PRODUCTION Or EGGS
Poultry Tend to Make Farm Sett
Cvory Southern Farmer Should Aim
to Hoop at Least Fifty Hens for
Layina Furpoaoa and Homo Con
ifnpuri by the United Sutra Depart
mant of Agriculture.)
The farmer who has a well planned
and well cared for carden has gone a
long way toward supplying his family
with healthy and economical foods. If
he adds to the garden a fair size Bock
of poultry, be will do still more to
make bis farm self-sustaining.
Early springs and mild winters make
the production of) eggs particularly
profitable for the southern farmer. On
many farms throughout the country
or buttermilk 5* excellent tor poultry.
Green teede. euch u cabbages, man
?el beeu, alfalfa or clover, ebould be
added to tbeee ration* when (rase Is
Young chickens should be fed from
three to Ave tlmee dally, depending
upon one's experience in feeding.
Great care must be taken not to over
feed. After they are thlrty-elx to for
ty-eight hours old. they may be fed.
The first feed may contain hard
boiled eggs, johnnycake (one dosen
Infertile eggs to ten pounds of oorn
meal; add enough milk to make a
pasty mass and one tablespoonful of
baking soda), stale bread; plnhead
oatmeal, or rolled oats. Dry bread
crumbs or rolled oats may be mixed
with hard-boiled eggs, making about
one-fourth of the mixture egg. Feed
the bread crumbs, rolled oats, or
lohnnycake mixtures five times daily
for tbe first week, then gradually sub
stitute for one or two feeds of the
iplxture finely cracked grains of equal
parts by weight of cracked wheat.
Whit# Leghorn Cockerel. '
the money derived from the sale of
poultry esc* buy* the groceries end
clothing tor the entire family. Every
southern farmer can do ee we'll, and
should aim to keep at leaet fifty bene
tor laying purposes and home con
sumption. Select some'of the Ameri
can breeds, such as the Plymouth
Hocks, Wyandottes, or the Rhode
Island Reds The Orpingtons are also
? good general-purpose breed
On almost any farm there can be
fitted np, with very little. If any, cost
tor new material, a poultry bouse that
will answer all the purposes of more
expensive buildings for keeping poul
try. The essentials to success In hous
ing are fresh air, sunshine, a dry
floor, and a building that la free from
drafts. The bouse must >e free from
drafts or the birds will catch oold.
Colds are forerunners of roup and
It takes a healthy, well-fed flock to
produce sgga Fowls must pet be al
lowed to become too fat, as but few
eggs will be laid by hens in such con
dition. To prevent their getting over
fat, U Is best to make them work for
cracked corn, and pinhead oatmeal or
hailed oat*, to which about five per
cent of cracked peai or broken rice
and two per cent of charcoal, millet,
or rape aeed may bb added. A com
mercial chick feed may be substituted
If desired. The above ration can be
fed until the chicks are two weeks
old, when they should be placed on
grain and a dry or wet mash mixture.
Mashes mixed with milk are of consid
erable value In giving the chickens a
good start In life, but the mixtures
should be fed In a crumbly mass and
not In a sloppy condition.
As soon as the chickens will eat
whole wheat, cracked corn, and other
grains, the small-elsed chick feed can
be eliminated.' In addition to the
above feeds the chickens' growth can
be hastened If tbey are given sour milk,
skim milk or buttermilk todrlnk Grow
ing chickens kept on range may be
given all their feed In a hopper, using
as a grain mixture two parts by
weight of cracked corn and one part
of wheat, and for,a mash mixture any
of those given for laying hens. II
beef scrap Is to be fed. It Is advlsabl"'
A Ml rod Flock on a Government Experiment Farm.
most of their feed by scratching in a
litter composed of about four inches
of dry straw, leaves, or chaff. The fol
lowing rations will give good results
when proper care is given to their
Grains- One pound oats, two pounds
corn, and Hash: Two pounds corn
meal, one pound rice bran or wheat
bran, one pound cottonseed meal.
Grains: One pound oats, two pounds
corn, kafir corn, or sallo, maise, one
pound broken rice or peanuts, and
Mash: Two pounds corn meal, two
pounds rice bran, one pound cotton
Grains: One pound oats, one pound
-wheat or barley, one pound of kafir
?orn? and Mash: Two pounds wheat
bran, two pounds wheat middlings,
two pounds corn meal or corn chop?
one and one-half pounds cottonseed
Ten per cent or less of beef scrap
may be added to the mash in all the
rations with good results. Skim milk
Willing Milk Producer.
