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I " I jinn" - .-.j' ii "L" ' )m hi.iiii m' S"" ' n "" '"ii't -j-' . ' V"" v"
1 . ,
FttlD yVr APRIL 8, 4820.
,4 ml i. I
RALEIGH, (N. CO
niformly maintained it9 tight to delibe tious opportohUiesy best to know its Hm-
. t a a i i j i -' i J i i r I ' ' . m.
raie ujuu irnne irtfaues in which irinr sy uecureu, nueen years ago, mat our
trfiB "Kt ct tooAs &HARVitta-opeiHiiHn was askel by the Executive. title to the Rio Dei Norte was as well
Z a kicfie ' Three lftQ per year, n the first case that occurred in the pro- founded as it was to thf island of. New
f?Mf to be pail n advance. No paper to be
ZLa longer thartthrte.mo.Hhsstter a
gross of our government; that -of th pila.irs. - Here Mr. . read ah extract
KU im.. rtn anri nntir. 1 1 J . vi'iiinmm y 'laiirii air. i hv a ircii vm a memoir urcaioncu in laus. u v mr.
f"hilhe been Kiven-X. , ty, alter General VVashingtoii refused 0 Monroe and Mr. Pinckney, to Mr. Ce.
urttMnii, not exceffl n H lines, ftrc n. cni!Tioicate his inst Uctimis to that mi- vellos, provin? that the boundary of
sen t jeion . aml ; i.ce luster, the House asserted its riff lit, ' by Louisiana extended eastward to the Per
"Ztn where there ifi center numfxr of- SO oHhctes to 3a odd. 1 In the last case dido and westward to the "Rio Del Norte,
&Bfowteen. The cuh mm acrnmp my t, -t C(' hi ml, th'u -Coiivctition of 1813 in wliichlliey say, ' The facis and priu
Auefromprwcn Unknown ,to the editor? Ajth Or,at ,i'lt uioA nit- cinlM tthich Miifif thW r,.iwl.iain. am
M subscription can i.v anyxsc oe receiver - ... j-- w
itlliltl' pfy"16"' unni wrtTj it n (JHIJ3C 11119 "iuvi; w 111111 nincill 1J
adnoJ;cofl'-in"'"'ce without ?yent of ar. Umwe snbstantulJv obtained its object ; rooVinco it that the United States have
m. i,teittheop:ii"pi . thc aura. fur jffct,l4t Cmvetition oper ated as a re. not a better right to the island of New-
)e;d of the laws' w ii h which it was incotn- Orleans, under the cession referred to
latibli', thciict whfcfr. passed was aho t'ii they have to' the whole dintrict of
gether uririeccsiary. ' .--territory thus described."") Tho titk to
Supposing, howcreir, that no treaty the Pcinlido on the one side and to the
which urrdertakes to disn.ise of the' tor- '-Kin Del Norte ou th6 otlier, rested on
UmMr Liny- resaiuuonfoaunuca.
. nt it i kh c c 1 if .
.tti.,ri whirl. 1, Im.r,, ritory of the United States is valid. . He siarnc principle, the priority of disco
' .. ... .. n 1 li.nif thn rnniiii'n.w.n . it 'ff I'V a nil o I niviiriftf inn liV f irtf- Snam
y, s3rrlcu tliiU the V onsiiruli.in v ' w,,v ' l" ""o1""" , Y r . , '
it m,.o my -b'j contemled that such tre.itvm.iv ,,ad first discovered nd made an csta-
fill 111 lilt Vt ''J CI ui iri v J.UI r. .
