If f .4 LIFE 13 ONLY TO Bj VALUED AS IT 13 USEFULLY EMPLOYED. s ,. ., ' 3 V oldie :..l.i:-l.nt TWO -..MBBKHI"' k. Cent, par annum, in advance, or ihn f of tUe ycr. , f Utfrrr-'jn be inserted at One Uoliar ttiW'TI w. and Twenty- ive inu lor i iw . ASHEVJLLE, NOSTCCiSOLLNA, 1FRIDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 9, 1810. NUMBER 18 fpmthe xouiu-a vwij tiiR CAPTIVE BOY LjIychiWis too young to go to i Ihe&aD. I v7.kiJ " savs a mother whom the Imprudent She keeps a public jnd ncr im . becan hear t!ie profane, boisterous it tin; uar-ruuiii. unu " but ho has wret ...KtitlOOS mi. ., . . 1 ... ano Illlfl BU VUt f iolove vice .before she has Jcamt . of nuicry for herself fw.e la u-achcrs. who need more- 4to convince them of the iinjiortande lowing sturyt; . , " ' S fwnuer scuiemcjus -"'".'v iV , , - 1 U I aflU-'O, fluently ia wasm. ujr i m u- .jjuil the inhabitants, killec and made prisoners of others. ,n i!ir numo of Uird. was ,J tnm!hcr'with lus wife and child ,' ;fmt inv irboat sis-moBths-oIiL-The , bad tiken so much plunder tliat the wretched father and Jnuth it.md luuiit.J bcln carry it oil'. ,,ntimirmotier contrived to . concca janiirmiL-liaLjar'tQrsiidAyinfi Ll itnn m o.r burden, cwatf w ner IIS I k.. .Iw. ,i(.h. hiia rxnowarus t.le .wnoerncss. After travelling from monr till evening i toil!? summer s day, thts Indians threw Riselveson the erovind and wero soon jipa. nut rura anu nis une, cn u cmw much Jatigue, lelllitiie awposeu w eiose ir eves. Tiiev eontnved to escape J, Willi their heluless babe, which they i auccetded iu prescning unnoticed, in. at miduizht. to retrace their steps i'jrc day, fatigue, anxiety, arid hunger I so cumulete v exUausloa tnem Dotn uit tiiey coma carry me emia no ranger n I it (hev would escape, not a moment s i ... . . . . . fis wua iv jusi. ujTuvt tut; ui iuiiiu rcamo ,the pareflts fondness. The iber, for tho lost time, pressed her in dent ofljpring to her breast, bedewed its .ci wiui tears aou sci n uuwu on inc Qbank of a little forest stream to per i there. As .she Drocecdwl. she cast t Irried look of agony behind her, and siw child cramblme after the cay flow. Wkn ffiny returned to So scittleinents, ir neighbors wcut with the father to the lot where the child was left , but ho was oe.' Asyears rolledon, Ood cave them alth and many other children, so that ij almost forgot their lost boy. Fifteen years afterwards, a treaty with a itanttribe of Indians bound them to du- rer up any captives that might be in their wssion. A boy was given up, who, it y Mid, had been found iu infancy upon tery spot where young Bird Aad been ft. He was sent to his parents, 'who im- oiately recognized hir tyinarkabk ruui3ng!ii mmi, wpitrn no' nau re reamhij lather's house. . j too measure oi ini: narcnts lov was lbut the boy wandered through the a possessions of his father without a life. His bow and hlanltrt ivoro hia rn1v it . . . -. : V liO Qe.SDleil ahkP th drpiii t in linli. i and the luxurina that uarn,md constantly brooded 'over the Y scenes in which ho had passed his pood. Vain were all attomnts to wean it fprtUrt lit.. 4? I 1 . I.fl . "! ins uauye naoiis. w hue persua- ad induWnce wcro resortetl to. he luftsced; butwhen force was tried, and l wiuueu utciiange nts blanket tot garmenUof civilizpH JIC h; fn. nw Dow for a book, ho rmw mill. '-uiua, ana at last was ini.in !? IT "w'n lDlan!cvenin2rarraved IrTlhe in iAh J - . . iV u','fu',g a distant mountaia: ""'"gP" course towards tho jwtUng wtyrcaraals- niWifercmmnvt r. ' ..i - irom UlOir fiirmi.P .i ' hiw.-j .. . ucc, wneremey Mtfor tlw yuo couiu dayaithe-oIjIa(l- Of the neiMiWKl l : I raisinff.' she saw from Z ,hencigl'Irhood having gone oral nules to " a raisin.' hn fmm 0(X)r, several armpd .wi ;.u.i Pfwchingher. Alf.. toSfcS tftenad ascending a ladde. loft of the dwollinir Hro i .r k-V.""11 termined-t dcfendTicrielf SlasL WS,S;BnJ findingjheir twn iliPiVwfl V wu wero vaint 'ad u,i was thrust Uiroughthe P-oor was rut (T 1... ... P. i .