LIFE 13 ONLY TO Bj VALUED AS IT 13 USEFULLY EMPLOYED.
s ,. ., ' 3 V
k. Cent, par annum, in advance, or
ihn f of tUe ycr. ,
f Utfrrr-'jn be inserted at One Uoliar
ttiW'TI w. and Twenty- ive inu lor
i iw .
ASHEVJLLE, NOSTCCiSOLLNA, 1FRIDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 9, 1810.
fpmthe xouiu-a vwij
tiiR CAPTIVE BOY
LjIychiWis too young to go to i Ihe&aD.
I v7.kiJ " savs a mother whom the
Imprudent She keeps a public
jnd ncr im .
becan hear t!ie profane, boisterous
it tin; uar-ruuiii. unu "
but ho has
mi. ., .
. 1 ... ano Illlfl BU VUt
f iolove vice .before she has Jcamt
. of nuicry for herself fw.e
la u-achcrs. who need more-
4to convince them of the iinjiortande
lowing sturyt; . , " '
S fwnuer scuiemcjus -"'".'v
iV , , - 1 U I
aflU-'O, fluently ia wasm. ujr i m
u- .jjuil the inhabitants, killec
and made prisoners of others.
,n i!ir numo of Uird. was
,J tnm!hcr'with lus wife and child
,' ;fmt inv irboat sis-moBths-oIiL-The
, bad tiken so much plunder tliat
the wretched father and Jnuth
it.md luuiit.J bcln carry it oil'.
,,ntimirmotier contrived to . concca
Ll itnn m o.r burden, cwatf w ner
IIS I k.. .Iw. ,i(.h. hiia
rxnowarus t.le .wnoerncss.
After travelling from monr till evening
i toil!? summer s day, thts Indians threw
Riselveson the erovind and wero soon
jipa. nut rura anu nis une, cn u cmw
much Jatigue, lelllitiie awposeu w eiose
ir eves. Tiiev eontnved to escape
J, Willi their heluless babe, which they
i auccetded iu prescning unnoticed,
in. at miduizht. to retrace their steps
i'jrc day, fatigue, anxiety, arid hunger
I so cumulete v exUausloa tnem Dotn
uit tiiey coma carry me emia no ranger
n I it (hev would escape, not a moment s
i ... . . . . .
fis wua iv jusi. ujTuvt tut; ui iuiiiu
rcamo ,the pareflts fondness. The
iber, for tho lost time, pressed her in
dent ofljpring to her breast, bedewed its
.ci wiui tears aou sci n uuwu on inc
Qbank of a little forest stream to per
i there. As .she Drocecdwl. she cast t
Irried look of agony behind her, and siw
child cramblme after the cay flow.
Wkn ffiny returned to So scittleinents,
ir neighbors wcut with the father to the
lot where the child was left , but ho was
oe.' Asyears rolledon, Ood cave them
alth and many other children, so that
ij almost forgot their lost boy.
Fifteen years afterwards, a treaty with a
itanttribe of Indians bound them to du-
rer up any captives that might be in their
wssion. A boy was given up, who, it
y Mid, had been found iu infancy upon
tery spot where young Bird Aad been
ft. He was sent to his parents, 'who im-
oiately recognized hir tyinarkabk
ruui3ng!ii mmi, wpitrn no' nau re
reamhij lather's house. . j
too measure oi ini: narcnts lov was
lbut the boy wandered through the
a possessions of his father without a
life. His bow and hlanltrt ivoro hia rn1v
it . . . -. : V
liO Qe.SDleil ahkP th drpiii t in linli.
i and the luxurina that
uarn,md constantly brooded 'over the
Y scenes in which ho had passed his
pood. Vain were all attomnts to wean
it fprtUrt lit.. 4? I 1 . I.fl .
"! ins uauye naoiis. w hue persua-
ad induWnce wcro resortetl to. he
luftsced; butwhen force was tried, and
l wiuueu utciiange nts blanket tot
garmenUof civilizpH JIC h; fn.
nw Dow for a book, ho rmw mill.
'-uiua, ana at last was ini.in !?