There la a subtle something about a
good dairy cow that makes her look aa
If she waa a willing and large milk
producer. This is something best seen
In the eyes, which should be large and
bright and mild.
Makes Men Mere Humane.
The caring tor good stock makes
men more humane and tender hearted
not only toward animals, but toward
men aa well
' ' "
to wait until the chlcka are ten day*
old. Chickens confined to email yards
should be supplied with green feed,
such as lettuce, sprouted oats, alfalfa
or clover, but the best place to raise
chfckens successfully Is on a good
range where no extra green feed Is
Wintering Brood Sow. ^
Keep the brood sow In good, thrifty
and healthy condition. Allow her
plenty of exercise. Feed her green
food in the winter. She la very fona
of alfalfa hay and mangel beets with
one feed per day of middlings and
milk. Give her a dry, comfortable
straw bed, also plenty of fresh water,
and she will winter in prime condi
- Good Car Bedding.
Shredded corn fodder or rye stra?
provide good bedding for the hog
Large Udder Essential.
A dairy cow's udder should be large
and should extend far front and back,
with teats erenly placed and well sep
arated. After milking, the udder of a'
good dairy cow Is very much reduced
In site and Its skin la soft and loose.
Growing Purs Seeds.
Every one of us chould be a seeds
man if not, why not? Pure seed
growing la a good work, ind U pays
LIVE-STOCK-FIlUtT- DAIRTIM8-&ARDEMIN8 - FIELD CROPS-SILOS-PlfiS
New Wrlnfclee FARM Making the I I
.? AND F'rmW
Prog receive Buelneae
Agriculture FIELD Profitable
TOLD IN AN INTERESTING MANNER EXPRESSLY FOR OUR READERS
M nun'iiiil." _1 iiil.iJ
HINTS FOR THE HORSE LOVER
Narrow-Chsstad Animals Do Not Pos
sess Endurance of Broad-Chsstsd
Onss?Keep Things Orderly.
The, horse that U "all legs" is not
the one you want Try to get those
that are well set. neither too long
legs nor too long bodies.
When a good horse lags don't put
the whip on and make It go anyway.
Stop and look Into the matter. That
horse la not well. If It were It would
not lag. Tou do not like to be forced
to work when you are sick. The
horse is most like a man of any liv
It Is foolish for the farmer to get
the notion that he can win money on
the track with his horses. It Is all
right to give the horses a chance to
show what Is In them, but don't do
it for money ever.
Have the sides of your stalls well
nailed to place. Horses sometimes
And out that they can crowd the
partitions out of place and onoe they
get that habit they will make life mis
eraffie for you.
Some horses have a way of throw
ing their hay out on the floor the first
thing they do after feeding. If you
feed through a chute from overhead
you will be free from this difficulty..
1 If not, the best way la to build In front
Do Not Buy Narrow-Chested Horses.
of the borsea a rack of round, hard
wood poles an inch or two In diam
eter. running from the manger over
head, firmly secured at both ends.
Narrow-chested horses hare not the
endurance that those hare with good
broad chests. Don't buy a thin-breast
Study your blacksmith, as well as
your horses' feet.
Some horses can't eat straw with
out having impaction of the bowels,
and that sometimes causes death.
A ration of good wheat bran once a
week is a line change for a horse.
Wet. it up good and he will relish It
and it will act nicely on his bowels.
Hang up your dung forks. Don't
stand them against the side of the
barn, where they may be run into by
a horse passing that way.
It is sometimes said that you can
make any horse a good walker when
you break him. That is not always
true. Tou never can make fast walk
ers of some horses. It Is not in them
and you cannot put it in unless you
do it before tbey are born.
It is easy te hang up your harness
if you once get into the habit of it.
How many friends do you know that
drop them on the floor?
The reason the varnish Is coming
off your wagon or carriage may be
that you keep ft in the room whdre
horses are stabled. The chemicals
from horse manure and urine will do
it every time.
MOLDY FEED IS DANGEROUS
Farmers Are Losing Cattle From Eat
ing Acorns?Take Precautions
^ to Keep Poisons Out.