-J.. , s-" " mirepm wo. '"o n alarm !: . A.. alarm being taken at the mo. nt.thnl .1 . i iiic whi to. : . P retreats "" "'"g, mq in. "appeared in the In. M. j II.' " Sh. Mi; nVJrand.',,',Party cairn hand aJi 7 " u ycea wie jcror. ndof L , u wa w scarred v- -.r cigestsonl right gfnt iaun irrcsStibte Imp.! T draS tls cbJU, to- a savafc ISC life, youf child, by tho power of early, imprest sions, may bo dmwu towards heaven, or be dragged down tho ' broad road1 which leads totlie sccotia ueath. Children may loarn from-this story to avoid bad habits. '. :- ; Froi tlio N. Y. Observer. - PRAYER ATTilEJlXT.iliUD: A sailor recently retimed from a whal ing voyage, and in conversation jwith a pi- uus friend, spoke of tho enjoy inent ho had la.prayer while alar on the deep. " But, Inquired his friend, .inutile midst of the confusion on ship-board, where could yOu find a place to pray Oh said he, 'rhl ways went to tho mast-head.' I.have heard of closets in various' places, but never one more peculiar than this. Peter went upon the house-top to pray. Others' have sought the sliadcs of the fpresL I remem ber hearing of a youth who came home from the camp during the last war, and his pious mother asked him, ' Where, John, could you find a place to pray? He anaigd; Where mere is a heart to pjay,-juother it is easy to find a place. And yet the sailorV cbscj was a favorite spot. "The ear of man could not hear him las he cried mightily unto God. The galea that wafted his hn on its voyage, would bear his tn$I&6i8 upwar'd'toward the throne. 'Thevoiee'bt miJny .aterr otild be the music of hia sanctuarj and the angels that hud charge concerning him, would listen to the swelling aong. As he lilted up his heart and Ins voice in prayer, he was sur. rouhdecj with the majesty and glory of hia Mikef.Thdcepy "deep sea gpffcodTits illimitable expanse around him. J he ueav. ens spread out tike the curtainsof Jehovah's chamber, and the stars j like the jewels that adorn His crown, nunc over nun as ho eUwhttd tlto giddv rtiast . aod Jntwed-dw -. ii i i. c.i :." : " .f.. lo pray, remaps lie uuu iiii:vi iiiiiitr ui;iuou and entercd notJnto thu grandeur-of tho scene around him. But In; had a sOul; soul that felt the power of G kI j that Wel-I high snu holy communion with the rat ot spirits: and wlnlo the others bckiwwero riotin in tlie mirth of-a sailor's itfvinl lift his joy was literally to rise cbove tlie world and find intercourse w ith Heaven. What peace there was in that sailor's heart The storms might 'rudely toss hia floundering bark,'. but they could not shake his confidence in God. The ocean might yawn beneath him to swallow him in its lut hornless depth, but he was sheltered in the bosom of his Father's love. Tborfrail bark might be driven at the, merey 6i?fh)e winos, or oe ciasnca on inc roeKawsirprna ed on tho shore, but he had a.lnipe'tBat W4s nn accjior totne soul Dotn surruJ-; stead fast, entering into that within tho veil. Througli the tluckcst darknesa that enve loped him, tho 'Star of Bethlehem' shed its celestial loveliness w)ojfcr .hi3 path in tlie trackless deep,-an;t guided him onward a nd Jipward to-llio haven ofhiteroal rest. 1 hitherward from the raast-hean he strain ed his eye, and truo as the needle fo the pole, he pursued Ins way ; when tempted he 80ujrrit tne mast-head to pray; wnr.n in despondency, at the mast-head he found joy ; when the launts of his - companions filled bis ear jvitb pain and his soul with grief, he (led to the mnst-hcad and pbured out the desires of his heart, into the ear of Him who hears the humblest suppliant s cry. I love to think of this sailor. I wish! knew him, and could kneel down with him and hear him converse with. God. How few would be as faithful as he ! How ma. ny would neglect their closet and seldom pray in secret, unless they could have more safe retreat; a more sacred chamber than the mast-head of a wave-rocked whit. er.. But He, when here a sailor's pillow pressed,' walks now 6n the mighty deep, and when the