IT "w'n lDlan!cvenin2rarraved IrTlhe
in iAh J - . .
iV u','fu',g a distant mountaia:
""'"gP" course towards tho jwtUng
niWifercmmnvt r. ' ..i -
irom UlOir fiirmi.P .i '
hiw.-j .. . ucc, wneremey
Mtfor tlw yuo couiu
Of the neiMiWKl l : I
raisinff.' she saw from
Z ,hencigl'Irhood having gone
oral nules to " a raisin.' hn fmm
0(X)r, several armpd .wi ;.u.i
toSfcS tftenad ascending a ladde.
loft of the dwollinir Hro i .r
k-V.""11 termined-t dcfendTicrielf
twn iliPiVwfl V wu wero vaint 'ad
u,i was thrust Uiroughthe
P-oor was rut (T 1... ... P.
i .-J.. , s-" " mirepm wo.
'"o n alarm !: . A..
alarm being taken at the
nt.thnl .1 .
i iiic whi to. : .
P retreats "" "'"g, mq in.
In. M. j II.' "
Sh. Mi; nVJrand.',,',Party cairn
hand aJi 7 " u ycea wie jcror.
ndof L , u wa w scarred
v- -.r cigestsonl
gfnt iaun irrcsStibte Imp.!
T draS tls cbJU, to- a savafc
youf child, by tho power of early, imprest
sions, may bo dmwu towards heaven, or be
dragged down tho ' broad road1 which leads
totlie sccotia ueath.
Children may loarn from-this story to
avoid bad habits. '. :- ;
Froi tlio N. Y. Observer. -
A sailor recently retimed from a whal
ing voyage, and in conversation jwith a pi-
uus friend, spoke of tho enjoy inent ho had
la.prayer while alar on the deep. " But,
Inquired his friend, .inutile midst of the
confusion on ship-board, where could yOu
find a place to pray Oh said he, 'rhl
ways went to tho mast-head.' I.have heard
of closets in various' places, but never
one more peculiar than this. Peter went
upon the house-top to pray. Others' have
sought the sliadcs of the fpresL I remem
ber hearing of a youth who came home from
the camp during the last war, and his pious
mother asked him, ' Where, John, could
you find a place to pray? He anaigd;
Where mere is a heart to pjay,-juother
it is easy to find a place.
And yet the sailorV cbscj was a favorite
spot. "The ear of man could not hear him
las he cried mightily unto God. The galea
that wafted his hn on its voyage, would
bear his tn$I&6i8 upwar'd'toward the throne.
'Thevoiee'bt miJny .aterr otild be the
music of hia sanctuarj and the angels that
hud charge concerning him, would listen
to the swelling aong. As he lilted up his
heart and Ins voice in prayer, he was sur.
rouhdecj with the majesty and glory of hia
Mikef.Thdcepy "deep sea gpffcodTits
illimitable expanse around him. J he ueav.
ens spread out tike the curtainsof Jehovah's
chamber, and the stars j like the jewels that
adorn His crown, nunc over nun as ho
eUwhttd tlto giddv rtiast . aod Jntwed-dw
-. ii i i. c.i :." : " .f..
lo pray, remaps lie uuu iiii:vi iiiiiitr ui;iuou
and entercd notJnto thu grandeur-of tho
scene around him. But In; had a sOul;
soul that felt the power of G kI j that Wel-I
high snu holy communion with the rat
ot spirits: and wlnlo the others bckiwwero
riotin in tlie mirth of-a sailor's itfvinl lift
his joy was literally to rise cbove tlie world
and find intercourse w ith Heaven.
What peace there was in that sailor's
heart The storms might 'rudely toss hia
floundering bark,'. but they could not shake
his confidence in God. The ocean might
yawn beneath him to swallow him in its
lut hornless depth, but he was sheltered in
the bosom of his Father's love. Tborfrail
bark might be driven at the, merey 6i?fh)e
winos, or oe ciasnca on inc roeKawsirprna
ed on tho shore, but he had a.lnipe'tBat W4s
nn accjior totne soul Dotn surruJ-; stead
fast, entering into that within tho veil.