a 1 .-- . J- n . b-k
.. f -lUe'inif nr t be fPi r torv bfl "",;'iiiiiiriaiiv nx me limits oi ttlC lej'-. u ciisavuiu j a- tmiilu ai .u-
'ILl'thm itid that HHtreatvnur. 1 ,ro, ' s f "ll5 United States, where they phin island in the Cay or Mobile. The
Jfo-to alienate 'any potii.-m thereof, is 8re I.i"Itcd without the cooperation of intermediate space was Unoccupied ; and
;,:J1 ;,t...,.t tt.o ,.,.-rV,.r,. ..f f , ... Congress. lie tidtnitted it, when the fix- the principle observed among L.irojeati
U. The proposition whichit 'asserts, i"",m 'ie uonis'Hi.itpiy was the object, ;"", S. "uoua aeuiemenw,
U U thnnt'Ut. si.m( ici,t v mn ntiihted '-""" mer oi. croix, or V"" .""""i"' u -1'"
-it. . . .. . .. i i.i i.,. ...,ii.. .i:..:jj
vbarlvrea'iiin" ll.e t l.toM- in ti e rem- U,L m n c recent supiiiauoji in lite treaty UG "i""" ul,lluu w au-
rtiuVonI.M:hit rests: The Con- of or il ,,,at ,r treaty witli' pHcd to it, ami the Perdido thus became
WjteBlTrp..wcrtUdisposeor;Lr. bum " 17',5 ," these cases, the the : common boundary, bo, west of the
... ,.,!.t. .,..., t...t..,:..rt. treaty inaki.-isr !Mver nieretv reduces to .Mississippi, La -Salle, - acting under
n-n iiirii iiiii nui'i ir u'ioOkiii ' r
certainty iliat which Was be fire unascer- i' ranee in 16S2 or 3, fit st discovered
taiiieii It amiMiiices tlie fart; it pro- fat river. In 1!;S5, he made an esta-
claiins, iYa'.'taiigible form, t!iq existence lHsimeut on Hie Bay of -St. Bernard,
of tfic h:)iitidai V. It does not iinkea new v-st of the Colorado, emptying into it.
boundary ; it '.a-iserts only where the old ,,c rarest Spanish settjeineuf was'Pa-
hou'ndary wu--. Bttt it ranu'ot, under co- "v nntl the Kin. J)d Norte, about the
" ' " . . . . . i:.. i, i... i;
jldnuthepre.scihfHi. Hapneatetl to !" ttxin" a "."iary previously ex- """ ai iuc cuuimou
ij, however, that no safe American 's-'. tti mgir not m tact marked, under- u7; -. . . ' . '
toraan would tjssi-nto it a boundless laKe " le away, wi ,ut the cpncUr- u atcounts concurmi in repr.esemmg
He presumed, f.-csainple, tht re,,re wlw.le provinces. If rex as. to be extremely Valuable. Us so-
ttnnltriMiT h?rnritPiii thai in a tr-etr 1 uu v i i ic li- 'l l nil L'U .ll.il iH.H , v""" " .y-.
... . !; w. . 4 r . i . - itn fit nr fit 'in Irinr r H Iftfiila
... ." i- . a i.cr i i
m? United States." It was iir l'roin
liswish to rem A aT'lar a discussir.ti of
pttcaty itiakmg power. Ihe const t
a'im of the Uni'e-i States had not de-
litil t!ie precise l.inits o: that .puAverj
busc, from . t-i.e. nature of it, tljey
rr,:adt which v;in itseif iiiyited tiicrc
p a tahctionary without limit. Tin.
ht great bonnd to the-power in q tiev-
fjit, lie appTe:ieii(!cit, w is, that no trea-
iToiiid ciiiisiiiiitirjiiiiily transcend th?
Itrj obj'ecta and 'purposes of the g-ivern.
riit ilsill'.' He tfeoi'-lt . aiv. V.M
iy of tli.; li.vatioti of a prior limit, heron. ,utc vvasT delicious; the sod lertile ; the
tended that the' President must come, here margins of t!ie livers abounding it; Jive,
for th? consent of Congress ''But in the oak and thc,country admitting of easy
I'loti ia treaty it was not pre'enrted that scttlemetit. It pf'Ssessetl, moreover, if
the object was simjdy. a declaration' of he were not misinformed, one of te fin..
