Highland Messenger (Asheville, N.C.) /
Dec. 23, 1847, edition 1 /
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if 15 :t
AdfcrtiKBicoU l rU J at O-.b PL,
: Ovrr otw 'Jr counted ji t
; jMrce, iLC. I lis i.tT." r ti i !:;.
j maA U narked an t'.c r "..iri.j ai.
I-emfnt wi'.l t ctrrtmarj t.. f J, arul
t ,VrJ accord, nj'j Carl OrUrt
jrJ ti dollar. invarLilly. , -f
T : ciiirre A anrvooncm j ll.e r.arris cf a can
f la fj oi- invantlj iaadancc.
Jjfitert W tire DJ.t&f must come' frea (if pol
,ar tlifj will rcccire'oo alter. '"on.
F&a Citizen cfdt ZHzls .
jan-lorite Ileus: of IlrpresenlaUves:
.The annual metiingXf' Congress' 'i al.
a?intcrei(r:;j tver.t. U.a Repre
icotatitcsuf the States and f the people
eume fresh from their constituents to take
caur.scl together for tha common good
Alter n existence'of near three fourth's of
i century free and Independent re.
puWic, thd problem no lunger "reirfains to
b solved, whether man is capable of self-
pternment. Tt- 3' success of our admira
tir system is a co:.;-uivc refutation of the
tSrories of thtm in other countries who
' r.iic'ain thtl"'a f;vorcd few'' aru baril
to ru!e, and that tho mass of mahkiod
tnutl be governed by force. Subu-ct to
lw arbitrary or lierediiary 'e-.l.onty, the
nople are the onlj sovereigns ' recognizf-d
ur constitution. . Numerous cmigrnnis
cf everr liocaro and language, attracted
bf the civil and rcligiwis freedom we eo
f and by our happy condition,, annually
crgd to our ahor.es, and transfer their
heart, not Ictsthan their nlteianre, 6 -the
cpuntr' wltuio dominion belongs alone to
N'i country hat brcn an mudi favored,
or fhsuld acknowledge with deeper rev.
' trence the manifrstations'of the Divine
jro!ec:ion. An all wise Cm ator directed
and guarded us in our infant sttugtn for
freedom, and his constantly watched over
our surprising progress; until- we hive be-i
come one l tho grjpat tuitions on no rartn.
It is in a country thus favored, and un
der a government jn which the. executive
sivj let'Ulitivcbranchea hold their author
jy fr limiied priod, alike from the peo
ple, and vkherottll are, reponib!e-to theic
rtsoectivo constitu.'noos, ihtt it is agin
aiy duty to : communicate with Conrcsjf
apon the stataof, the Union, and the pre.
sent condition of public aftm. '
During the past year the moit gratifying
proofs are presentedihat our country to'
bren Djcssea wnn a vrion sprcau uiii
. venal prosperity.. There hit.bcen no pe
ttoi ince the government was : foundod,
htn all tlie) industrial pursuits of our peo-'
pie hate been more successful, or wJieb la
bor in all branches of ousirx'ss . nas.re.
tceived a fairer or better rcar4- From
our abundance we have been enabled ty
irform the Dleasins duty .of furnishing
fod for the starving "millions vt less fa
vorcd countries. '
1n thcenjoyment of the bounties of Prov
idence nf home, such as hive rarely fallen
tiJ the lot of any petipte, it is cause of con-,
graturation, ttut our .intercou'se with all
ths Powers of tho earth, tccet Mexied,
continues to be of an amiable chirncter
It has ever been our cherished policy to
Cultivate peace and good will with nli.na
tons; and this policy has beeo steadily
pvJrsucd by me,
: No change has taken place in buKfcIi
.tiooiWtlh Mexico aince the adjournment
of the last Congress; The war iohlch
the United' States were forced to '; encage
wi;) the government of that country sii-l.