Througli the tluckcst darknesa that enve
loped him, tho 'Star of Bethlehem' shed its
celestial loveliness w)ojfcr .hi3 path in tlie
trackless deep,-an;t guided him onward
a nd Jipward to-llio haven ofhiteroal rest.
1 hitherward from the raast-hean he strain
ed his eye, and truo as the needle fo the
pole, he pursued Ins way ; when tempted
he 80ujrrit tne mast-head to pray; wnr.n in
despondency, at the mast-head he found
joy ; when the launts of his - companions
filled bis ear jvitb pain and his soul with
grief, he (led to the mnst-hcad and pbured
out the desires of his heart, into the ear of
Him who hears the humblest suppliant s
I love to think of this sailor. I wish!
knew him, and could kneel down with him
and hear him converse with. God. How
few would be as faithful as he ! How ma.
ny would neglect their closet and seldom
pray in secret, unless they could have
more safe retreat; a more sacred chamber
than the mast-head of a wave-rocked whit.
er.. But He, when here a sailor's pillow
pressed,' walks now 6n the mighty deep,
and when the tempest-tossed mariner cries,
lie answers, It is I, be not afraid.
Aw affecting incident. We saw
letter, within a few days, written by a
young lady who, not muny weeks since,
way jonmeyingf rom thisfacettflhe west"
It, Darratcs a very -ejfcitm2 occurrence
which took place on board tho steamboat
in which she was a passenger, and of which
she was an eyewitness. Jn passing down
tho Mississippi "river, our narrator was
summoned ; from- thecabin ly alarming
shrieks and great commotion on deck. On
going up, she found that a young lady had
falleh 6verh6ard,and the hoat In its progress
was fast leaving her behind. A gentleman
onTwartl immediately divested lijrnsclf of a
part of his clothing, arid sprang into the
river. He reached the drowning person,
and upheld her in the water until a small
boat came to tlie rescue of both. The young
lady, thus snatched from a sudden death,
was the daughter of an elderly gentleman
who was on board the boat foreigners,
neither of whonFcoiiTd sneak English. Oh
reaching the deck , and recovering from her
frighfjsho passionately embraced "her de
liverer and bestowed kiss after kiss upon
him, as the only way she could express her
gratitudo and thankfulness; while tho fa.
thcr rushing from the cabin eagerly prot
fercd him a roll of bank 4ills. These bci
ing refused, he ran to his cabin and return
ed with a bag of gold, which he likewise
pressed upon his acceptance; nor could ei
ther father or daughter be mado to under-
stand, or feel satisfied, ;why the proffered
reward would not bo I accepted. -Saietn
MR. CJUAHAUI'S SrEECIt
'SPEECH ofllr. CEAHlfl, ef Aorth Carolina,
On the Sub.Treasury Bill. dclicered in the
House of EiyrescntaUces,
" To my mmd, we must have, Mr, Speak,
cr, we aro obliged to have, niore currency
than gold and silvero supply t!e fiical
operations of .Goverement, and to( transact
arid" interchange the business and trade of
the people. I kn6w of. uobetter plan to
furnish, and niako up the deficiency, than
by tho uso of banks. I may uot-be a com
petent judge of the best kind, as I have no
practical knowledge of their machinery.
I have never owned one dollar in the stock
of any corporation; nor borrowed . one
cent from any bank in myTife.- I am con
cerned only as i?vcry planter, farmer, and
business man is obliged to be, in a sound
currency. When we sell a bale of cotton,
a barrel of corn, tor lump of gold, we
want good currency in return, of sjiecie
par value. I am in favor of -sound secie.
paying banks, whose " totes or bills
may,atlhe will of the owner, bo redeem,
cdund converted tntb gold or silver coin.
In other wordsy- whenls jirnpossiblc- to
obtain a sufficiency of cash to sunebrt labor
aud; reward 'industry, theni.irupprove of
using sound credit, as . a substitute. Xhis
idea maybe aptly illustrated by a familiar
example1 in domestic life. When bacon
and beef are as scarce and hard to- get as
gold-' and silver, we ar6 obliged to, use
smaller euantities of- the Wid.-anoVrJargerj
proportions of vegetable food, to preserv
hearai and sustain Jiie. tsut, sir, among
tho rich valleys, the green hills, Jrrfd blue
mountains, in mv district, where soUd pro
visions abound, we always regard bacon
and beans as a constitutional currency, ana
la legal tenderjesr sir, they pass very cur.
renlfy, ana will satisfy any reasonable man
I TH y antlrnfti that are always honor.
