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0 / 75
I . - -
- : - - - - - - -i - : ; MMHHMHH
atje Cljarlotte bstracr.
Doily, one year, poetvcUdyin advance 88 00
(tix month 4.00
Three month- 2.00
Om month 75
Weekly (to the tounty), advance. S2.00
Out o the county, PostrpaU 2.10
iy- liberal Reduction for dub.
lech ntifl ?oTj gritttittg
XHX OBSXRYXB JOB DKPARTMXNT
Has been thoroughly supplied with every needed
want, and with the latest styles of Type, and every
manner of Job Printing can now be done with
neatness, dispatch and cheapness. We can fur
nish at short notice,
TAGS, RECEIPTS, POSTERS,
PAMPHLETS. CIRCULARS, CHECKS, 4c.
CHARLOTTE, N. C, TUESDAY FEBRUARY 28, 1882.
i - " - . - i :
if ftl if
ARE'NOW Of FERlNQlOUR ENTIRE STOCK
and man j other llnss ot Goods
AT VERY LOW FIGURES.
We bava a targe line ot
A3 good and cheap a3 can be h id In this market
We will sell
ALEXANDER A HARRIS.
$00lS VLXit glXOZS
"Have received and are d illy receiving
BEAUTIFUL LINE OF
GGG EEK NN NTTTT
O OK N N N T
I o It
GGQK NNN T
GGG EEE N NN T SSS
Don't Fail to Call and See Them.
PEGRAM & CO.
V v; -(.m:nue to act at Solicitors for Patents, Caveats,
'. : :i i.i Marks. Convriehts. etc.. for toe United States.
( a.la. Cuba, England, France, Germany, etc. We
1 :.vl- had thirty-five year experience.
1 'merits obtained through us are noticed in tne SCI
l ::tiho amkhicak. Thislanre and splendid lllus-
i -p.ted weeklypaper,$3.aOayearJhowsthe Progress
1 Science, 1 very Interesting, and has an enormous
circulation, ddress HUNN CO., faiem aonci
tvrs, rub's, kji Sciximno American, 87 Park ow.
ott York. HandDooKapouiraientsiree.
NOHTn CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY,
Secretary ana Treasurers vuico.
Company &hop3, N. C, January 31st, 1882
THE Directors of the North Carolina BMlroad
Company have declared a dividend of ti per
cent three per e nt payable 1st March, to stock
hoMeisof record on 10th February next; and
three per cent on 1st September, to stockholders
of reccrd on li'th August next The stock books
will be c'osea rrom loth February to 1st March,
and frcm 10th August to 1st September. 1882.
P. B. BUFKIN,
febl lm Secretary.
PURSUANT to a decree of the Superior Court of
Mecklenburg, I will sell at Public Auction at the
court house in Charlotte, on
MONDAY, THE 27TH OF FEBRUARY, 1882,
(being the week of Superior Court,) that valuable
lot or parcel of land lying between the intersection
of the orth Carolina Kail road track and Trade
street, adjoining the P. M. Brown lots and others,
Resold because of purchaser at late sale falling
io comply, . .
Terms h rash; balance on 8 and 6 ..months
credit, with Interest. Title reserved a security lor
balance. B. BABdlNGER,
dec24 d oaw tds CommlssloBer.
Z. B. Vascx W. H Bian.
VANCE & BAILEY,
Attorneys and Counsellors
' - , CHARLOTTE, N.C.
Practice in supreme Court of the United States,
supreme Court of North Carolina, Federal
Courts, and. counties of Mecklen
burg. Cabarrus, Union, Gas
ton, Rowan and Da- '
UT Office, two doors east 61 todependence
" -fM). D. GRAHAM,
IN the state and Unlted"8taies: Courts. Collee
Hons, Home and Foreign, solicited. AD
raou of titles, Surreys, Ac, furnished for com
pensation. - -
n?.r Comer Tr Trton streets'
Charlotte, N. C. Jan. 6.
Pegrani 4 ,,
(, Stiff and h
8 C00ds, CXottttttfl, Set
a lot of New Fresh
OF ALL GRADES AND
Hamburg and Swiss Embroideries,
with Insertions to match.
Another larze Instalment of Ladles' Neck
Wear, embracing all that is new and desirable.