' ? i -
It Is dangerous to glee molded ot
spoiled hay and other feed* to live'
stock, especially horses. Such feed is
apt to cause sickness and even death.
We have heard of Instances where
farmers have lost a number of valu
epte animals from this cause. 'Care
should be exercised to see that all feed
Is in good condition- Hay put up when
too damp may mold, corn and oats
often harbor various kinds of fungous
diseases that may be poisonous to
stock, and corn silage when improper
ly stored may cause trouble. The food
an aplmal->?ats has a marked influence
upon its physical well-being. We are
Informed that, In Wisconsin, farmers
are losing cattle from eating Acorns
picked up in the pastures. Young cat
tle are particularly affected. Sheep
and hogs can eat the acorns without
bad effects, and milch cows seldom die
from this cause, but young calves are
poisoned and little can be done for
them. It Is the part ol wisdom to take
precautions to keep feeds kflown to 'be
dangerous away from animals, and
give them only that which Is in good
and sound condition.?F?rmqf*sj3ufde.
Economical Feeding Floor.
The concrete feeding floor is an
economy ,ln two ways: It Increases
the value of the feed, that Is it pre
vents loss In dust and mud, and It
also improves the condition of the
tog. If they may have a clean, san
itary place to feed they are' less sus
ceptible to disease.
Animals for Breeding.
Breeders ought to make It a rule,
not to breed animals which have nasty
dispositions. A vicious sow often pro
duces pigs of like disposition.
PRUNING A RASPBERRY BUSH
Cane* That Hava Borne Fruit Should
B* Cut Away Soon as Potalble?
Overcrowding Is Fatal!"
(By W. R. GILBERT)
The raspberry la too often left alone
it prepared by rule of thumb methods
When this la the case it la useless
to look for good crops.
The canes that hare borne fruit
should always be got rid of as soon
as they performed this duty.
Choose fine weather for this opera
tion, and leave three or tour youpg
shoots to each stool. Manure and let
them grow away until spring. Then If
litfty appear very crowded, let the side
shoots be shortened back before mid
summer down to about six or ,eight
leaves from the ground.
By doing this the light and air will
have free play, and without their
V 5 . . I
Harvesting a Fine Crop of Raspber
beneficial agency no good results can
Thexanes nf the bushes must never
be allowed to press one another. When
this Is the case good 'fruit is impos
sible. Overcrowding is fatal to either
fruit Or flowera
The great object In pruning is to
open the heart of the trees or bush,
so as to admit the sunshine and air.
The thicket of young suckers should
alho be removed. *
To form a raspberry hedge; plant
the canes a foot apart, and train on
wires. Cut out those that have borne,
and train the young canes so that
they are slz inches apart.
In regard to varieties, the very large
klnda 1 consider very undesirable, **
cept, as the dealer said, when asked'
"What are the utterly useless razors
you have to offer made for?" "To sell."
These mammoth varieties look well,
but they lack the juice and the pecu
liarly acid flavor of the raspberry.
PLANT TREES WITH DYNAMITE
Excellent Reeulta Secured at Two New
Jersey Experiment Station*?boat
la Little More.
With peach trees planted at the
Vineland substation of the New Jer
sey experiment station, the average
growth of the dynamited trees the
first season was '794 inches, as com
pared with an average growth of 655
Inches for trees planted in the ordinary
way. In ail cases the ground was
thoroughly plowed before planting.
In another test In the same orchard
there was a difference ranging from
652 Inches, or over fifty-four feet, of
growth to 1,397 Inches, or over 116 feet
of growth-per tree in favor of dyna
miting. Similar results were obtained
with peaches at New Brunswick,
whereas the apple trees showed prac
tically no difference in the amount of
growth between the trees planted with
dynamite and those planted In the or
dinary way. In all the tests made the
percentage of trees living through the
first season was practically the same
under both methods of planting.
.The cost of planting was about five
cents greater per tree for the dyna
mited trees. Although no conclusions
are drawn from the first year's work,
the opinion is expressed that the use
of dynamite for planting fruit trees Is
worthy of a thorough triaL
Apples In Storage.
If. the apples in the cellar are not
keeping well, carefully sort out every
one that has the slightest speck of
decay or broken skin, wrap the
sound onds in a paper, pack loosely
In boxes and barrels and keep them
In a cool place.