ccrtinucs. - ' . ,
I deem ifunneccssiry,. after the full cx-
povtioa of them contained in my message
ff theJlth ofMay, 1843, and in my an
nual message at the commencement of the
session. of Congress in December l.st, to
reiterate the serious causes ,of complaint
vhrth we had a painst 'Mexico before she
commenced "hostilities! . '
it js suCiciemon the present occasion to
tiy, that .the wanton vi&htion of the right
of persons and property of our' citizens
committed by Mexico, ht r repeated acts of
bid Wtliw through u Jotig, series of years,
and her disregard of solerpfa treaties, stip-
elating for indemnity to our. injured citi
xrns, out only constituted ample cause of
war on our psrt,bat were ol such an a
cravated character as would have justified
i,. w. r .... .u- hnt nrld in resorting ta
this Extreme remedy Viihan antous
desire to avoid a rupture between the two
".countries j we forbore for years W assert
our clear rights by force, ana conunuru iv
seek redress for the; wrong c 1,3 J
v rrTf,t'miun.in the hoee
"".n ujr biiiiww u.0-' --------r ... .
it itA.; .;Kt .t,.' tn naeific counciU
andiKe ifrmand of iustice. . Io this hope
' we wer disrmointed. Our mihKter, f
Kice sent to 'Mexico was insultingly re-'
. jected. :sThW'5!t-'kicao government refu&ed
evea taiirar ih iprma offidlustmeot hich
was auhorixed to prtpose; and DftaUy,
. cnier .nm fiah ( tvretexTS. invoi-
ted the two countries in wsr. by ui
rtditig the territory of the State of Texas,
atrikinr th first blow, and shedding the
b(oo4of or citizeiis'oo ourown oiL,'-;.'
' . Thootrh the United Slates were theng
gravaii ttation." Mexico cqmrnenced Ukj
. r,and we were compe'.Ied, in self do-
fence. to renI iK. iriwador. and to vindi
cate ha national honor and interest by
prosecuiin? it whS ir' until "we. could
QVain m "p BOj feonorrfbl peiee,
i . - Oa tearnin iiAt'- krtiiVitis had
i commenced by Mexico, 1 promptly 8 com
in-ycaiea Uiat, fctf accomparueo: -wua
an J if.u t lt
cf May, IS-iO, d.:'
cf repufcl.,: c(
:t ! y
Uo'r.ed IT.atfrs" ;!.: tct
c c .
ar lorvrt by t!.. c-t t f . tf.-s r -.".s .f fr
p rosecuuon "to
a tpct-Jjr4 an J successful
H i rsi-J i:ll,rrt-3t fc na
oirriiiv t)V Lor 'ress. tr.ere Lt.iL: L-t two
Of4Ue voles in the Senate', and but fuur-
letn ia the lloae cf Reprcseniatrves.
i tie cx'si.ocw oi tae war navipg ivius
been dec,Urjd by Congress, it became my
duty, unJer tha cutii'.jtuti'on and the' laws,
to conduct nod - prosecute it. Thts duty
has been performed; and though, at every
stag of us progress, I have miniicited a
willingness to terminate it by a just peace,
Mexico h if refused to accede to any lerrm
which could . be accept d by th linked
Slates, consistently with the national hon
or and inierent.
The rapid anrj brilliant successes of our
arms, and the vast extern of the enemy
territory which had been overrun and con
quered, before the close of the last session
of Congresi , werfe fully known to tha
body. Stn;e that lime, the war baa been
prosecuted with increased energy, and 1
am gratified to state uh o success wiich
commands universal admiration. ' History
presents no parallel of so many glorious
victories -achievi'4 by any nan on -within so
ehorl a timrv Our army, regulars and to!
uuteers, hate covered I he ry selves with im.
perishable honors. ! Whenever and wher-
ever our lorces have enauniered the en
emy, though he' was in vastly superior
numbers, a ad often entrenched in fortified
portions of his own selection, and of great
strength, ' be nas been deftated! Too
nuch pruiid cannot be bestowed uponjur
forces and men, regulars and volunteers,
for their gallantry, discipline, indomitable
courage ami perseverance, all seeking the
post of daner and vicdng---with each other
in deeds of noble daring. -
'While' every patriot's heart rnqst exiilt,
and a just national pride? animate evefy
bosom, in beholdioir the hiji proofs of
courage, consummate military, skill, steady
discipline, nni hamnmty to the yanrukshed
cnemyl exhibited by our gallant army, .the
nation, is cilled to mourp over the loss of
may brava ofilers and,' soldiers who
have fallen in defence' 1 their coun'ry s
honor and interests The bravo dead met
their melancholy fute in i foreign4Und,
nublv discbarffinir their duty, acd with
their country flg waviog triumphantly
in the face cithe foe. Tlieir patriotic deeds
are iustlv aDDreciated. and will lone . be
rernenibered by their grateful counirmrn.