HiJ, an4- luU tnnl are never protested.
Limn and credit nitty be united and" advan
taiieuiislY used together, like meat and
brvud. ao asto go further, and tupply
greater iiurjber. , .'
Tlie object is to multiply, increase, and
render abundant, that currency which is
so essential to nidnxind, and enters into
all we cat, and wear, aud have. A good
plough is the true emblem of a good cur
rency: Ntffhrmcris such a -metal-loving
man as to construct that useful instrument
liturely of iron. It would be too hwvy",
r ; - i .1 1 . I : rii..
rurhiMJjiiMficbd-the plough. A practi
jtratCfswv maM!(-iii4j -iiiuiiuwujjv ui ina
plough 04, iron, but stock, beam, and haii.
II Li J- . , . r I
eie may us iimnu iu aavauiaiju oi gouu
wood J they are lighter, cheaper, and more
!.:' 1.,.!.. .1...
conveiufill. 111 hub way every uooy, in
poor as well as the rich, may own anu use
thatJiadliliaatruuient-wlurli cultivaU s .the
fruits of tho earth. In like niniiuer, a good
currency may bo mado to general adan.
tnge out of preeions metal and paper imi
ted; so that all who wofk may live, hold,
and enjoy a portion of the currency hich
is rendered more abundant, convenient,.
and useful, by a proper mixture of suitable
The planters and farmers, generally,
have but little dircctintercourso with banks ;
yet, there is no class of the community
who derive greater profits and advantages
from the existence of sound banks. . They
want a good market to sell their cotton,
grainahd other articles. The morchunt
obtains accommodation, and borrows fifty
thousand dollars of the bank, and pays the
planters and fanners that sum in bank
notes for their cotton and grain. Fifty
thousand dollars arc then, distributed end
circulated in smaller sums, through smaller
channels, in the currency, until supply and
demand have consummated their contracts,
and administered comfort and convenience
to all through whose hands it . pained.
Again, it returns to the bank, to auord ac
commodation and facilities to other persons
and phrees7TrhosevT)catfoh undustness
require the helping hand of currency.-
Like the heart, it distributes and circulates
the blood through the veins, to fill and every
naff of the system -which needs the natu
ral CTrrentyTjf-liter - '
Sound hanks aro usefuTinstruments to
Government, and beneficial institutions to
A Bad Smku- A man. bv the name of Join
Smell w cauebt picking a pocket irt Baltimore)
last week arretted and aent to pram.
the people-thcy furnish and supply-capital
and currency for public revenue, and pri
vate funds, to maintain and foster" hll the
great interests of the country. Still, I am
always jealous and watcliful of power,
whether it be pecuniary or political; be-
cause it is constantly liable to abuse. The
best instruments . may bo applied and per
verted to tho worst of purposes. I look
upon a bank just ns I do upon fire in-a
chimney iuscful in its proper ' place a
good servant, but a bad master. Fire,
while confined, to its appropriate sphere t
within'limited banks and safe bounds, is
very useful, and nhsohrtely . necessary to
comfort, and to sustain life; and yr-t that
very ciemcm, wmcn cooks our uaiiy ioo,
may by negligence, accident, or abuse,
destroy all our comfort, property, ""and life
itself. Tho fault, is not in the use but
abuse, of the element employed. When a
bouse is burnt, ;or a steamboat blown up,
nil one thinks "of abandoning the useol nre
andsteam. So -when a bank breaks, or
suspends specie payments, 4ho fault is not
J owing to any. radical defect in the general
principle used, Jbut is attributable to the
misapplication and abuso of banking. I
bclieve"we have rMirely too many banks,
too much bank capital, and too many dif
fercnt kinds of notes circulating as money.