8econd Year Pruning.
Pruning the young tree the second
season after setting consists primarily
In removing the superfluous branches
and in Yhorterflng the new growth.
Separate Young 8tock.
Young stock are often left with the
grown-up herd, and when these young
animals are knocked about, cheated
out of their share of the feed, and do
poorly In general, the careless farmer
wonders why in the world he has such
poor "luck" with live stock.
Good Prices for Horses.
The rapid cleaning up of all (market
able horses of all types to supply the
demand created by the war, makes It
certain that good prices will be main
tained for several years.
PROPER CAflE AND MANAGEMENT OF SWINE
A Device to Prevent Plge From Crowding and to Allow a Fair 8tart for All.
(By E. M RANCK.)
To bo a successful hog ralaer one
mint keep hi* atoek under the very
beat environment possible. Do not
think any old thing or place Is good
enough tor a hog.' He should have
access to good clean water to drink
at all times, and not stale pond water
or mud wallows. Clean, pure water
will do more toward keeping hogs
healthy than any other one thing.
The hog has a peculiar skin, and under
the skin Is a thick pad of fat, so that
be mast get rid of his heat mostly
from his lungs by breathing. In hot
. weather he needs some cool place to
lie In, and If he can And mud he wal
. lows in It He prefers good, clean wa
ter, but If he cannot find that, mud is
the best substitute. Bhade Is very es
sential In warm weather.
- Building* for hogs need not be very
expensive. We advise colony houses
of the A shape, with both sides open
with hinges on the top. This type of
house furnishes shade, ventilation, and
sunlight In summer and when closed,
a very comfortable farrowing pen In
winter. These houses are erected on
skids and can be moved from place tq
place with a pair of horses or mules.
They are so constructed that they are
Ideal farrowing pens. A sow about to
farrow can be placed In a lot In which
Is one of these colony houses, and she
will make ber neat In the house if
some hay or straw Is placed there.
Fenders should be arranged around
the sides of the hodse so that the sow
will not be able to He close to the
sides and In ^that way crush the young
pigs in the nest. '
These colony houses can also be
used for the boars and growing pigs,
although some prefer permanent quar
tended for the market. It is a great
advantage to feed trogs on Concrete
or tight board floors, especially it one
is feeding ear corn, as there will be
no waste. Feeding in muddy or dusty
lots Is a very dangerous practlbe.
It sometimes becomes necessary to
good, pure water for them. In aer- I
tlona where running water cannot be
aeeured through plpea, It can be
hauled in barrela. Many hog raisera
provide a aled or drag on skidk on
which a barrel la fastened on a water
tight floor with aides to It so that the
plga can drink all around the barrel,
the water coming out of the barrel
about three Inches from the bottom
through a small hole, which automat
ically Rows according to the water
Running streams of water are very
satisfactory when they originate on
the farm, but If they travel long dis
tances and through several farma and
across public roads, they are very
likely to be contaminated and may
spread diseases such as antlR-ax, and
hog cholera. Keeping hogs healthy Is
much more Important than trying to
cure them when sick.
UNCLEAN HOUSE MEANS LOSS
Fowls Require Abundance of Free
Breathing Room?Keep Sleeping
Quarters Free From Flltlv
(By H. H. 8HKPARD.)
i As young chickens grow they soon
make crowded conditions In their
coops and colony houses. They will
not grow and keep healthy when too
many are confined at night In a lim
ited space. Separate them and get
them Into larger and better ventilated
quarters as they Increase In size. The
stuffy, unclean coop will result In
Many fall with chickens and other
poultry 1>ecause they do not stop to
consider that fowls, above all animals,
need abundance of free breathing
room and that their sleeping quarters
must be free from filth.
Without cleanliness and the furnish
ing of abundance of fresh air to the
birds st all times, no person can suc
ceed In the poultry business.
Provide clean and roomy quarters
for the young poultry, as they come
A Champion Poland Sow From Mlaaourl.
feed pigs separate from the sows,
even when nursing. This can be done
by building neat the cotony bouse a
temporary fence which will allow the
little pigs to get in. but will keep out
the old bogs. If this pjan Is adopted
the pigs will practically wean them
selves without inconvenience either to
themselves or to the sow. We prefer
feeding the small pigs and In fact all
our bogs In either iron or concrete
troughs, with round bottoms. V
shaped troughs can also be used.