The parental core of the government they
loved and. served should he extended to
their surviving families.
Shortly alter the adjournment of the fast
fession of (ingress, the gratifying intejli-
gencc was receivcu oi.uiu signui victory
of But.nuv Vista aad of tFw fall of the, cij
of Vera Cruz, arid with it the strong castlr
of S in Juao de.UHoa, by which it was de-
fended, Bsheving that alter these and
other successes, so honorable to our a,rnis
and so disastrous io Mexico. . the period
w,as propitious to aflord her another oppor
lunity, if she thought proper to embrace it,
tu enter iftto' negotiations for peace,
commissioner wa appointed to proceed to
the headquarters of op r army wnh full
powers to enter upon negotiations,' and to
conclude a iust and honorable treaty ; of
peace. He was not directed to makeaify
new overtuTca of peace, but ws the bear.
er of a' despatch from -the Secretary of
Slate of the United States to the Minister of
Foreign - AiJaics of Mexico, in reply i
one receivf J fiom the latter of the twenty
Nrrond oi Ft-bruarv. 1847. in which thel
Mexican government was informed ol his
appointmcrit, and of, "his presence at the
Headquarters oJ our army , ana tnat -n,wa;
invested 'wi-th- full powers fo" conclude.,
definitive treaty of peace, whenever lht
Mexican government might: sicmfy a de-
. ... T .. If . .
sire to do so. v fine i was , onwunng io
suhjreuhe United SiHtea lo another indigl
nan; 'fefusal, 1 ws yet r ved that the
evMs at tjwrwar should oA bo protracted a?
da longer rhan ntigtK bo rendered abso-
lutrly ticesary -hy the Mexicin govern
Ca re wa s taken lo give no ins t ruction
to the' 'commissioner whiei couU in any
way im'erftre wiih ooj- mthtary operations,
or relax our energies in tho prosecution oi.
;he war. He possessed no authority n
any inanner u control th?se oeraiion$.
He was author ized to extuiMt nis instroc-
lions to the General in Command pfthe
army; and in the ".event of a treaty - being
concluded and ratified n the part of Mex
ico, he wan directed to give him notice of
that fact. On the happening of such eon.
.tingencyt.nd on receiving notice thre,ot.
tbeUenertin comm'uid was instrucieo
kV iK S.r r-tarv of Wur lo suspend fur
ihcr active military operations until furiher
orders. -Tbeso insiruciious were given
wi h a view to intermit hostilities, until the
treaty thus, rat ified.-' by - Mexico Could be
transmittetl to Washington, and receive,
the action of the government, of the Uuiled
States. , -,jt?.- .
' The coramissiotter was also directed on
reaching tlie army, to. deliver to 'the Gen
era! in command, tbft despatch which h
Knr from, live Secretary of Stato to the
Minister of Foreign Affirs of Mexico, and
on rivnt2 il. the beheral was- instruct
ed bv the Sectary of War to cause it to
bo transmitted to Ihe commander of the
Mptin forces, with request that itmrght
1 1. ,.m-,iniat! l ht rovemmer.U
i -. -' - . . i . .
Th commissioner did not reacn me
hcidauarurs cf tbeirroy until after aa
J s-."oi.iJ our
:do. ' !
-! ch !.. l72 (rom t!.e
to C.2 Oentnl ia com.
7:s n-cJvcl ty tl.at
,k , J ksct.ih day
:.:!.jf v. !i the cespnch
r, rt-r) f J
o t j i
' Li -i-;.-ir:ers
.1 wards. "His.
J ' bis d!pJona
khown to" the
Putbla, on the
J Secretary oi
rc I m' AfTiira of
;(!.b army 'a.' kw
pre r nc & w i ; o tha
lis characltr fca.
twc.Uh ol J jnc. 1L1T. ;
of the - desji .tch !r o
S.ate to tha Mir.iilcr ci
and noxiverturrs wtro-madejnor was any
cesire.e,xpressL 3 by r.-xican ? vcm
mentlO.'erAer inio cr iziiiuti.ir.s for i-ouce.