tempest-tossed mariner cries, lie answers, It is I, be not afraid. Aw affecting incident. We saw letter, within a few days, written by a young lady who, not muny weeks since, way jonmeyingf rom thisfacettflhe west" It, Darratcs a very -ejfcitm2 occurrence which took place on board tho steamboat in which she was a passenger, and of which she was an eyewitness. Jn passing down tho Mississippi "river, our narrator was summoned ; from- thecabin ly alarming shrieks and great commotion on deck. On going up, she found that a young lady had falleh 6verh6ard,and the hoat In its progress was fast leaving her behind. A gentleman onTwartl immediately divested lijrnsclf of a part of his clothing, arid sprang into the river. He reached the drowning person, and upheld her in the water until a small boat came to tlie rescue of both. The young lady, thus snatched from a sudden death, was the daughter of an elderly gentleman who was on board the boat foreigners, neither of whonFcoiiTd sneak English. Oh reaching the deck , and recovering from her frighfjsho passionately embraced "her de liverer and bestowed kiss after kiss upon him, as the only way she could express her gratitudo and thankfulness; while tho fa. thcr rushing from the cabin eagerly prot fercd him a roll of bank 4ills. These bci ing refused, he ran to his cabin and return ed with a bag of gold, which he likewise pressed upon his acceptance; nor could ei ther father or daughter be mado to under- stand, or feel satisfied, ;why the proffered reward would not bo I accepted. -Saietn Obterver. ( MR. CJUAHAUI'S SrEECIt 'SPEECH ofllr. CEAHlfl, ef Aorth Carolina, On the Sub.Treasury Bill. dclicered in the House of EiyrescntaUces, 1810. Concluded. tune 307ft, BANKS. " To my mmd, we must have, Mr, Speak, cr, we aro obliged to have, niore currency than gold and silvero supply t!e fiical operations of .Goverement, and to( transact arid" interchange the business and trade of the people. I kn6w of. uobetter plan to furnish, and niako up the deficiency, than by tho uso of banks. I may uot-be a com petent judge of the best kind, as I have no practical knowledge of their machinery. I have never owned one dollar in the stock of any corporation; nor borrowed . one cent from any bank in myTife.- I am con cerned only as i?vcry planter, farmer, and business man is obliged to be, in a sound currency. When we sell a bale of cotton, a barrel of corn, tor lump of gold, we want good currency in return, of sjiecie par value. I am in favor of -sound secie. paying banks, whose " totes or bills may,atlhe will of the owner, bo redeem, cdund converted tntb gold or silver coin. In other wordsy- whenls jirnpossiblc- to obtain a sufficiency of cash to sunebrt labor aud; reward 'industry, theni.irupprove of using sound credit, as . a substitute. Xhis idea maybe aptly illustrated by a familiar example1 in domestic life. When bacon and beef are as scarce and hard to- get as gold-' and silver, we ar6 obliged to, use smaller euantities of- the Wid.-anoVrJargerj proportions of vegetable food, to preserv hearai and sustain Jiie. tsut, sir, among tho rich valleys, the green hills, Jrrfd blue mountains, in mv district, where soUd pro visions abound, we always regard bacon and beans as a constitutional currency, ana la legal tenderjesr sir, they pass very cur. renlfy, ana will satisfy any reasonable man I TH y antlrnfti that are always honor. HiJ, an4- luU tnnl are never protested. Limn and credit nitty be united and" advan taiieuiislY used together, like meat and brvud. ao asto go further, and tupply greater iiurjber. , .' Tlie object is to multiply, increase, and render abundant, that currency which is so essential to nidnxind, and enters into all we cat, and wear, aud have. A good plough is the true emblem of a good cur rency: Ntffhrmcris such a -metal-loving man as to construct that useful instrument liturely of iron. It would be too hwvy", r ; - i .1 1 . I : rii.. rurhiMJjiiMficbd-the plough. A practi jtratCfswv maM!