Several pieces or Watered Silks and Satin Stripe
Moire at prices that most sell them. Also Black
Bmbroldered Brussels, Net and Beaded Lace, the
latest and most tasteful trimming out for fine
T. L. Seigle & Co.
A cold or sore tHroat may not 9eem to
amount to much, and IT promptly attended
to can easily be cured ; but neglect is often
followed by consumption or diphtheria.
No medicine has ever been discovered which
acts so quickly and surely in such cases aa
PERRY DAVIS' PAIN KILLER. The
prompt use of this invaluable remedy ha3
saved thousands of Uvea
PERRY DAVIS' PAIN KILLER Is
not an experiment. It has been before the
public for forty years, and Is most valued
where it is best known.
A few extracts from voluntary testimonials
read as follows:
Pain Killer has been my household remedy for
colds for the past twenty -seven years, and nave
never known it to fail in effectiiur a core.
L- a Crocker, Williams ville, N. Y.
For thirty years I hove used Pain Killeb, and
found it a never-failing remedy for colds and soro
throat Barton Seaman.
Have received immediate relief from colds and
lore throat, and consider your Pain Killer an
Invaluable remedy. Geo. B. Eve&ett, Dickinson,
I ham just recovered from a very severe cold,
which I have had for some time. I could get no
relief until I tried your Pain Killer, which
relieved me immediately. I will never again be
without it C. O. Fobck, Lowndes, Ga.
Have used Pain Killer in my family for forty
years, and have never known it to faiL Ransom
Lewis, Waynesboro, Ga.
I began using Pain Killer In my family twenty
five years ago and have used it ever since, and have
found no medicine to take its place. B. W. Dyer,
Druggist Oneida, N. Y.
For whooping-cough and croup it is the best
S reparation made, we would not De without it
. P. Routs, Liberty Mills, Va.
For twenty -five years I nave used Pain Killeb
for colds and chapped lips, and consider it the best
medicine ever offered. Geo-Hoopkr, Wilmington,
I was Buffering severely with bronchitis, and my
throat was so inflamed I could scarcely swallow
any food. I was advised to try your Pain Killeb,
and after taking a few doses was completely
cured. T. Wilkinson.
Dr. Walton writes from Coshocton : Tour Pain
. Killxb cures diphtheria and sore throat, so alarm
ingly prevalent here, and has not been known to
fail in a single instaifce. This fact you should
make known to the world.
Mrs. Ellen B. Mason writes: My son was taken
violently sick with diphtheria, high fever, and cold
chills. Bo many children have died here, I was
afraid to eall a physician, and tried your Pain
Killer. He was taken on Sunday, and on
Wednesday his throat was clear. It was a won
derful cure, and I wish it could be known to the
poor mothers who are losing bo many children.
For Chills and Fever PAIN KILLER has
no equal. It cures when everything else falls.
Delays are often dangerous. A bottle ot
Pain Killer 4n the bouse is a safeguard that
no family should be without.
All druggists seU it at 5c, 50c., and $1.00
PERRY DAVSS & SOW, Proprietors,
Providence, R. I.
sept d&w sept a oct.
PHYSICIANS, CLERGYMEN, AND
THE AFFLICTED EVERYWHERE.
THE GREATEST MEDICAL
TRIUMPH OF THE AGE.
8YMPTOMS OF A
Loss of T)petlte.NaqBea.powela cc-stire.
Pain in theHead.with adnll sensation in
the back part. Pain under tne snoniaer-
blade, fullness alter eating, witn a cuain
olination to exertion of body or mind.
Irritability of temper. Low spirits. Loss
or memory, witn a ieeumf oi i'iug
lected some duty, weariness. Dizziness,
Fluttering of the Heart, Dots before the
eyes. Yellow Bkin, HeadaoheBesUess
ness at night, highly colored Urine.
IF THESE WARNINGS ABE UNHEEDED,
SERIOUS DISEASES WILL SOON BE DEVELOPED.
TTJTTS FILLS are especially adapted to
anch cases.one dose effects such a change
of feeling as to astonlslfthe sufferer. -
They Increase the Appetite, and cause the
body to Take on Fleeh, thus the system is
nonrlabed, and by th eirToale Action on the
Digestive Orleans, Regular Stools ax epro
Muced. Price 25 cents. 33 Murray St., N.X.
TUTT'S HAIR DYE.
Gray Hair or Whiskers changed to iQLOsar
Black by a single application of this Dyb. It
Imparts a natural color, acts Instantaneously.