Our army pursued' its mirchipon the
capital and as it approached it, was met
by formrdablc rc$is;auce. Our force first
encountered sthe enemy, and achieved sig
nal victories in the se verify contested
fields of Gontreras and Churubusco. 1:
was not until after these -actions had re.
suited iri decisive victories? and ihe capi.
tal of the enemy was ; within our power,
that the Mexican government manifested
any disposition .to enter tnsfe negotiations
lor peace; and even.therj, as vents, have,
proved, there is too moch reason to believe
they were insincere, and that In; agreeftig
to go through the forms of negorintion, the
object" was to gain! time to strengthen the
defences of their-capital,-and to prepare
lor fresh resistance,
The, General in cdrnmand "of the army
deemed it expedient to ?ape'od hostilities
temporarily, by entering into an armistice
with a view to tho opening ol neoMations.
Corrunissiopers were appointed on the part
of Mexico to meet, the commissioners on
the part of ihe United States. -The result
of the "conference's which took4 ' place be
tween these functionaries of the two gov.
einments was a failure to conclude a treaty
of peace. ' -; . : a ' . : ;
The commissioner of the United Slates
look with him the project of a treaty al.
ready prepared, by the terms of which the
indemnity required by the United States
wa a 'Cession t)f territory. - . '?l;
It is well known that the only indemnity
which it is in the power of Mexico lo
make m satisfaction of the jast and long
deferred claims of out citizens againsi herj
a-nd the only means by which she can re,
imburs the United States for the expen.
ses offtho-war, is'a cession to the United
Stales of a ponio'n of her territory. Mex-
ico has no fnony to pay, and no oOier
means. oi making ine -requireuvinoemnuy.
il we reiuse; tnis, we can obtain nothing
else. To reject indemnity, by refusing lo
acccpta cession of territory, - would be to
nb'jodon all our just demands, and to wage
the war) bearing all its expenses, wi:hout
a purposeor definite objoCt. .
i A state ol war abrogates treaties previ
ou&ly f existing between- the, belligerents',
and a . tftaty of pejce puts an end to aH
claims --.or indemdityfor(tortious acts
committed, under the authority of one gov
ernment against the' citizans or subjects of
another, Unless they,are propped for in
its simulations. A treaty of-'peace which
would terminate ihe existing wnr, withmit
provitf-ng for indemnity, would enible
Mexico ihe acknowledged debtor, and
lierself lhe aggressor in -the war to re
lieve herself from her just liabilities? By
such a treaty,7 our! citizens, who hold just
demands against her, would have no rem
edy either , against. Mexico or . ihejir owi
government. Our duty to thse citizens
must forever prevent such a peace, and no
treaty which does pot prbvide ample mean?
ol discharging these demands can receive
my sanction. . , 1
A treaty f pence should settle' all . ex
isting dilferenccs between 'the : two coun
tries. If an adequate cession of territory
should be midc by such a treaty, the Uui
led States should- release Mr. yea frorrf itll
her liabilities, and assume fthVir payment
to oor cittzns. If; instead - of this, the U..
Sia'es .were to consent to a trebly by which
Mexico should n train . engage -to pay the
heavy amount of tndob'ed.icss which a j ist
indemnity to our government andourcil
izens would impose cn her, it is notoricus
jhathe does not possess the means to meet
such an Undertaking. From such a treaty
o result geouldVbe anticipated, but the
same irritating disappoint nVn's which have
heretofore atlen.ied ihe vioartionsof sijiji
Ur treaty stipulations on .The part of Mexi
co. -;&ucn a trcaiv wou a oe out a tempo
rary cessation- of . !&tuuie9,: without -the
restora'ion of the friendship and goid urf.
defstaading which. should characterize the
future intercourse between the two coun
That Congrpss contemplated th acqui
sition jf territorial indemnity when that
body mtdo provision for the prosecution
of thai war, is .obvious...' -Congress Could
nor have meant when - in May, 1846
they appropriated .ten nwUions f ollars,
and ambonzed the President to employ the
militia and - naval and rodilary: forces of
the United S.ates, and ta accept the scr.
vices of fifty thousand volunteers-; to ena
b'.ebim to proscule die war and when;
at their last eion, and after our army
had invaded Mexico, they made additional
appropriations aod authorized the raising
of additional troops for the same purposf
that no indemnity was" to be obtained
from Mexico al the conclusion of the? war;
ari Vet it was "certain that, if no Mexican
territory was acquired, co indemnity could
be obtained. !