(-iii4j -iiiuiiuwujjv ui ina plough 04, iron, but stock, beam, and haii. II Li J- . , . r I eie may us iimnu iu aavauiaiju oi gouu wood J they are lighter, cheaper, and more !.:' 1.,.!.. .1... conveiufill. 111 hub way every uooy, in poor as well as the rich, may own anu use thatJiadliliaatruuient-wlurli cultivaU s .the fruits of tho earth. In like niniiuer, a good currency may bo mado to general adan. tnge out of preeions metal and paper imi ted; so that all who wofk may live, hold, and enjoy a portion of the currency hich is rendered more abundant, convenient,. and useful, by a proper mixture of suitable materials. , The planters and farmers, generally, have but little dircctintercourso with banks ; yet, there is no class of the community who derive greater profits and advantages from the existence of sound banks. . They want a good market to sell their cotton, grainahd other articles. The morchunt obtains accommodation, and borrows fifty thousand dollars of the bank, and pays the planters and fanners that sum in bank notes for their cotton and grain. Fifty thousand dollars arc then, distributed end circulated in smaller sums, through smaller channels, in the currency, until supply and demand have consummated their contracts, and administered comfort and convenience to all through whose hands it . pained. Again, it returns to the bank, to auord ac commodation and facilities to other persons and phrees7TrhosevT)catfoh undustness require the helping hand of currency.- Like the heart, it distributes and circulates the blood through the veins, to fill and every naff of the system -which needs the natu ral CTrrentyTjf-liter - ' Sound hanks aro usefuTinstruments to Government, and beneficial institutions to A Bad Smku- A man. bv the name of Join Smell w cauebt picking a pocket irt Baltimore) last week arretted and aent to pram. the people-thcy furnish and supply-capital and currency for public revenue, and pri vate funds, to maintain and foster" hll the great interests of the country. Still, I am always jealous and watcliful of power, whether it be pecuniary or political; be- cause it is constantly liable to abuse. The best instruments . may bo applied and per verted to tho worst of purposes. I look upon a bank just ns I do upon fire in-a chimney iuscful in its proper ' place a good servant, but a bad master. Fire, while confined, to its appropriate sphere t within'limited banks and safe bounds, is very useful, and nhsohrtely . necessary to comfort, and to sustain life; and yr-t that very ciemcm, wmcn cooks our uaiiy ioo, may by negligence, accident, or abuse, destroy all our comfort, property, ""and life itself. Tho fault, is not in the use but abuse, of the element employed. When a bouse is burnt, ;or a steamboat blown up, nil one thinks "of abandoning the useol nre andsteam. So -when a bank breaks, or suspends specie payments, 4ho fault is not J owing to any. radical defect in the general principle used, Jbut is attributable to the misapplication and abuso of banking. I bclieve"we have rMirely too many banks, too much bank capital, and too many dif fercnt kinds of notes circulating as money. Tlie excesses and abuses of the system are felt and acknow ledged. Reform and cor. rection are greatly needed. Tlie remedy and the rod are iu the hands of the people thcmselvcsi Mibpean cnlighteiwd public opinion will soon ilistrriguish and separate between" the good wheat and tho tqres. It is the duty of tlie Government tlmt creates a corporation, to ace that it fuithfully per. forms its stipulations, and. redeems its promises.' TliiGeneral Government can, at any time', exercise a commanding con trol and powerful influence, for good or for evil, over all ihe money matters and bank ing institutions of this country. When ever this mighty machine, through w hose treasury thirty rjorty millions of dollars pass every year, receives the notes of any bank in payment of public dues, that single fact inspires coiifi lcDCo every where, and its bills pass currently; as if