Bold by DruggiBts, or sent by express on receipt of 11.
Office, 35 Murray St., New York.
CDr. TCTTS MANUAL of Valuable InfonMttoa
Uacltal IteeelpU will Bailed FBU appUaatlM.
Ginger, Buchu, Man
drake, Stillingia, and
r i v
jzuuiy vi uc vw
cines known are com
bined in Parker's Ginger
Tonic,, into a medicine
of such varied powers, as
to make it the greatest
BestHealth A Strength
Bostorcr Ever used
KIAAii avsmrui- SI Tnl EIIC3
It cures Rheumatism,
Sleeplessness, & ditcarvt
of the . Stomach, Bowels,
Lungs, Liver & Kidneys,
A, Bwt, Cleanest, and
Itoat Economical Hair Drasa-
Bitters, Ginger Essences
and other Tonics, as it
never intoxicates, Hiscox
ing. Nerer fall, to ratora Uu
youtaiul eowr w BTy obu.
SOb. and 1 tlxei. laiff
Co.. Chemists. N. Y.
Baring Baying Dollar Bhw.
ST CHARLES HOTEL.
B EADQU AETEES TOE DEUMMEES.
rpHIS horise has-been leased for a term of yea rs
X Dy Sirs, yi. nvvivo, ""
keep a strictly nrsi-cass nouw u
Commodious sample rooms on first and eecona
The patronage ot tne public it solicited.
We have some beautiful styles, also some handsome patterns In Cretones.
We sUU have a few HEAVY GOODS on hands that will pay you to buy for
another season. We have Just received the prettiest and cheapest stuck of
Ever offered in thlslmarket. "PJIABL"
GENERAL FEED DEALERS
CHARLOTTE, N. C.
HAVE HOW OH HAHG :
A FULL SUPPLY OF
WHITE AND YELLOW CORN,
PEARL GRITS, BRAN,
WILL GLADLY QUOTE PRICES,
B0TH THE WHOLESALE and RETAIL TRADE.
V. Besnectfolly soliciting a snare ef our
patronage, we are ref "ectfully,
JanlO J- BEALL CO.
Fresh Virginia Meal.
SHIRT, "EVITTS'' SHOES) &s.
C. G. IX A
LARGEST MUSIC HOUSE
IN THE SOUTH.
The McSmith Music House
CHICK BRING & SONS,
KBANICH A BACH,
And other PIANOS.:
MASON & HAMLIN,
PELODBET & CO.,
AND OTHER ORGANS.
THE ONLY HOUSE THAT SELLS STRICTLY
Ask me for prices if you want good work
and yon will never buy anything but the best.
Address or call on,
Telephones ! Telephones !
THE SOUTHERN ELL TELEPHONE
is the sole licensee of the
American Bell Telephone Company
For supplj log Telephones In the States of Virginia,
West VlrglDia, (south of the B. & o. R. B..) North
Carolina, South Carolina, Florida and Alabama.
' PRIVATE LINES
Constructed, equipped with Telephones and rented
For partem lars address
SOUTHS HN BKLL TELEPHONE
and TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
f-blleod3m 105 Broadway, New York.
Having removed to the shop, on Trvon street, over
the Independent Hook & Ladder Track House, is
now ready to receive orders for HOUSE, tilGN
and ORNAMENTAL PAINTING, such as
Guilding, Kalsomining, Frescoing, fa.
TREES ! DELIVERY.
n rv Trees are now ready for dellverv. onnosite
1VL Mr. Allen Crouse's residence, en Tryon street
between 5th and 6th. A fine lot of Trees, Plants,
Flowers and Flower Seed on band for sale. Any
thing in my line rurnisnea on snort notice.
dec2 T. W. SPARROW, Charlotte.
THE GARFIELD MEMORIAL.
THE JIOUSE. PAYS TRIBUTE TO
THE MEMORY OF THE DEAD
Blaine's Eulogy on the Brilliant Career
of the Dead Citizen, Soldier, States
man and Christian.
Washington. February 27th. At 10
o'clock the doors of the Capitol opened
and in half an hour the galleries of the
House wer3 failed with those fortunate
enough to hold tickets to. the Garfield
The House was called to order at 12
o'clock, and prayer offered by the chap
lain. The Speaker announced the
House ready to perform its part of the
ceremonies. At 12.10 members of the
Senate entered, followed by the Judges
of the Supreme Court. The President
arrived a tew 'minutes later. Frayer
was onerea oy unapiain 1'ower. .Fresi-
deat pro-tem Davis introduced Mr.