It is furiher manifest thai Congress con
u n j t'.t J U tr:.iiui ji.J-mr.iy, In.n r.t
f ctthdt,at i..;irhs: sson, t: act was
rtiised, cpn Cxtc olive recorr.mf oda
uo'n, epprtp:i:tirg three m'il'.icr.s cf nlJ
Isrs uiia tt.it ci press cVJfCt. This ap.
propri ition.was ni'ij "m enil'j 'i.e Pres.
tJent'toconcljJi a .treaty of peace, l.mlts
ar.5 U.itlirL i:hthe rcpv-s cf Mcx
ico, tu be uavd by , him in the event that
said treaty, when s'gned by the abtiwri
Zfd gt i.ts of li.e two pjvernmenw, and
duly rdti d bv Mexico, .a!l call for the
espendiiure. if ihe same, or any part there
of The tiVjtfCl of askirg ibis nppropri
ati"Vn was distinctly stated in tho several
mvssag.es on ihe subject which I Commu
nicated lo Congress. Similar appropria
tion mad? in 1803 an4 "ISQ3, which was
referred to, Mere intended to be applied in
pari consider ft lit "n for tiw cession of Lou
isiana and "the Florida's. v la like nnnncV
it was anticipated that, in settling the
terms of a ticaty of "limits And bounda
ries" with Mexico, a ce&sion of territory
ts:;'mtcd to beofgrcater value than the
amount cf ur demaods agaiasi her migh
be obtained; r.nd that the prompt payment
of (his sum' in parf consideration for the
territory ceded on the conclusion of. a
treaty, and i;s migration, on her, part,
might be an ir.d-ccmcr.t with her to make
such a cession of ' territory as,; would be
satisfamory to" t!.s U.itcd Sialcs. And
uhhoughthe failure to conclude such a Irca.
ty has rendered il unnecessary to use any
part of ihe three millions of dollars ap
propriated by that act,' and the entire, sum
remains in ihe treasury, ifis clilf applica
ble to that object, should ihe contingency
occuj making .such application pro;Ver. -;
The .doctrine of no lerrinpry is the doc.
Irinc of no indemnity ; and if sanctioned,
would be a public ' acknowledgment t that
our .Country was wroriT,anJ thi -tha ttjar
declared by Congress wkh extraordinary
unanimity, was ur.iuf, and should to a.
baodoned; an admission unfaund.-d iei hct,
and degrading to the naiional character
The terms of the treaty propoied by the
United States were not onlv lust to Mexi
. . . -----
ca, but, considering ihe character ffnd a-
mount oour claims,, the unjustifiable and
unprovoked commenrcmcnt of hosiiJhies
by' her, the expenses of the' w.ar to which
we nave been subjected and the success
which had attended ur arms, were deem
ed to be of a most liberal character.
The commissioner tf the .United States
was authorized to agree to-1 the establish
mem of the Rio Grande as the boundary,
from its entrance intor the Gulf td its in
terscclion with .the southern boundary of
Tiaw Mexico; in north latitude about thirty
two-degrees; and lo obtain a cession loihe
United Stales of the provinces of New
Mexico and the Califoroias, and the privi
lefee of the right of way across tha isthmus
orSrehuantepec. The boundary of , the
Kto Grande and the cession to1 the Uni
ted S;ates of ISew i Mexico and Up
per Cahforma, constituted an uliimalum
which our commissioner Was, under no
-circumstances, .to yield. t
1 hat it nnght bo mamlest not only to
Mexico, but to all oiher naMons, that the
United States, were not disposed te tke
advantage id a-, feeble power, , by insisting
upon w resting from her alt the other prov
v . - ' 1 . ... ..
inces inciuatng many her principa
tbwn and cities which wo had conquered
and held in our miliury occupation, bdt
were wiHing" to conclude n treaty in
spirit of liberality , our commissioner was
authorized to stipulate for the restoration
to- Mexico ol all our other Conquests.