wheiTtlie w n liinit orL iuis;
productions of vht. li it was capable,
were nailed to our wants. ' The unforttin
He psicisi i.I t he o-.-niTnl ... a,.i !,., coiefcorm-,'ii. e
Wy.nakin powers t,on ihe print'i.do l,cc,ive V-" to the i,eg.ciatioi were ' .. w';'10 ot wanton.y l
ilKtl, ttas 'funiiiar" "to et ecv o'i- Wd so much' in, an enquiry whero J1'"' 1 "c ('"'onies of other .
ile did 'Hot ii,sist thitt t!e "treaty' eVumt of-Louisiana wns, as that they Ul rc seporated from them by
icrever there 'wer sM-Hfir -iMnt ,f ,l was the contrary, the case of an a-
kuci- tii (!i.ii.-paa. ti..v ;... ;tn.i i ...... vowed oei'sion of fei iiiorv from the Ciii-
4f!li or, he-would rather s , modiGeil ted States to Spain. The whole of the o': wi eu iur
tnanib'Steu that the res- eJ'i, i-omihiveii, aim t oioiues. ienavc
tin in ail, if wtvdo not wantoivy throw
J i . -i . . .
. - ' ii ...A.....'. ..... i. . ... nrn m n iiii in" tiii.ti t iiiia. , 1 1 iiiiiitii
T roiJ tl nut " Ul). ti ll,l Ku1,5 " i i i n 1 1 i it: ui urrt; u , - v 1 " o - - i - -
d subject cHimdiu-l to Hie char-i- ''0'Hd be- 'ilence, WC find various limits a"" -' suhject. W a Constant
-ongrrss; !, merely cim'er.-'-d tliU the l'r"l"d and discussed. ' At one time ot their being torn Irom their grasp,
wrenceor Co i-ress io it -iion t!,, M' isipl'i is prop-ised ; then tt.c Uur colonies,' on ihe contrary, are United
subjects wai tiect-ssirv ' A ' Missouri; then a river discharging it- t' l'nii. a part of our continent ; ami the
nlil he': iist that the cohr.irm.W u 11 " the Golf east of the Sabine. A 8liac .iissippi, tram wiii.se ncii tiepo.
Wtl precede that action. It wouhl he vast - desert, proposed to VperaRtlic. , '"'
inoHt tlesiM,lil- i ,at :t shmd 1 vc territories of the two-powers': an.nin.tr- Tii-ioimeo, .u orunsjiori wit ner uosom
iir it. :p ' . ' " . ' ' iv H... .sJm-P wliicii n.i!i..-p ,,f i!M. i. .f. tht? brave ami tiat.tioiie nu) from her triv
'tcommiu.Ki.t of Congress on tl7.. ... had Tver cona-o.f d w as the nuricnt bM,i,rv " defend and preserve
i . 1 I. f unv F miuf fituiih hi ffl. rihm i.irn ..I
We w anted I' lori Ja, or rather we shall
want it, or, to ieak jet more correctly,
we want no body else t teive it. Wo
lo not desire it for immediate use. It
tills a sjntcu in our imugioation, and we
wish it tti foiiiotete lliu Hrrihutiaeinent ol
m "f these terms on .which it infglit three, proposisious, the lint"!' which wanor territory. It must certainly conic to
e proper to ttrjit -with f, -reign' powers, that the. Cfjnivalet granted by Sflain to us. The" ripened fruit will not more sure
"the view of the subject which he had the United States for tin- province of ly full. Fiorida is enelosutl in between
ltfn taking, there was a tiiutdi liielier de- fexas.was itiaiienij tfe. -'l'o determine Alabama and Georgia, and cannot escape.
nuiv i ' iieiner wu eei jc loriuu
hat!, by the Estviitivel or n l!ii,:lnv limit of Louisiana, is ad -p!ed, ml the
rmiglit seem to be avinlatiori of ill..