endorsed by the .United States. And whenever the notes of any bank arc refused at tlie Treas ury, tliat moment credit and confidence; are lost and witK2raw u by the public.' This gov. eminent holds the standard in law, and in factf of the value of aHmoney its breath can make, or unmake the currency it is the Sun -oi-tho-rnonetary- system the nil nor btate planets can do but little in ffen era! ciiiiey-witlibut ; its aid andjnftuence, it can bite and blight the surnmcr's fruit with wyifcr's frost -orjtheKindly action of this centre Sun canrnake "tlie winter of our dLxwiitcntrglorious summer." ' Let me-jiiustrate. Suppose, on the first dayjofJanuary U&tA jtlls to B a tractof tfiid for $100U ; a conveyance is executed, and posAfcsion givenv B iwid down S300, and gave his note forCVJOV payable next January. When tho land was sold, thij GovernnH-tt received bank notes at ' the ccs of that liberal loaning policy ? .The answer is plain and easy; orrr-banking, orw-issuing, twer-lending, oecr-borrowiug, occr-trading, opcrpeculation. Money was so plenty that many got over and above their business; they quit work, and tried to live by borrowing. Wo fiad a" flood of paper currency the streams and channels of trade and commerce (having so much public money) broke ortr the banks. All excesses are hurtful--even the rain w hich descends from Heaven, if it conies in great floods will often prostrate ourcrjps and iu. jure our. land. iow, you perceive-alio Administration in iy J J directed the dejjos ito banks to loan liberally the public money, and thereby used and contributed their power aud influence to swell and flood tlie whole country with spurious bank paper money. In 1$36, the Executive iuapub- fie message congratulated (Jougress and the r.iitt,' tlifit flirt 4lnli l.miL'u wrt no m r- ccllent fiscal agents to tlie Gjvcrmiieut, they having disbursed the enonnoufTsum of fifty. nine millions of dollars ifpuhlic mov ney." . Besides tliis, thelresiduut addi, " a number of th-depositc banks have, with commcndiible zeal to aiJ in the im- proveiiicnttif the currency, import-d frotn i i i- . .i .... - i ..i aurofio ni ineir owjicspetise uirga sums oi UhejKcipus nietals for coinage and eircu. lation. Well, these state bants, wneiji pany, and to tliegrout injury t,4Ie peo. favorites, not only issued their notes on thKju.... Is tliisnlU-gation trriel or 'not t Let i r i.i:- : .!...: ..... I . r.. t .: i.. Sub. notes will be hereafter refused at "the Treasury, and all property of the people wilt-thereby besonk t'a"tlitrdsin-valuc7 Bis sued for $500, he hist half of the purclia.se morny. The very same tract of hind 13 sold; upon a judgment and execu tion, to A, the piainthT, for $300; and B yet owes him f G0. Now this rank injus tice has been produced by the action of this Federal Givernment Refusing .-to receive the common currency of the country, and tliereby deprwiated all bank notes. B could not and A said he would take no. money this Government (tlie standard keeper) would hot receive,; aud thus B has Ixfen sacrificed, and rendered Jwor, w ithout any fault on his part 'f fid A has been enriched without any merit oifc, bis part. This is a very un just and wanton intcrfercnce'betwttinc'rcd itor end dt.htir, and a gross violation of common contitjcts. IiTthi.i manner, those who are in debt will bo fearfully pressed, and cnudlv screwed down by federal p;nv. er. 1 uus .tae-pedaiirp suojteica to m conteniences and losses wtitch -weessarily arise from the fluctuating policy of the Ad ministration, and an unsound state of the currency. . The eviLwill be extensive, and tho distress genepil. Such experiments upon the currency may be sport to ofiice lKjUlers,rbat t!i';y are d:ath to taxpayers. The S:ib-lre?uurv will create a rich harvest for federal officers, creditors, and capital ists; while it will embarrass' taxpayers large sum of public money in their custo dy, as they were instructed, but they sent to fiireien countries to borrow large sums of specie to bunk