Mr. Blaine, in a loud clear voice, read
his oration as follows:
Mr. President :
For the second time in this generation
the great departments of the Govern
ment of the United States" are assem
bled in the Hall of Representatives to
do honor to the memory of a murdered
President. Lincoln fell at the close of
a mighty struggle in which the passions
of men were deeply stirred. The trag
ical termination of his life added but
another to the lengthened succession of
horrors which had marked so many lin
tels with the blood of the first born.
Garfield was slain in a day of peace,
when brother had been reconciled to
brother, and when anger and hate had
been banished from the land. "Whoev
er shall hereafter draw the picture of
murder, if he will show it as it has been
exhibited where such example was last
to have been looked for, let him not
give it to the grim visage of Moloch,
the brow knitted by .revenge, the fac
black with settled nate. .Let mm draw,
rather, a decorus smooth-faced, blood
less demon; not po much an example
of human nature in its depravity and
in its paroxisms of crime, as an infernal
being, a hend in the ordinary display
and development or Ms character.
From the landing of the Pilgrims at
Plymouth till the uprising against
Charles First, about twenty thousand
emigrants came from old England to
New -England. As they came in pur
suit of intellectual freedom and eccle
siastical independence rather than for
worldly honor and profit, tne emigra
tion naturally ceased when the contest
for religious hbsrty began in earnest at
home. The man who" struck his most
efiective Dlow tor ireedom or con
science by sailing for the colonies in
1C20 would have been accounted a de
serter to leave after 1640. The oppor
tunity had then come on the soil of
England for that great contest which
established the authority of Parlia
ment, gave religious freedom to the
people, sent Charles to the block, and
committed to the hands of Oliver Crom
well the Supreme Executive authority
r .England, lne .hnglish. emigration
was never renewed, and from these
twenty thousand mjn with a small em
igration from Scotland and from France
are descended the vast numbers who
have New England blood in their veins
In 1GS5 the renovation of the edict of
Nantz by Louis XIV scattered to other
countries four hundred thousand Pro
testants. who were among the most in
telligent and enterprising of French
subjects merchants of capital, skilled
manufacturers and handicraftsmen, su
perior at the time to all others in Eu
rope. A considerable number of these
Huguenot French came to America; a
lew landed in JNew England and be
came honorably prominent in its his
tory. Their names have in large part
become anglicised, or have disappeared,
but their blood is traceable in many or
the most reputable families, and their
fame is perpetuated in honorable me
morials and useful institutions.
From these two sources, the English
Puritan and the French-Huguenot,
came the late President his rather,
Abram Garfield, being descended from
the one, and his mother, Ellen Ballou,
from the other;
It was good stock on both sides none
better, none braver, none truer. There
was in it an inheritance of courage, of
manliness, of imperishable love ot lib
erty, of undying adherence to principle
Garfield was proud of bis blood ; and,
with as much satisfaction as if he were
a British nobleman reading his stately
ancestral record in Burke's Peerage, he
spoke of himself as ninth in descent
from those who would, not endure the
oppression of the Stuarts, and seventh
in descent from the brave French Pro
testants who refused to submit to tyr
anny even from the Grand Monarque.
General GarQeld delighted to dwell
on these traits, and, during his only
visit to England, he busied himself in
discovering any trace of his forefath
ers in parish registries and on ancient
army rolls. Sitting witn a mend in tne
gallery of the House of Commons one
night after a long day's labor in this
field of research, he said with evident
elation that in every war in wnicn ror
three centuries patriots of English
blobd had struck sturdy blows for con
stitutional government and human lib
erty, his family had been represented.
They were at Marston Moor, at iNaseoy
and at Preston : they were at Bunker
Hill, at Saratoga, and at Monmouth, and
in his own person had battled for the
same great cause m the war wnicn pre'
served the Union of the States.
