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1 THE CAROLINA TIMES
SAT., MAY 2,1981
Cemfteiniiniaall Satoie-Otmirlliisiinni Coeimfty Black Achievement
I tTX V? ill
TRAVELING THRU ARKANSAW, WILL BE HOME SOON, reads the sign on picture posl card. From left in
the wagon are: W.G. Pearson, A. Goodloe and Dr. S.L. Warren in Hoi Springs, Arkansas, about 1938.
By Elva P. DeJarnton
Part II Synopsis
. The continuing struggles of the black citizens of
Durham for tepresentative "pieces ot the pie as envi
sioned in our Bill of Rights and Constitution are just as
vital today as they were when Durham County, North
Carolina was carved out of Wake and Orange Counties
February 28, 1881. As we look to the development of
black citizens, all people should be well aware that
education has been, and will always be, an. important
facet in black family growth.
It must never be forgotten that it was against the law
for black people to be taught to read for the majority
knew that with reading capacity and legal development,
a race of people could then move ahead as has been the
case with many ethnic minorities. However, for blacks,
this development has most often been after lengthy legal
struggles. For unlike other citizens of this great nation,
black people have been denied access to the arena of
political, entry, educational development, health, and
economic growth primarily because of color.
The first fifty years of the Centennial Salute to black
achievements pointed out the cooperative efforts of
both blacks and whites in building Durham as tobacco,
business, education and health interests were growing in
the segregated arena. Most blacks who achieved success,
especially economic annd business success, succeeded,
but had no part in the political growth of Durham
County. :. H
This saga continues to point out important black .v
foot prists in Durham County development as they came
to the city to work at various types of occupations.
U should be noted that during the years of the Qreat
Depression, such businesses as N.C. Mutual, Mechanics
and Farmers Bank, Mutual Savings and Loan Associa
tion, as well as North Carolina Central University,
somehow weathered the severe depression of the early
1930's which affected all people, black and white.
A HILLSIDE STUDENT GROUP
will continue with 1931.
Chamberlin Studio of Music, begun in 1925 by Mrs.
Margaret S. Shearin. continued to grow and to offer
A GROUP OF HILLSIDE STUDENTS
....... ; - . ,
" ' ' J.S. Stewart came to Durham and was affiliated with
Mutual Building and Loan Association. He later served
as its president.
August 15. Meeting of Durham citizens C.C.
Spaulding, J.E. Shepard, J.T. Taylor, W.D. Hill, R.L.
McDougald, L.E. Austin, CO. Pearson and R.N. Har
ris, elected to constitute the Executive Committee. The
Committee took the initiative in the organization of the
N.C. Committee on Negro Affairs. Committee was
dedicated to educational, economic, social and political
welfare of Negroes in North Carolina. Hillside Park
development was effected after conferences with the
then J.L. Morehead and C.R. Woods of Recreation
Commission Hillside Park was developed and many
workers were added to City Playgrounds. It is impor
tant to note that after one year's service, the Committee
recommended that "The Citizens Committee be
organized as the Durham Committee on Negro Affairs,
offering membership to every Negro in the community
and appealing for the cooperation of every member."
"2. That Durham Committee on Negro Affairs
dedicates itself to the educational, economic, social and
political welfare of Negroes in Durham and a represen
tative would be from every section (five sections) where
The North Carolina Committee on Negro Affairs was
organized in Durham, March 15, 1936. The Executive
Committee of this group included C.C. Spaulding,
James T. Taylor, R.N. Harris, R.L. McDougald, G.W.
Cox, CO. Pearson, J.E. Shepard and L.E. Austin.
Scarborough Nursery School, under direction of Mrs.
Clydie F. Scarborough, became the first State Licensed
Day Care Center. '
Act of Legislature of N.C. created NCCU Law and
j NCCU Law School opened. Pharmacy school never
! Norfley Whitted was radid broadcaster on WDNC,
Durham Colored Library became Stanford L. War
ren Library in new building located at corner of Fayet
naiffivjJl and Umstead Streets. It was the second oldest
.Jibrary for blacks in the state.
June. Pressure on U.S. Government to open equal
opportunities for blacks in national defense. Executive
Order 8802, issued by FDR to open up opportunities for
blacks in defense areas.
World War II Many young black men participated
in various branches of the armed services Army,
Navy, Marines, Coast Guard, Air Force.
Suit filed to train blacks as air pilots. Tuskegee In-
(ContinOed on Page 12) .
COUNCILMAN R.N. HARRIS SIGNS OATH OF OFFICE
However, certain footprints were still being made by
black citizens of Durham . The chronological anecdotes
CAROL WILLIS, JR.
music instruction in piano and other instruments to
more and more students. Chamberlin Studio is still open
in 1981. p ,
Heart of the Great Depression with United States
economy at its lowest ebb. . "
. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of USA.
Raymond Hoctitt versus UNC - Denial of equal pro
tection of the Law.
N.C. Legislature passed Equalization Act which pro
vided that for courses . of study, not offered at state
schools, the state would pay the differences in tuition,
cost and travel. Many blacks took the opportunity to go
out of state to colleges or universities. v t
January 20, Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivered his
famous "one-third of a nation'Vaddress. Creation by ,
FDR of the Works Progress Administration (WPA),
National Youth Administration (NYA), and Civilian
Conservation Corps (CCC) for high school graduates ,
and dropouts. Employment was at low ebb for all sec-
,; tors of the population;-',:. s. .
Legal action by CO. Pearson, Durham attorney,
resulted in the wide equalization laws of North Carolina
which permitted black adults and black youths to get
equal shares of such governmental programs as WPA, '
NYA, CCC. Public education in Durham was also af
fected by this action which gave equal equipment, sup-
plies and support to Durham's black schools. '
' Dr. James Taylor served as director; of the Youth
Division of WPA (NYA). CO. Pearson worked with
WPA. There were many citizens, black andwhite, who
were able to participate in WPA programs in Durham,
especially artists and teachers who were unable to secure
Dr. Y.D. Garrett took over Biltmore Drug Store
. which had been started by Dr. Clyde Donnell and others
"' -4 1 I.'.-' I :' III "r-f I
NEWLY ELECTED COUNCILMAN - The late R.N. Harris, first black city councilman, reads about his elec
tion with his wife, Mrs. Plassie W. Harris.