Ft of the country, pledged for the i a-
i iioiin fr ii... .... ., .. i.. t.
i "'" ii iciij1.. uui ne was!per-
Fyavt-arc, tlit it woti!: he Very 'often
Ply'incoiivettie'it to -deliberate, in a
niinier.n'is .as Cone-res. n lim 1 he stTont! rcolii yi Comoro landed
b uiinlai v is extended fro.rn "its source bv
a line pet fcfilv ne.v and arbitrary ; ;.:.1
tlie treaty tfstdf procI;,iuis its ' purpose to-
he. a cession tl'oiri the United States to
Spain. - .'.-. V'
I , Ml,.!!,!! IV
r 'v m iiimi o toeir count-! Ii. U at
F3 it tl.ot . e .i ,,
, "i wu. tioise also. JitiV ii
concurrcntc of 'his House he wot nc
fSiarv in ii... . . .....
"ii-- lasts usscrti-ti : it liierc
now or jioino five or ten years hence, is ot"
n i eintrt(Of'iieerpiuviiled no other power
gi'fi il; tin. I it any zither power should
uitenijtt in t u k e it, aiilxistirig act of Con
gress uuiborizsi the President ttTprevent
hh... . it
V 01 securilvio the interests oM-h-w this it was necosatv to estim ate flic va-
:Jlu,,by.. For, wi,1i ail his respectfor llie "In? of w!n;t wr gave; iind.of what we if-
atucnt ant! Seua.r, it Ct-'uhl not (lisiiai - dived. This involved. "an enoo i v n o
our. claim to lexas.. It was not los .jiur
pose to enter .at. large into-this subject.
w I . I. .1 ! I .. . I. - b .
lie prest uKii.u et.aue woo.u noiue iu e wa4, llot dispoaed to disparage
nreSenten ot ones ioriiii2. in tins orancli ...i.. ......
. . . ' " 'j a- m.i uu. in iiiii iijsig rnmo n as
. restriction upon the power lie was of. the government our title to lexas. eompai ably Uss than that of Texas.- Al
swonnjr.jt might ,lraxv to itself and whi-MHiad beenc.onsbntiy maintained by mt its sole value was military. The
'"lb the -Whole of the 'powers of gov--'tlie Executive fir more than filieen years possession of it would ' undoubtedly 'earn,
.metit. To c.mtriict alliances to sti- ipast, uutler tin ee several aiiiuinistrajrons. .uixmieate some additional security toLou
?te for ridsiiiir trooos to h..-nml,.,-rrt IT was-kt t'iio same time"ieadv and nrc- iiann nd to the American commerce io
., n ... . . ..... . .vv. - ' v . . , u
"""oi war aaout tu be wa'Td- to. paroii to maue out our tine, ii any one. vu uui u una iwi very
iCS 1 ('Vf'll tt fait ttM. urn I'me In h?.t Il.iuat? .were lenrhiss cnoti'rli tit essential to have it for protection 1o Geo-
oops within the bosomtif the co:i-.- controvert it. Ifc woutd, foi- tlie present, S1' Alabama. r TbrecouId be uoat,
:g?f l-Ucr; and if in all famtiiar with the transaclidns of this -J uf
leases the lu n..V P.tik n. ... w,vWnmPnrt who larirelv.narticiiiated i. 5 ,vere.a , Iese .states. Annexed, to the
;v aione inieiit be left. toL Con. .. besides tnc eminent services inai ne nas
jL 'vtoimntho rum of the lepubT rendered his country, principally conrn, occasion of eoosiderabfe immediate cx
iir -. ;i uuteu to tne acquisition ui uouisiana, peose. l lie acquisition ot it was cer-
"ciloimt; of Representatives baa X- a"'J who muat bo supposed, from?ht9 ?a- tainly tk Uit object of m policy, kqi!
"onght never to be lost light of. It wa
even a laudable ambition io any chief mt
gist rate to endeavor to illustrate theepoeb
of his admioistratioB, by sueb an acqoial
,tion. It was less neeessary, however, to
fill the measure of the honor of the pre
sent chief magistrate than that of any oth
er man, in consequence of the large share
which be bad in obtaining all Louisiana.