on, and issued their notes to debtors on that borrowed capital also; and for this they were told by aBoExecu. Jtivc, well done, good and faithful servants, you have acted with commendable zeal" to improve the currency. I have now ad duced proof positive, from tlie higltcst au thority, that tho Administration advised that 'LmtfliryJKM "TOr nffapjiroved of lliu bfhl;s:ToahTiig tric pulf trieu3,'the public ; and ag i-tretisurv Liil will-wow pass-aiid kmk lie money liberaUg -among the jieople. I builders, in consideration of I aumu uiyiincuy me duiiks um wrong. impoverish laborers, and ruin debtors. It will 11 tlie pockeU of the first clasw, and empty the pockets of the list, by .mokiiig it double iii liard to pay. money, or taking twice as much labor or property to pay the deb It is alleged, in iustification of this bill of divorce, that a large number of the banks are parslized, and have suspended specie -payments. 1 hat-is- a violation oj their charter, and.a serious injury to the credit and character of their paper; there fore. 1 censure and condemn any act of theirs whioh denreciates their uot3 below spccic-par-vaiue. Ketore we grant tins oi voire, let us hear the evidence, and inquire into the true cause of t!ie banks stopping specie payments ; and I apprehend the Administration will be found equally cen; suruble and responsible to tho country for all conseauences". 1 will prove this trom public documents. 44 out of thine own mouih wi'TT conjomn theeT 1:11833, soon after the State banks were selecteil and asoointed fiscal 8rents. Mr. n o i ' Taney, then-ijecrctary of -tlie Treasury s gave theifuUowir.g instructions to banns Ihe deposites.oObe public money will enable yoa-to aFfijrd increased facilities to conimcrcci and to exterJ vour ac'commol dations to individuals ;" he adds, ' he an ticipates the adoption of such a course re specting accommodation as will prove ac ceptable to the people, and safe to the Gov ernment. , lhc financial onicer instruct ed the bank to loan out tlie ptiblio money, to increase tlie facilities tj commerce, n nd to extend vouTjXnimtionsiju diviifualsT' Tlie banks did just exactly what they- were commanded by authority to do; tjiey Joined the public'.1 money hb- era!lr-and bnad-cast among thfj; people, Tlie.Secretaryi of tlie Treasury, undt rthc eye and advice of-thc President -'issued an ordr that the public money shouTd,bc loan-" cu out. jjemiers are' somen mcs srnrce, but borrowers are always plenty Well, there was about forty millions of public money advertised and offered to be hired. Yes, sir, this hird-moncy-loring Adminis tration was then out in open market offer ing to loan the people forly millions of soft bnnk paper notes! !! Now, I ask, what w ere the necessary and natural consequen Theyshoiild have resisted and refused to lonmuorathan theirdebtors xould safrly return, so as to be able at all times to re deem their notes with specie; but they yielded to the advice and influence of the Administration, the largest depositor and creditor interested in those institutions. Now. in the day of their trial and tribula tion, they are upbraided and abused, loud and long; by those very persons who ad vised aud approved the act before it was done.Such conduct resembles that of an artful man who acquires influence over a female and seduces lier, and then to hide his own shame, denounces S'iTd traduces her whom he betrayed. The seducer should novefbe'tlie tradueer. The banks andtiic Adiiiitu'slratwn fiave hem ticin sinners. The banks wanted to make larga profits out oiLtheir agency, and the Administration wanted to make general popularity out of their excessive liberality. Where both parties are guilty, there is no just cause of divorce, and this bill ought to be dismiss, aud n jected. Mr. Speaker, it affords me no pleasure to advert to the unfortunate experiments o! the Administration on the subject N of our finances and currency, and tlie great errors of the banks thr.t have not measured ihyir way and means by the specie standard, and therefore are unable to. redeem their notes. 