Tlie excesses and abuses of the system are
felt and acknow ledged. Reform and cor.
rection are greatly needed. Tlie remedy
and the rod are iu the hands of the people
thcmselvcsi Mibpean cnlighteiwd public
opinion will soon ilistrriguish and separate
between" the good wheat and tho tqres. It
is the duty of tlie Government tlmt creates
a corporation, to ace that it fuithfully per.
forms its stipulations, and. redeems its
promises.' TliiGeneral Government can,
at any time', exercise a commanding con
trol and powerful influence, for good or for
evil, over all ihe money matters and bank
ing institutions of this country. When
ever this mighty machine, through w hose
treasury thirty rjorty millions of dollars
pass every year, receives the notes of any
bank in payment of public dues, that single
fact inspires coiifi lcDCo every where, and
its bills pass currently; as if endorsed by
the .United States. And whenever the
notes of any bank arc refused at tlie Treas
ury, tliat moment credit and confidence; are
lost and witK2raw u by the public.' This gov.
eminent holds the standard in law, and in
factf of the value of aHmoney its breath
can make, or unmake the currency it is
the Sun -oi-tho-rnonetary- system the nil
nor btate planets can do but little in ffen
era! ciiiiey-witlibut ; its aid andjnftuence,
it can bite and blight the surnmcr's fruit
with wyifcr's frost -orjtheKindly action of
this centre Sun canrnake "tlie winter of
our dLxwiitcntrglorious summer." '
Let me-jiiustrate. Suppose, on the first
dayjofJanuary U&tA jtlls to B a tractof
tfiid for $100U ; a conveyance is executed,
and posAfcsion givenv B iwid down S300,
and gave his note forCVJOV payable next
January. When tho land was sold, thij
GovernnH-tt received bank notes at ' the
ccs of that liberal loaning policy ? .The
answer is plain and easy; orrr-banking,
orw-issuing, twer-lending, oecr-borrowiug,
occr-trading, opcrpeculation. Money was
so plenty that many got over and above
their business; they quit work, and tried
to live by borrowing. Wo fiad a" flood of
paper currency the streams and channels
of trade and commerce (having so much
public money) broke ortr the banks. All
excesses are hurtful--even the rain w hich
descends from Heaven, if it conies in great
floods will often prostrate ourcrjps and iu.
jure our. land. iow, you perceive-alio
Administration in iy J J directed the dejjos
ito banks to loan liberally the public money,
and thereby used and contributed their
power aud influence to swell and flood tlie
whole country with spurious bank paper
money. In 1$36, the Executive iuapub-
fie message congratulated (Jougress and the
r.iitt,' tlifit flirt 4lnli l.miL'u wrt no m r-
ccllent fiscal agents to tlie Gjvcrmiieut,
they having disbursed the enonnoufTsum of
fifty. nine millions of dollars ifpuhlic mov
ney." . Besides tliis, thelresiduut addi,
" a number of th-depositc banks have,
with commcndiible zeal to aiJ in the im-
proveiiicnttif the currency, import-d frotn
i i i- . .i .... - i ..i
aurofio ni ineir owjicspetise uirga sums oi
UhejKcipus nietals for coinage and eircu.
lation. Well, these state bants, wneiji pany, and to tliegrout injury t,4Ie peo.
favorites, not only issued their notes on thKju.... Is tliisnlU-gation trriel or 'not t Let
i r i.i:- : .!...: ..... I . r.. t .: i..
notes will be hereafter refused at "the
Treasury, and all property of the people
wilt-thereby besonk t'a"tlitrdsin-valuc7
Bis sued for $500, he hist half of the
purclia.se morny. The very same tract of
hind 13 sold; upon a judgment and execu
tion, to A, the piainthT, for $300; and B
yet owes him f G0. Now this rank injus
tice has been produced by the action of this
Federal Givernment Refusing .-to receive
the common currency of the country, and
tliereby deprwiated all bank notes. B
and A said he would take no. money this
Government (tlie standard keeper) would
hot receive,; aud thus B has Ixfen sacrificed,
and rendered Jwor, w ithout any fault on
his part 'f fid A has been enriched without
any merit oifc, bis part. This is a very un
just and wanton intcrfercnce'betwttinc'rcd
itor end dt.htir, and a gross violation of
common contitjcts. IiTthi.i manner, those
who are in debt will bo fearfully pressed,
and cnudlv screwed down by federal p;nv.