But, whoever may deserve the renown
which may ttttarfil the incorporation of;
-Florida into our confederacy, it is our b-
Biness, as the representatives of that pee
pie, who are to pay the price of it, tor
take caret as far as wo constitutionally
can, that too moch is not . given. Ua
would net give Texas for Florida ift'a
naked excha&ge. We we're bound bf the
treaty to give ndt merely Texas, but
millions uf dnHars ahtoy-aod tho eieest
. beyond that cm of af? oar Vlaiuss upea
Spain, whielt have been .variously estiV
mated at from fifteen to twenty millions
of dollars 1 n ... . -
The public is not generally apprized of
another large consideration w-hieb passed
from us to cpaio, if an interpretation
which be had aad heard given to the trea
ty were jdst, and it w as eertainly plausi
bie. Subsequent to the transfer, but be
fore the delivery of Louisiana from Spain
to -France, the then governor of New
Oi leans, (it is believed his name was Gay. -ono)
made a number of concessions upoft
the payment of an inconsiderable pecu
niary consideration amounting to between
900,010 and a million of acres of land
simitar to those recently made at Madrid,
to the royal favorites. This land is situ,
ated in Feliciana, and between the Mis.
sissippi and the Amite, in the present
stato of Louisiana. It was granted- to
persons, who possessed the very test in- '
formation of the country, and is no doobr,
therefore, the choice land. The Uaited
States have never recognized, but have
constantly denied the validity of these
concessions. It is contended by these par.
ties concerned, that they ace confirmed by
tlie late treaty. Jfly the second article,
bis Catholic Majesty cedes to tho nited
States, in full property and Boverjegnty,
all the territories which belong to.him, sit
uated to the Eastward of the Mississippi,
ktiowu by t he name of East and" fest 77o--rtia.
And by (be eight article, all the
grants of land made before the- 21th of
January, 1813, hy his Catholic Majesty,
or by his lawful author ties, shall be ra
tified and eontirmed,&e. Now the grants
in question, having been madu long prior
to tiiat day, are supposed to he continued.
Ho understood, from a persou interested,
(bat Don (inis bad assured him it was bis
intention, to confirm them. Whether tho
American tieg.iciator had the same inten
tion or uot he (Mr. C.) did not know. It
will not be pretended, that the letter of
.iir. Adams, of the 12th of March, 1818,
in which he declines to treat any further
with, respect td any. part ;of the territory
included within the limits of the state of
LouUiaou, can coulnoTthe operation of
the subsequent treaty. That treaty must
ba interpreted by what is in it, and uot by
whut is out of it. The overtures' w hich
passed, between the parties respectively,
prior tt the conclusion of the. treaty, can
neither restrict nor enlarge its mcataing.
Moreover, when Mr. MadTsou occupied in
1811, the eonutry between the Mississip
pi an I the Perdido, he declared, that, in
our band it should be, as it has beeD, sub-,
ject to negociatioo.
- It results, tberi; 'hat we have given
for Florida, charged and encumbered as
1st. Unincumbered Texas ;
2d. Five millions of-dollars ;
Sd. A surrender of all our claims
upon Spain, not included in that- five
millions; and, '
k4th. If the interpretation of the tr a
ty which he had stated were well faun- -ded,
about a million ot acres of the best
unseated land in the state of Louisiana,
worth perhaps ten iiiiilions'of dollars
The first proposition contained In tho
second resolution was thus. Mi. C V
tliougiit, fully sustained. yl he next was
ttiat it was inexpedient to cede Texas to
any foreign power. Mr. C. said be was
opposed in the transfer of any part of
the territories of the U. States, to any
foreign power. They constituted, in
bis opinion, a sacred-inheritance of pos
terity, which we ought to' preserve un- '
'impaired.. He wished it was, if it were
not, fundamental and inviolable law o
".. ' :, :.:y s. ;.. " f': ';." '''-v V' i'" ' --' v' '1 -' ': ' -''' ' '-"";' : - ..-' ; ' ' ;' y: . . .. V'- . . - ;; :-- - '" .-,';'' ' .:-'"'. "4