and the union be perpetual I These are the sentiments of a Vermont re publican, who without aspiring to-pre-emi-' nence will never consider himself inferior to the republicans of Virginia. My little farni ol fourteen acres is cultivated by the labour ofmrown hands; my brethren of the south possesses hundreds of slaves scattered ore? thousands of acres. Speculatively the Vir ginian may be a better republican than I am j but his republicanism is certainly not quite ad practical as mine ' James ellIot 1 P. S, Since writing the above letter some tf the alterations of the constitution which I had ventured to predict, have beert moved in Congress by Mr. Randolph, of Virginia, and Mr. Nicholson, of Maryland, and are made the order of the day for the first day of next cssion. I am also possessed of evidence to prove that some of Mr. Randolph's most a ble supporters In congress have boldly avow - td their boslilitjr to the constitution in all in essential parti. It is possible thai my atarmu'pontbU lute jeet my be a tain one. I hbpe that it Is so. lint in thtaltcrnate triumphs of the two great parties in our country, 1 have seen moogh to convince me that party spirit is Capable of every pecie of delusion and tioletice, in the support of favbrite measures and I sin cerely believe that we are in danger of wit nesting a political tempest, fraught with ru intolhe righs oftbe small states. It is known to every member of congress from the northern states, that the majority of Vlr ginia statesmen,' entertain opinions, in re ference not only to constitution! principles; but to the great interest of commerce which re at varience with the aeniimthts of men of all panics of this quarter of the union.. In these opinions our Virginia brethren are honest. They have sketched for themselves the system which they think would best pro mote the prosperity and glory of the union, and they will support that sy.tem with ener ry Our owndeclaimere v. ho resort to the farewell address ol the great Washington, for denunciations against those who mhrf pftitnt the opinions and alms of other dis tricts," act unjustly in aniifing 0ose who ryrrtent tomtUj the semlmrnti and views 'iHitic!int In other qu'arieri. I have made this torrtct presentation under the strong est impressions of dmj. And jeatot'n I m nf Virginia, I will support, is an Indivl dtf il a Virginia candidate for the oflice of I'rtslilent, o long as lhat state shall picnnt toogrvirwthe man, qualified above all o thers, (or that station. As the present presi dent will probably decline athlnlcfrctlon. t im tj. n3uccdtobcIitve that Mr. MadiiXn ami Mr. Randollh will be candidates for the next presi dency. In that event the ptople of the nor thern aid middle states will consult their own ifiterestj and that of the union, by support ing Mr Madison. Attached to the constitu tion fnnjits infancy, his administration would be guided by. it prihcipleaWand it ia to be,' hoped that the Chariot of the suh Witt never be committed to the guidance of a se cond PbaktonI In other wordsit is hoped ihatgenius.aad eloquence, combined with habits of cool reflection arid profound inves ti). ation, will ever be considered as forming superior pretensions to the presidency, to genius and eloquence alone. ; v J. ELLIOT Letter IX t- : : .' . '.That part of the conflitution of the Uni ed Slates which allows to the people ol the f"ut hern fUtes, a reprefentation in cpngrefs and in ihe election of the prefix dent, oi" their (laves, (for it is not a re- prs-fentation of Hayes) is the only part of that tnttrumcnt winch 1 conliner as ma terially objectionable ; and I (hall hot be detctrsd from an exprelfion of my fenti ment upon the fubjeft by the fool i In out. cry about an imaginary dillolution of the Union. 1 have often fatd that I with not to fee the fubjecTt again agitated, in the form of an amendment, to' the confli tution. Every one knows it mud be un availing. But it may (till be ufeful that the operation of that part of the con it i ttition (hould be better underftood by the people than it had been hitherto.1 Infor mation can do no harm in a republican govern tieut j the more the people know, .the greater the; probability uf pielerving the cotiftimtioB. It ii certainly trhe that the) rich plan, ter in he foil thorn flstcs who pulhlffS jo fl jves; has tbtNy-int times the political weight in our national government than is punVfed by the farmer 01 merchant of New-Eirgland. - He does not direclly give fo man votet, but the flatcs is alldwed thfeifl, and as one of the conflituenis of the rcprefcntaMve and elector of the dif tricl, he pofT.ff.-s" all that conlcquence. At the lime time he contributes much lei's tllanhis proportion to the fuppdrt of goveninvmtf for th: labouitng (laves con. Iiime.nothirigof confequence upon which' a duty is patJ t-ind what the mater, does cdntrilute is eatneJ for him by the laiour of (lives, while the fanner and every man of bu fine ft in the northern and middle flatet pays his taxes with the fweat of his own brow. It will be (aid that compaiifdm of. this kind are invidU ous. It ii false. -Truth and corrcit irt fdrmaiidn fa far- from meriting that Character, aire always honourable and iifeful. , VViih very conGderabte labour I have made forae calculations updn this fubjetf.'to which I flia!l receive the thanks of every honeH man in the diflricti and which will certainly give rife 10 ri fled ons of a mod interesting nature. Whole ntimber of persona r in the United States in 1799 : 3,893,635 Deduct slaves, 694,389 Thttefifth of slate litest) TrVee