er. 1 uus .tae-pedaiirp suojteica to m
conteniences and losses wtitch -weessarily
arise from the fluctuating policy of the Ad
ministration, and an unsound state of the
currency. . The eviLwill be extensive, and
tho distress genepil. Such experiments
upon the currency may be sport to ofiice
lKjUlers,rbat t!i';y are d:ath to taxpayers.
The S:ib-lre?uurv will create a rich harvest
for federal officers, creditors, and capital
ists; while it will embarrass' taxpayers
large sum of public money in their custo
dy, as they were instructed, but they sent
to fiireien countries to borrow large sums
of specie to bunk on, and issued their notes
to debtors on that borrowed capital also;
and for this they were told by aBoExecu.
Jtivc, well done, good and faithful servants,
you have acted with commendable zeal" to
improve the currency. I have now ad
duced proof positive, from tlie higltcst au
thority, that tho Administration advised
'LmtfliryJKM "TOr nffapjiroved of lliu bfhl;s:ToahTiig tric pulf trieu3,'the public ; and ag
i-tretisurv Liil will-wow pass-aiid kmk lie money liberaUg -among the jieople. I builders, in consideration of I
aumu uiyiincuy me duiiks um wrong.
impoverish laborers, and ruin debtors. It
will 11 tlie pockeU of the first clasw, and
empty the pockets of the list, by .mokiiig
it double iii liard to pay. money, or taking
twice as much labor or property to pay the
It is alleged, in iustification of this bill
of divorce, that a large number of the
banks are parslized, and have suspended
specie -payments. 1 hat-is- a violation oj
their charter, and.a serious injury to the
credit and character of their paper; there
fore. 1 censure and condemn any act of
theirs whioh denreciates their uot3 below
spccic-par-vaiue. Ketore we grant tins oi
voire, let us hear the evidence, and inquire
into the true cause of t!ie banks stopping
specie payments ; and I apprehend the
Administration will be found equally cen;
suruble and responsible to tho country for
all conseauences". 1 will prove this trom
public documents. 44 out of thine own
mouih wi'TT conjomn theeT
1:11833, soon after the State banks were
selecteil and asoointed fiscal 8rents. Mr.
n o i '
Taney, then-ijecrctary of -tlie Treasury s
gave theifuUowir.g instructions to banns
Ihe deposites.oObe public money will
enable yoa-to aFfijrd increased facilities to
conimcrcci and to exterJ vour ac'commol
dations to individuals ;" he adds, ' he an
ticipates the adoption of such a course re
specting accommodation as will prove ac
ceptable to the people, and safe to the Gov
ernment. , lhc financial onicer instruct
ed the bank to loan out tlie ptiblio money,
to increase tlie facilities tj commerce,
n nd to extend vouTjXnimtionsiju
diviifualsT' Tlie banks did just exactly
what they- were commanded by authority
to do; tjiey Joined the public'.1 money hb-
era!lr-and bnad-cast among thfj; people,
Tlie.Secretaryi of tlie Treasury, undt rthc
eye and advice of-thc President -'issued an
ordr that the public money shouTd,bc loan-"
cu out. jjemiers are' somen mcs srnrce,
but borrowers are always plenty Well,
there was about forty millions of public
money advertised and offered to be hired.
Yes, sir, this hird-moncy-loring Adminis
tration was then out in open market offer
ing to loan the people forly millions of soft
bnnk paper notes! !! Now, I ask, what
w ere the necessary and natural consequen
Theyshoiild have resisted and refused to
lonmuorathan theirdebtors xould safrly
return, so as to be able at all times to re
deem their notes with specie; but they
yielded to the advice and influence of the
Administration, the largest depositor and
creditor interested in those institutions.