Fences play a very important part
in hog raising. A poor fence will pro
duce a breaChy hog as quickly as It
will a fence-breaking cow. We prefer
any strong closo woven-*ire fence at
least 58 Inches high for the outside
fence. In smaller lots either wdven
wire or, wooden ? fences temporarily
placed will be cheaper and can be used
a number of times. Temporary fences
need not be over three feet high and
should be so constructed that they can
be carefully stored" when not In use.
Woven wire used as temporary fence
Is very difficult to stretch after It has
been used several times, although It
can be used to advantage when lumber,
and help are not plentiful.
In planting forage crops it is an
advantage to plant In long narrow
strips so that the temporary fences
can be placed across the narrow part
of the field. It Is also an advantage
to arrange the crops so that one sec
tion Is in such alignment with the
other sections that the cultivation
may be done without turning at the
end of each section, and when the
crops are laid by the temporary fence
can separate one crop from another.
When plais are made to establish
hog pastures one must not forget the
very important factor of providing
When you 'speak of others as hav
ing. a good memory, you do not mean
thai at all. Instead of meaning that
the man with a "good memory" has
accurately perceived an ev.ent In the
full ramifications of all Its details,
and recorded It in his whole human
teUure ready for reproduction at will,
wflfct you really Indicate Is that he
has good power of retention, irrespec
tive of detailed accuracy or talthful
uas of the full recollection.?Dr.
Leonard Keens Hirahberg.
Into maturity. Thla win mean health
ier and better developed pullets for
fall and early winter laying. Dispose
of the cockerels as soon as they will
do to market, to make more room for
Clean the droppings out of the win
ter house frequently, and use white
wash, kerosene and other Insecticides
freely to keep down the lice.
Lice breed In filth, hence the cleaner
the honse Is kept the better It will be
for the birds. Most poultry troubles
and losses can be traced directly to
unsanitary conditions and to Insect
Let the house for the coming laying
pullets be amply provided with open
ings for sunlight and ventilation. The
full open front houBe is proving boat
for all seasons, as It provides for un
limited quantities of fresh air for the
Silo Is Necessity.
Nearly all of the best dairymen like
to supply some feed to their cows even
when on the best of pastures, both for
Its food value to the cows and for its
manurial value to the pastures and
nothing Is more convenient for this
purpose than good silage. Every farm
er who feeds live stock cannot well
afford to be without a silo. Just a lit
tle experience, to the use of silage will
convince any man that the silo Is an
Experiment With Electricity.
Experimenters in the stimulation of
plant growth by* electricity have dis
covered a queer thing. The wind tjlows
their current away, but a wire screen
surrounding the plat of ground tends,
to hold the electric charge In place re
gardless of the wind.
No Cause for Tears.
"We have never had a president
named Charlie." remarks the Toledo
Made. Nor th the beet of our knowl
edge have we ever had one who was
railed Reggie or Algernon, bur; we
can't see that the fact Is calculkted
to move any one to salty tears.?Phils
. Asphalt In Philippines.
Hard aspbalt, known as ulntahlte
or gllsonlte, has been discovered In
the Philippines in the Island of Lajrta
PROPERLY BAKED HAll
iOMEWMAT lengthy PROCESG.
but worth while.
t - ?
Export Qlvoo Explicit Directions f?
Preparation of Dainty?May Bo
Soaked In Claret or Cider, ae
An old ham Is heel, fiat any thor
oughly amoknd, aound ham will do,
writes Martha McCullqch Wllllama.
Scrape It all over with a blunt-edged
knife, then sprinkle well with a good
washing powder and scrub In tepid wa
ter with a coarse cloth. Wring the
cloth dry and wipe the ham, then
rinse It in clear cold water and put It
to soak over night. The next morn
ing scrape it afresh If any superfluous
matter has been loosened, rinse, and
put It, skin side down, to cook in cold
water; having a rack or plate in the
bottom of the boiler to prevent scorch
ing. Bring the ham to a brisk boll,
then throw In a pint of cold water
and let It stand two or three minutes;
sltlm off the scum, then throw Into the
pot a doien Whole cloves, as many
allspice and black peppercorns, a
small pod of red pepper, silt length
wise, and a blade of mace. Watch
closely, and when boiling begins lessen
the heat /so that there will be bare
simmering The water must stand
two Inches above the meat fill the
boiler up as It wastes away Keep on
the lid, but loosely, and let the ham
simmer until It Is very tender?tha
time depends upon the age, weight
and hardness of the ham. When the
haunch bone shows a little through
the meat the ham Is likely to be done.