fifths of the slarei 3,195,353 416,368 Whole No. represented 3,615,993 Giving 106 reprefenutivti and a traction of 18.923 fiat by the lofs of fractional pans of ihe ratio of reprefentation In the apportionment of the fcveral ftatei, tha actual numbers wai only 106. Of 5j,28o fiivet, the Hate of Mart lind, Virginia, Kentuckey,North.Caroll na, South Carolina, and Georgia, con tained 645,023 three fifths of which num. ber it 387,011 which divided by 33,00s) (and not calculating fractional loffin the appoitionment to the flate which would tint In this cafe amount -to one member) gives as ihr flave reprefentation of the louthern (tales agrreably to the ctnfus, e lfn members and a frsQion of whole number of perfans in the Uni ted States in 1800, exclufive of TennclTce, Ohio, and the rcfiltorles, 3,149,308 Slattu Total, Tennessee 13,314 IC3.60J Ohio 43,365 Indiana 133 5,641 Mississippi '3,489 , 8,839 17,208 In other states 875,325 Deduct in India- 105,438 165,438 5,305,66$ Tot.lav.892,433 ns!tMi isissippi deduct in Iml. unrepresented 1 4,49 1 & Mis. 3.624 , - 835,603 deduct Slav. 5,391,175 881,809 ' ' 4,403,368 ; ry ... 4,935,646 .Giving 149 reprefentatives and a trac tion of 18,640. But by the lots of the ' fractional parts, fjtc. the number ia on ly .14a; 'V I ' ,f. By the fecpnd cenlusi of8S,8o9 flaver the fame flates contain 837.9, "threw fifths is 4?9,74, giving 15 reprefcntalivel : and a fraction of 4, 7 94- s 1 fhilHivtde the United States into the. three great naiural divifions of northern, middle and fduthern flates. , The northern receive no advantage, the biddle but a trifle, if any and the fob t hern a very important advantage, from the reprefenta tion for (laves. The following table exhibits the r?e creafe of (laves in the northern and middle, and their increaffc in'lhe fouthcrn ltatesj for ten years. . New-Hampfhire, MaflachufettSi R." I (land, Connecticut and Vermont coni . tained in 1 796 Tot aK 1,(509,522 ; HaveeV 3,886. "In 1806, total 1,233,01 1 j flavea l339- New-York, New.jeffey, Penn (ylvania and Delaware, in 1793, total 017,726 vfiavs4537fv in 1800, total 1.464,017 ; (laves. 40,84. Maryland, -Virginia, Kcntuckey North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia, in 1790, to tal 1,866,387 ; (laves 64,923. In 1800, total 2,437,231-; djves 832,992 The (laves in the northern flates have decreafed froiiv3,886 to 1,329, almoft in the ratid of 2 and 3: In ihe middle flates from 4$, ? 71 to 40,894 in that of nearly oneninth. ncreafe in the. fouthefn frdm 46,033 to 832,992, neatly one ihird of the origi nal r umbcr,. or in the ratio of 3210645, Rhode-Illsnd has decreafed from 948 to . 38 Connecticut from 2,7640951, Newa York nearly llationary. Pennfylvania and Delaware have decreafed a little, and Maryland made a fmall increafe. Virgi nia has ihcrelfed in the ratio of 34510 292" Kentiickey in that of 4010 12. North Carolina in ihat of 133 to too. South Carolina in that of 14610 107. Georgia, his doubled. her number. The lacreafe gives 4 members of 'Congref and as ma, ny clecloiaof FieGdent to the southern (tales. The increafe of ihe whole number of perfons reprefented has been as 49 to 3$, that of (laves for which their matters are reprefented aft 53 to 4! ; 'that of free men as 4 to 31. Let us calculate upon the fame ratio for ten years to come.. In-i creafe the number of peifons reprefented from 49 to 65 ; (laves from 53 to 68 free men from 44 to 6o, round numbers ; there will be in ten years more than 10 reprefentatives for Oaves. But if we cal culate as we may with probability, upon a much larger increafe upon the creation of the new dates in Louifianl, and the importation and propagation of (laves in that country, $1130 or 40 years there will be between 30 and 40 reprcfentative in congrefs for Oaves and as many tlc&ots of prefident. But another my gloomy part 6f thd picture remains id be unfolded. . In the lafl ten years the whV.e num. ber of perfons in the northern or eaflern Haiti has increafeJ onl in the . proporJ . lion of il to id, in the middle ai 14 it ' ' 10, in the fouthern neatly as 24 to 18. Free people in the eaflern as 12 to 104 (lives in the fouthern as 83 to 64 Free people In the fouthern Hates trooi 1,221,364 to 1,604,230. Free propl6 . in the caltern flates In ihe ratio of one fifth onhr of the original number ihofd in the fouthern flates in that of nearly dne third ; flares about Jn the fame proportion. v Dy the laft cenfus the number of free? perfons in the northern flates wai 1,131, 672 and in the fouthern 1,604,239- Ily the fortrier cenfus the number of free perfons in the northern Hates was 1,006,636, and in the fouthern 1,221, 364 How are the people In thtfe dif tercnt quarters of the union relatively reprefented) By. the fitd ctnfus er mot had two membeif, New.Himp (hire 4, Malaihufetts 14, Hhodc-lll-and 2, Connecticut f 28 membvi Maryland 7, Virginia,' 19,. Kentucky-2, North Carolina 10, Souih.Carolina 6, Georgia 8 46 members. 1,00,63 citilcns In. the northern flates had 29 repreieniatlvei. Without alleging any fractions of the ratio of rrprtfentaiiort . in the appointment to the fevrra! Hates and making no allowance for flavri, the northern Hates would have ieen cntl. (ted by the cenfus of 1790 ta 30 repre. fenratives and a fraction nf IC.636, the . fjuibcm to 37 ool; with the trilirg

Page Text

This is the computer-generated OCR text representation of this newspaper page. It may be empty, if no text could be automatically recognized. This data is also available in Plain Text and XML formats.

Return to page view