Now. in the day of their trial and tribula
tion, they are upbraided and abused, loud
and long; by those very persons who ad
vised aud approved the act before it was
done.Such conduct resembles that of an
artful man who acquires influence over a
female and seduces lier, and then to hide
his own shame, denounces S'iTd traduces her
whom he betrayed. The seducer should
novefbe'tlie tradueer. The banks andtiic
Adiiiitu'slratwn fiave hem ticin sinners.
The banks wanted to make larga profits
out oiLtheir agency, and the Administration
wanted to make general popularity out of
their excessive liberality. Where both
parties are guilty, there is no just cause
of divorce, and this bill ought to be dismiss,
aud n jected.
Mr. Speaker, it affords me no pleasure
to advert to the unfortunate experiments o!
the Administration on the subject N of our
finances and currency, and tlie great errors
of the banks thr.t have not measured ihyir
way and means by the specie standard, and
therefore are unable to. redeem their notes.
'Whenever my Government or my country
men are m distress no niatteirom what
cause, I ani ready and willing to give all
the relief iu my power, whic h equal jus
tic?, common right, and sound polk-y, may
dictate. Those who administered the Gov
ernment should at all times be identified
in interest with tlie people; to' feel pros
perity or adversity just as they do. Com
mon feeling and common interest arc the
stroiijest bonds and surest guarantees the
constituent can have and liold on his-Rep
resentative. Tlie ISub-treasury violates
this primary principlevJt affords relief
and safety to the Government agents at the
great c.enso and direct injury of theTpfo
pie. The coiiiinon,currertcVTnTireufriti-n,
created bv the banks for the use ot tin
COple, will by the pn.-Mawt of this hill he
di.scredircdV and the bank biils which tin
farmer h-is now in -his. pocket-book, anil
received for his crop, will become depre
ciated iu value. The banks are tho instfc
tut ions of the jicople. madi;- by t
and for their benefit. A Unik
luarket- a place where surplus prow
are carried arid collected to sell and
ply those wtifrwam to bay. Ix, a!o,
bank is a place w here surplus money
collected add deposited fo lo;.n and supply
those who. want to borrow and need the
use of money. One" man has his monr-y
idle pdoing nothing; another want.? ami
needs tho use of it for a time ; thuf, the
money benefits him that lends, and him
that borrows. The active circulation of
money is necessary to diffuse general health
and comfort, like free air and running
water. If an indolent man sets all 'the
The specie in a bank is the ballast ,'iliat
gives credit to the cargo and confderice to
tlie crew. The ballast of a ship is often of
little relative value, and yet it will safely
stay the ebbs and flows of winds and, waves,
and give certainty and security to a valua
ble, stock of goods, and . bills of lading
worth millions. Ho that is at the head
and helm of our good ship of state, should
see that the ballast is projierly poised and
equally adjusted. Tho standard bearer
should perform his duty in such a manner
ns to uphold and rcgnl'itc tha currency foe
the Government and the people. Thosil-
verbenmanu golden scales erected oy tno
Constitution, as the true standard of uni
form valuef should basotield aud used as to
w eigh but eqinl aid impartial justice to all
men ; but doriot ervert the object, And
abuse thefriist,lv ifsihg' one Kind of weight
and-mcasurcs for pritUeged orders of office-holders,
and another kind of lighter
weights and smaller measures for tho body
of the people, w ho constitute the bone und
sinew of the country Tlie Government is
the trustee of the people, and I cannot con
sent that the agent shall have a better cur
rency than thc"prii.cial,or people.
. Those who are hostile to all corpora
troits., alluge and charge that they aro cre
ated for the exclusive benefit of the com.
us examine. All coi-pornfions ougm to oe
for the general benefit of the people first,
and then fur the private .. benefit of tho
company. For instance, a railroad, was
generally wantejl from Vashingt6n to B;il.
timore (loily milns) for-tho. quick, cheap,
and easy transjuirtation of tratlcluTQHraTrh
The jieoplu were unwilling to , pay high
taxes to construct such a road, and .there,
fore they contracted w ith private persons at
their own exnensc to build a rail road for
agreed that tin
the work and
labor done, and money expended thtroin.