Losing his father before he was two
years old. the early lire ot Garneid was
one of privation, but its poverty has
been made indelicately and unjustly
prominent. Thousands of readers have
imagined him as the ragged, starving
child, whose reality too often greets the
eye in the squalid sections of our large.
cities. General uarneios mrancyanu
vouth had none of their destitution
none of their pitiful features appealing
to the tender heart ana 10 tne open
hand of charity. He was a poor boy in
the same sense in which Henry Clay
was a poor boy ; in which Andrew J ack
son was a poor boy ; in which Danie
Webster was a poor boy : in the sense
in which a large majority of the emi
nent men ox America in an generations
have been poor boys. Before a great
multitude or men, in a public speech.
Mr. Webster bore this testimony :
"It did not happen to me to be born
in a log cabin, but my elder brothers
and sisters were born in a log cabin
raised amid the snowdrifts of New
Hampshire, at a peried so early that
when the smoke rose first from its rude
chimney and curled over the frozen
hills there was no similar evidence of
a white man's habitation between it
and the settlements on the rivers of
Canada. Its remains still exist. I make
to it an annual visit. I carry my chil
dren to it to teach them the hardships
endured by the generations which have
srone before them. I love to dwell on
the tender recollections, the kindred
ties, the early affections, and the touch
ing narratives and incidents which
mingle with all l know or tnis pnmi
tive family abode.
With the requisite chancre of scene
the "same words would aptly portray
the early days of Garfield. Thepover?
ty of the frontier, where all are engaged
in a common struggle, and where a
common sympathy and hearty co-ope
ration ngnten tne ouraena or each, is a
very different poverty, different in kind,
different in influence and effect from
that conscious and humiliating indi
gence which is every day forced to con
trast itseir with neighboring wealth on
wnicn it ieeis a sense or grinding de
pendence. The poverty of the frontier
is indeed no poverty. It is but the be
ginning of wealth, and has the bound
less possibilities ot the future always
opening before it. No man ever grew
up in the agricultural regions of the
West where a house-raising, or even a
corn-husking, is a matter of common
interest and helpfulness, with any oth
er feeling than that of broad-minded,
generous independence. This honora
ble independence marked the youth of
Garjield as it marks the youth of mil
lions of the best blood and brain now
training for the future citizenship and
future government of the Republic.
Garfield was born heir to land, to the
title of free holder which has been the
patent and passport of self-respect with
the Anglo-Saxon race ever since Hen-
gist and Horsa landed on the shores of
England. His- adventure on the canal
an alternative between that and the
deck of a Lake Erie schooner was a
farmer boy's device for earning money.
just as the New England lad begins a
possibly great career by sailing berore
the mast on a coasting vessel or on a
merchantman bound to the farther In
dia or to the China Sea.
No manly man feels anything of
shame om looking back to early strug
gles with adverse circumstances, and no
man ieeis a wormier priae man wnen
he has conquered the obstacles to his
progress. $ut no one or noble mould
desires to be looked upon as having oc
cupied a menial position, as having
been repressed by a reeling ot inferior
ity, or as having suffered the evils of
poverty until relier was found at the
hand of charity. General Garfield's
youth presented no hardships which
family love and family energy did not
overcome, subjected him to no priva
tions which he did not accept, and lett
no memories save those which were rer
called with delight, and transmitted
with profit and with pride.
Garfield s early opportunities tor se
curing an education were extremely
limited, and yet were surhcient to de
velop in him an intense desire to learn.
He could read at three years of age, and
each winter he had the aid of the dis
trict school. He read all the books to
be found within the circle of his ac
quaintance; some of them he got by
heart. While yet in childhood he was
a constant student of the Bible, and
became familiar with its literature.
The dignity and earnestness of his
speech in maturer life gave evidence of
this early training. At eighteen years
of age he was able to teach school, and
thenceforward his ambition was to ob
tain a college education. To this end
he bent all his efforts, working in the
harvest field, at the carpenter's bench,
and, in the winter season, teaching the
'ormon schools in the neighborhood.