'Whenever my Government or my country men are m distress no niatteirom what cause, I ani ready and willing to give all the relief iu my power, whic h equal jus tic?, common right, and sound polk-y, may dictate. Those who administered the Gov ernment should at all times be identified in interest with tlie people; to' feel pros perity or adversity just as they do. Com mon feeling and common interest arc the stroiijest bonds and surest guarantees the constituent can have and liold on his-Rep resentative. Tlie ISub-treasury violates this primary principlevJt affords relief and safety to the Government agents at the great c.enso and direct injury of theTpfo pie. The coiiiinon,currertcVTnTireufriti-n, created bv the banks for the use ot tin COple, will by the pn.-Mawt of this hill he di.scredircdV and the bank biils which tin farmer h-is now in -his. pocket-book, anil received for his crop, will become depre ciated iu value. The banks are tho instfc tut ions of the jicople. madi;- by t and for their benefit. A Unik luarket- a place where surplus prow are carried arid collected to sell and ply those wtifrwam to bay. Ix, a!o, bank is a place w here surplus money collected add deposited fo lo;.n and supply those who. want to borrow and need the use of money. One" man has his monr-y idle pdoing nothing; another want.? ami needs tho use of it for a time ; thuf, the money benefits him that lends, and him that borrows. The active circulation of money is necessary to diffuse general health and comfort, like free air and running water. If an indolent man sets all 'the ycsxidJcluAlabpjriindjtv The specie in a bank is the ballast ,'iliat gives credit to the cargo and confderice to tlie crew. The ballast of a ship is often of little relative value, and yet it will safely stay the ebbs and flows of winds and, waves, and give certainty and security to a valua ble, stock of goods, and . bills of lading worth millions. Ho that is at the head and helm of our good ship of state, should see that the ballast is projierly poised and equally adjusted. Tho standard bearer should perform his duty in such a manner ns to uphold and rcgnl'itc tha currency foe the Government and the people. Thosil- verbenmanu golden scales erected oy tno Constitution, as the true standard of uni form valuef should basotield aud used as to w eigh but eqinl aid impartial justice to all men ; but doriot ervert the object, And abuse thefriist,lv ifsihg' one Kind of weight and-mcasurcs for pritUeged orders of office-holders, and another kind of lighter weights and smaller measures for tho body of the people, w ho constitute the bone und sinew of the country Tlie Government is the trustee of the people, and I cannot con sent that the agent shall have a better cur rency than thc"prii.cial,or people. . Those who are hostile to all corpora troits., alluge and charge that they aro cre ated for the exclusive benefit of the com. us examine. All coi-pornfions ougm to oe for the general benefit of the people first, and then fur the private .. benefit of tho company. For instance, a railroad, was generally wantejl from Vashingt6n to B;il. timore (loily milns) for-tho. quick, cheap, and easy transjuirtation of tratlcluTQHraTrh The jieoplu were unwilling to , pay high taxes to construct such a road, and .there, fore they contracted w ith private persons at their own exnensc to build a rail road for agreed that tin the work and labor done, and money expended thtroin. for-the public use, should pay and rei n burse themselves by charging those w ho used the rod'd a certiii n fixed sum , . or legal tolL Now, the public derive a great ben efit from a private work, and justice and equity of the plan consists in, 44 no use, no pay.1' None but tlia-je who use the road pay the company. Before this road was made under the charter granted, it took a wagon laden with produce two days to go toBalfimore, one to -trade, and tv to re. turn, that js Tiyy days., N.v.wioUejreiIi'. road, you leave at six in the morning, and in two hours -you an in Baltimore; you are allowed from eight until -four o'clock (all the business hours) to trade, and then return the same day from market If any business man can now do in one day what formerly required five days, then I presume the people derive essential benefit from such a corporation. If it be true that 44 time is money," then four dollars out of ih'havii-bmiaycA Company. 