Let it cool In the water In which It
was boiled, take It out, drain well and
trim off the rusty fat from the edges,
and a little of the smoxe darkened
fleet underneath (The hock had bet
ter be sawed off before boiling, but If
that has not been done, Ioobo the pro
jecting bones and cut to n neat
end.) Skin carefully. Then stick
all over the fat portion whole cloves
In a loxenge pattern, after whichr
dust thickly with black pepper and
paprika, sprinkle lightly with soft
sugar, and flt the ham Into a deep
agate or earthenware vesseL Pour
In sound claret or sweet cider and
let It eoak sfx hours. Then put on
a low rack in an agate pan, pour the
soaking liquor around and bake very
slowly from one to two hours, no
cording to slxe. Baste with the liquor
In the pan two or three times each
half hour; as the liquor evaporates
add either cold water or more wine or
cider. ? If the ham Is very fat cool
the pan after taking It up, and re
move most of the grease on top; then
add a dash of boiling water, a light
seasoning of herbs ana ten drops of
onion Juice; cook for three minutes,
stirring constantly, and then pour late
your gravy Wt. P*ss with the ham;
else use the savor stews and minces.
It Is, perhaps, worth while to add
that In Judging a ham, dry, black-green v
mold upon the flesh side Is ranked by
epicures the hallmark of excellence,
To approximate fairly the famous
French concoction. Jambou au madere,
you should pour the boiling water on
the ham while It Is still hot. after
the ham is done, then let it simmer
for an hour In enough of either claret
or cider to float It, turning the ham
from time to time and letting I. cool
In the liquor.
Some Oyster Hints
All styles of panned, creamed or
stewed oysters should be cooked over
an open fire or lire steam, because
they should start to cook the moment
thd heat strikes the pan or, ehaflng
dish and. continue at a forced rate "un
The cooking of oysters can be great
ly Improved by the use of the chafing
dish Instead of the saucepan In con
nection with the recipes where the
latter ts mentioned.
Oysters most easily secured and
mostly desired are Saddle Rocks.
Rocks, Rockaways, Lynn Haven Bays,
Shrewsburys, Blue Points, Cotutts.
Lynnhavens, Cape Cods, Buzzards
Bay, Norfolk^ Cape May Salts, Cherry
Stones, Chlncoteagues and Oai
This makes a delicious dessert for
luncheon and one that Is quickly pre
pared: Mix together tzyo eggs, yolks
and whites, with two heaping table
spoonfuls of sweetened chocolate that
has been grated (If unsweetened brand
is used, then the mixture must be
sweetened to taste), half cupful of
milk, half cupful of flour. , Beat all to
gether well. Fry like ordinary pan
cakes, brown on both sides and roir ?
them, lay on a hot platter, sprinkle
with powdered sugar and serve lmme
Soak half a cupful of breadcrumbs
In milk and wring them dry In a clean
cloth. Put them Into a bowl and add
half a cupful of melted butter and'
half a cupful of sugar. Beat until
light^and' then add the well-beaten
yolks of four eggs, vanilla to taste
and three squares of chocolate grated.
Beat, light again and then add 'the
stiff whites of four eggs and pour
Into A buttered dish. Bake In a mod- ."
erate oven and serve immediately.
' l Tagging the Piece Bag.
-Here Is a sensible way of- tagging
the contents of a piece bag: On the
outside of the bag fasten the largest
procurable safety pin. When dress
making ts over attach samples to this
pin of every remnant that goes Into
the bag. A great amount of time and
patience Is saved by this simple de
vice, for one can see at a glance Just
what the- bag contains.?Racine Jour
If you have no steamer, you can
cook your pigeons In a colander la a
deep pan of boiling water. Clean,
wash, flour and truss it as directed
above. It will take about three-quar
ter* of an hour to cook, and should
be served with white Sahoe add sip
pets of toast ? -