While thus laboriously occupied he
found time to prosecute his studies, and
a as so successful that at twenty-two
years of age he was able to enter the
junior class at Williams College, then
under the presidency of the venerable
ind honored Mark Hopkins, who, in
the fullness of his powers, survives the
eminent pupil to whom he was of in
The history of Garfield's life to this
period, presents no novel features. He
hud undoubtedly shown perseverance.
sell-reliance, seli-sacnnce, and ambi
tion qualities which, be it said for tin
nonorof our country, are everywhere
,o be found among the young men o
America. But from his graduation n
Williams onward, to the hour of his
tragical death, Garfield's career was
eminent and exceptional. Slowly work
ing through his educational period, re
ceiving his diploma when twenty-four
years of age, he seemed at one bouna
to spring into conspicuous and brilliant
success, within six years pe was sue
cessfully president of a college, State
Senator of Ohio, major-general of the
army of the United btates, and Repre
sentative elect to the - National Con
gress. A combination or honors so
varied, so elevated, within a period so
brief and to a man so young, is without
precedent or parallel in the history or
Garfield's army life was begun with
no other military knowledge than such
as he had hastily gained rrom books in
the few months preceding his march to
the field. Stepping from civil lite to
the head of a regiment, the first order
he received when ready to cross the
Ohio was to assume command of a bri
gade, and to operate as an independent
force in Eastern Kentucky, ins lm
mediate duty was to check the advance
of Hurhohrev Marshall, who was
marching down the Big Sandy wiih the
intention of occupying in connection
with other Confedarate forces the en
tire territory of Kentucky, and of pre
cipitating the State into secession. This
was at the. close oi tne year ioi.
Seldom, if ever, has a young college
professor been thrown into a more em
barrassing and discouraging position
He knew just enough of military sci
ence, as he expressed it himself, to
measure the extent of his ignorance,
and with a handful of men he was
marching, in rough winter weather,
into a strange country, among a hostile
population, to confront a largely supe
rior force under the command of a dis
tinguished graduate of West Point,who
had seen active and important service
in two preceding wars.
The result of the campaign is a mat
ter of history. The skill, the endurance,
the extraordinary energy shown by
Garfield, the courage he imparted to his
men. raw and untried as himself, the
measures he adopted to increase his
force and to create in the enemy's mind
exaggerated estimates of his numbers,
bore perfect fruit in the routing of Mar
shall, the capture of his camp, the dis
persion of his force, and the emancipa
tion of an important territory irom tne
control of the rebellion. Coming at the
close of a long series of disasters to the
Union arms, victory had an unusual
and extraneous importance, and in the
popular judgment elevated the young
commander to the rank of a military
hero. With less than two thousand
men in his entire command, with a
mobilized force of only eleven hundred,
without cannon, he had met an army of
five thousand and defeated them driv
ing Marshall's forces successively from
two strongholds oi meir owu selection,
fortified with abundant artillery. Maj
General Buell, commanding the De
partment of the Ohio, an experienced
and able soldier of the Regular Army,
published an order of thanks and con
gratulation on the brilliant result of
the Big Sandy campaign, which would
have turned the head of a less cool and
sensible man than Garfield. Buell de
clared that his services had called into
action the highest qualities of a soldier,
and President Lincoln supplemented
these words of praise by the more sud
stantial reward of a brigadier-general's
commission, to bear date from the day
of his decisive victory over Marshall.
The subsequent military career of
Garfield fully sustained its brilliant be
ginning. With his new commission he
was assigned to the command of a
brigade in the army of Ohio, and took
part in the second and decisive day's
fight in the great battle of Shiloh. The
remainder of the year 1862 was not es
pecially eventful to Garfield, as it was
not to the armies with which he was
serving. His practical sense was called
into exercise in completing the task as
singed him by General Buell, of recon
structing bridges and re-establishing
lines of railway communication for
the army.. His occupation in this use
ful but not brilliant field was varied by
service on courts of martial importance,
in which department of duty he won a
valuable reputat ion, attracting the no
tice and securing the approval of the
able and eminent Judge-Advocate-Gen
eral of the army. That of itself was
warrant to honorable tame: for amontr
the great men who in those trying days
gave themselves, with emire devotion
to the service of their country, one who
brought to that service the ripest learn
ing, the most fervid eloquence, the
most'varied attainments, who labored
with modesty and shunned applause.
who in the day of triumph sat reserved
and silent and' grateful as Francis
Deak in the hour of Hungary's deliver
ance was Joseph Holt, of Kentucky,
who in his honorable retirement enjoys
the respect and veneration of all who
love the Union of the States.