for-the public use, should pay and rei n
burse themselves by charging those w ho
used the rod'd a certiii n fixed sum , . or legal
tolL Now, the public derive a great ben
efit from a private work, and justice and
equity of the plan consists in, 44 no use, no
pay.1' None but tlia-je who use the road
pay the company. Before this road was
made under the charter granted, it took a
wagon laden with produce two days to go
toBalfimore, one to -trade, and tv to re.
turn, that js Tiyy days., N.v.wioUejreiIi'.
road, you leave at six in the morning, and
in two hours -you an in Baltimore; you
are allowed from eight until -four o'clock
(all the business hours) to trade, and then
return the same day from market If any
business man can now do in one day what
formerly required five days, then I presume
the people derive essential benefit from
such a corporation. If it be true that
44 time is money," then four dollars out of
Company. 1 presume not one railroad in
tlie United -States has ever been made but
by incorporated, companies ; single indi
iluals have not sufficient capital; it re
quires 41 associated wealth" to construct
such useful jmblic ronds, on which time
and space are so easily comjjjei-ed by the
power of st um. Banks are sirriilar insti.
tutions: The first object is to supply the
people generally out of private fumls, u ith
a sufficient quantity of sound currency of
specie par value; and, in consideration of
doing this, the bankers are authorized to
c harge those who borrow tlieirnotes cer
tain inten-st, fixc-d by law, for the time tliey
enjoy ineir uso -aim Denelit -1 lie public
are benefitted by the company furiiishhiir
capital and currency to the" country. No
body pays any interest Jortiieuse of bank'
notes, but those onTv.ho voluutiirilvlkii-.
.'them. The peophVare nottaxed to
ise this capital, and no personis obliged
hipiself and society; just ho, if onel'hun
ilrcu dollars ot! loc icea up ana lie hius one
year, it will be useless and unprofitable ell
that tune to the owner and the country.
The friends of power and privilege, who
rrpdintrj-rrrual rights in money matters,
have asked in tlnsdebate, how w ill demand-
ng and exacting gold and ''silver for the
Government injure tlie banks and the peo
ple? The answer is' ready. I wi(l tell
you. Just as taking the solid foundation
from under a house would cause jfjo tottex
and fall. Just as taking tho iron off a
plough would render that instrument use.
ess. Just as throwing the ballast out ,oi a
ship will cause her, in a storm, to capsize.
to receive bank notes iu
1 heir character and eufrcnev thmend
tbtir goodl ,. bt ha v ii m rT But it is the partic
ular duty of tisotiuyerniiicht tli ;t giveiU
legal existi'iuxf to ail; such institutions to
li-utritUlvwl Htf04hut tliey d,
si'pplyxtfic people with -notes as good as
goJdiJ silver; arid whenever tWy disre
gird their solemn pn3Tnis.'s, mid defraud
the people, then to use the legal rod of corv
tntFpeW'oriiiance of a high pidm'c trust, and
tliereby s?ive the commuiiity froiii the evils
and losse j of a di iiii;i'i:d and deprecia.ttl
currency. Whenever this federal Gov
c;riiy'iit will cease its'unjust and iiirjiscrjm
inatc warfare ujrjii all banks (good and
bad) and the 'common 'currency of the peo
ple, 1 will go as far as any reasonable man
to correct their evils and - punish their
abuses. - Now, I very muclrrcgrtt that this
Indian war of extermination (killing all
and sparing none) should be so fiercely
waged against the common currency of tho
whole country , because it affords no oppor
tunity of destroying the tarts to preserve -riifwdicatrBaiilrTloTesre
not pqicr nio-
the first haven specie fund set apart
11 T .,
to redeem them, the, lat has no such fluid
The confeoVratii in which incorporated the
first Bank of North America, in 1781,
made and established at to improve tho
currency, and to avoit tfilfuse'of the old
State ipuper money, which was based on '
faith only without any funds to redeem it,
and 41 faith without works is dead." !
For the want of a uniform currency , a'
large liortion of the people of, this , Union
are doubly taxed, and pay two tariffs one.
to Governnieiit, and one to brokers, on tho
difference of exchange, between the placo
where the goods are first purchased, an J
where they nrc finally consumed.