1 presume not one railroad in tlie United -States has ever been made but by incorporated, companies ; single indi iluals have not sufficient capital; it re quires 41 associated wealth" to construct such useful jmblic ronds, on which time and space are so easily comjjjei-ed by the power of st um. Banks are sirriilar insti. tutions: The first object is to supply the people generally out of private fumls, u ith a sufficient quantity of sound currency of specie par value; and, in consideration of doing this, the bankers are authorized to c harge those who borrow tlieirnotes cer tain inten-st, fixc-d by law, for the time tliey enjoy ineir uso -aim Denelit -1 lie public are benefitted by the company furiiishhiir capital and currency to the" country. No body pays any interest Jortiieuse of bank' notes, but those onTv.ho voluutiirilvlkii-. .'them. The peophVare nottaxed to ise this capital, and no personis obliged row- is r laws like a ions SO). hipiself and society; just ho, if onel'hun ilrcu dollars ot! loc icea up ana lie hius one year, it will be useless and unprofitable ell that tune to the owner and the country. The friends of power and privilege, who rrpdintrj-rrrual rights in money matters, have asked in tlnsdebate, how w ill demand- ng and exacting gold and ''silver for the Government injure tlie banks and the peo ple? The answer is' ready. I wi(l tell you. Just as taking the solid foundation from under a house would cause jfjo tottex and fall. Just as taking tho iron off a plough would render that instrument use. ess. Just as throwing the ballast out ,oi a ship will cause her, in a storm, to capsize. debts. to receive bank notes iu 1 heir character and eufrcnev thmend tbtir goodl ,. bt ha v ii m rT But it is the partic ular duty of tisotiuyerniiicht tli ;t giveiU legal existi'iuxf to ail; such institutions to li-utritUlvwl Htf04hut tliey d, si'pplyxtfic people with -notes as good as goJdiJ silver; arid whenever tWy disre gird their solemn pn3Tnis.'s, mid defraud the people, then to use the legal rod of corv PMi-l'cnd.cynj!w IjuhLiJLiLlixLhwjmd- tntFpeW'oriiiance of a high pidm'c trust, and tliereby s?ive the commuiiity froiii the evils and losse j of a di iiii;i'i:d and deprecia.ttl currency. Whenever this federal Gov c;riiy'iit will cease its'unjust and iiirjiscrjm inatc warfare ujrjii all banks (good and bad) and the 'common 'currency of the peo ple, 1 will go as far as any reasonable man to correct their evils and - punish their abuses. - Now, I very muclrrcgrtt that this Indian war of extermination (killing all and sparing none) should be so fiercely waged against the common currency of tho whole country , because it affords no oppor tunity of destroying the tarts to preserve -riifwdicatrBaiilrTloTesre not pqicr nio- the first haven specie fund set apart 11 T ., to redeem them, the, lat has no such fluid The confeoVratii in which incorporated the first Bank of North America, in 1781, made and established at to improve tho currency, and to avoit tfilfuse'of the old State ipuper money, which was based on ' faith only without any funds to redeem it, and 41 faith without works is dead." ! For the want of a uniform currency , a' large liortion of the people of, this , Union are doubly taxed, and pay two tariffs one. to Governnieiit, and one to brokers, on tho difference of exchange, between the placo where the goods are first purchased, an J where they nrc finally consumed. - r -A i -i- X Mr : W a I .

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