Early in 1863 Garfield was assiened
to the highly important and responsi
ble post of chief of staff to General
Kosecrans, then at the head of the armv
of the Cumberland. Perhaps in a great
military campaign no subordinate offi
cer requires sounder judgment and
quicker knowledge of men than the
chief of Stan to the commanding gener
al. An indiscreet man in such a posi-.
tion can sow mor6 discord, breed more
jealousy and disseminate more strife
than any other officer in the entire or
ganization. When General Garfield as
sumed his new duties he found various
troubles already well developed and se
riously anecting the value and efficien
cy of the army of the Cumberland. The
energy, the impartiality and the tact
with which he sought to allay t hese dis-
sentions, and to discharge the duties of
his new and trying position will al
ways remain one of the must striking
proofs of his great versatility.
fclis military duties closed on the
memorable field of Chicainauga, a field
which howevei disastrous to the Lniuu
arms gave him the occasion of winning
imperishable laurels. The rare distnie-
on was accorded him ot a tneat pro
motion for his bravery on a Held that
was lost. President Liucoln appointed
hm a major general in the army of the
United States for gallant and meritori
ous conduct in the battle of Clncka-
The Army of the Cumberland wan
reorganized under the command of
General lhomas, who promptly oitered
Garfield one of its divisions. "lie was
extremely desirous to accept the posi
tion, but was embarrassed by th' lact
that h9 had, a year before, been elected
to Congress, and the time when lie
must take his.seat was drawni': iit-ar.
lie preferred to remain in tlio milit Ci 1'V
service, and had within his ov:n breast
the largest confidence of success in the
wider field which his new rnnk opened
to him. Balancing the arguments on
the one side and the other, anxious to
determine what was for the best, desi
rous abuve all things to do his patriot
ic duty, he was decisively influenced by
the advice ot l' resident Lincoln and;ec
retary Stanton, both of whom assured
him that he could, at that time, be of
especial value in the House of Repre
sentatives. He resigned his commis
sion of major- eneral on the h day of
Decemb' r, 186'!, and took his seat in
the House of Representatives on the
7th. He had served two Years aid
four months in the armj', and had just
completed his thirty-second year.
The Thirty-eighth Congress is pre
eminently entitled in history to the
designation of the War Congress. It
was elected while the war was Uagrant,
and every member was chosen upon
the issues involved in the continuance
of the struggle. The Thirty-seventh
Congress had, indeed, legislated to a
large extent on war measures, but it
was chosen before any one believed
that secssion of the States would be ac
The magnitude of the work which
fell upon its successor was unprece
dented, both in respect to the vast sums'
of money raised for the support of the
army and navy, and ot the new and ex
traordinary powers of- legislation
which it was forced to exercise. Only
twenty-four States were represented,
and one hundred and eighty-two mem
bers were on its roll. Among these
were many distinguished party leaders
on both sides, veterans in the public
service, with established reputations
for ability, and with that skill which
comes only from parliamentary expe
rience. Into this assemblage of men Garfield
entered without special preparation,
and it might almost be said unexpect
edly. The question of taking command of
a division of troops under General
Thomas, or taking his seat in Congress
was kept open until the last moment,
so late, indeed, that the resignation of
his military commission and his appear
ance in the House were almost cotem
poraneous. He wore the uniform of a
major-general on Saturday, and on
Monday in civilian's dress, he answer
ed to the roll call as a Representative
in Congress from the State of Ohio.
He was especially fortunate in the
constituency which elected him. De
scended almost entirely from New En
gland stock, the men of the Ashtabula
district were intensely radical on all
questions relating to human rights.
Well educated,' thrifty, thoroughly in
telligent in affairs, acutely discerning
of character, not quick to bestow con
fidence, and slow to withdraw it, they
were at once the most helpful and most
exacting of supporters. Their tena
cious trust in men in whom they have
once confided is illustrated by the un
paralleled fact that Eliaha Whittlesey,
Joshua R. Giddings and James A. Gar
field represented the district lor fifty
There is no test of a man's ability in
any department of public life more
severe than service in the House of
Representatives; there is no plaee
where so little deference is paid to repu
tation previously acquired, or to emi
nence won outside ; no place where so
little consideration is shown for the
feelings or the failures of beginners.
What a man gains in the House he
trains bv sheer force of his own charac
ter, and if he loses and falls back he
must expect no mercy, and will receive
no sympathy. It Is a field in which the
survival of the strongest is the recog
nized rule, and where no pretense can
deceive and no glamour can mislead.
The real jnan is discovered, his worth
is impartially weighed, his rank is irre
With possibly a single exception Gar
field was the youngest member in the