. ,. As ihe territory to be acquired by lhfe
bounday proposed might 6e estimated lo
be' of greater value than a fair equivalent
tor our just demands, our commissioner
was authorized to stipulate Tor the paymen
of such addiiional pecuniary consideration
as was qcemea regsonaole.
: The terms of a treaty proposed by the
Mexican commissioners were wholly in
admissible. They negotiated as if Mexico,
were the victorious, and not the vanquish
ed party. They must have known, that
their utinatum could never bj accepted.
It rcqtfed the United States lo'dismcmber
Texas, by surrendering, to Mexico that
pait of ihe territory of ihat Slate lying", be
tween the Nueces and the Rio Grande,
included within her limits by Iwr laws
when she wasnrf independent republic, and
wlien she was, annexed to foe United
Slates and' admitted by -Congress as one
of thd Siatcs tjuir. Union.' It contained
no' provision Cirtfe payment by Mexico
of the'just 'Claims of our citizens. ' It re
quired indemnity to Mexican citizens . for'
injorics ; they may have sustained by our
troops' iri the prosecution cf - the w&r. Ii
demanded tho right for Mexico to Jew and
coueci ine; jiexican tariti 01 cuties on
gixds imported Iro her ports while in our
mditaty occupation during the war, and
tlic ownefs-of whih; had paid, to ofTicers
of the Uniltd Slalc.s the military contribu
tions which bad ben levied upon them;
anafit otTcrcd to cede to the 'Uuiled Slates,
l(f pecuniary cotisid.' ration, that pn ol
V'pct California lTiP2 north of vlatixide
thirty-seven de grees. Such were the unv
reasonable., terms proposed by lbs ' Mex
ican Viomrmssloriers. : .
' The-cesion" to the United Slates ly
Mcxicbof the. province of New Mexico
and the Cawiorn.as, as proposed by the
commissioner of tho United 2:atcs, it 6 S3
believed, would U? mora ia Accordance
with' the convenience and interests of both
nations, than any o:her ccsvioa of ter-
litory which il was probable Mexico ccoJd
be induced to make
Il is maolfestio a'l who have observed
the octua! condition ef the Mexican govern.
fment, for some years past, and at present,
1 iK.t . iVo. .i,nM t.
ft il ti imn iutiuia.i- vuuutu WO Itiaiucu
by. her she could not Ioo cooliatw lo bold
: Jjern i:.. i, .'Ux.'o.u uo K-tLIo
a power tap trrn i! .ri provir.rc,
es iVcy't.j tt a !i:ar.c3 cf tre tl.'-ri a
i!.2-ar. i r . l"s XroTi l.?r C, $ arJ, if
afcrr-'ed to Lo rcti::.rd ty kett tJ.ey wouM
ccr. :r.;:'2 L t fjr a i.urt liir., trcn rom
it.ully, n part cf hef do'flr.ions. .
This v.oj! 1 t; c.?!i!'y t!.3 c:: wiih
Urr.r C,.!irr:,!i. , il 2 jgri'.r vf power
ful Eurcpean cations hts locg s.cce u.recl-
d tiieir aucr.'.i 'i !j t e contrTCtai im
portance cf that province, aal there can
be little coubv that momeni: the tinned
Slates ha!i relinquish their present occupa.
tion of it, and their clarra toit asitrJcrnni.,
ty, ia cflort would be mada by some
foreign Pawev to possess it. either by con
quest or by purchase. If nd foreign gov
ernment should acquire it tnciibcrcf these
modes, an independent revolutionary gov.
eminent woud probably be., established by
the inhabitants, and such fjrergrers is bay
remain in or remove to the country,- as
toon as it shall be known thai the United
States have bandoned iu Sjch a goi'crr..
rperA would be too feeble long a maintain
its separate independent, existence, snd
would finally become annexed," to, or bo
a dependent colony, of, some more power
ful State. - i ' . '
Should any foreign government attempt
fo possess il as a colony or otherwise , to
avowed1 by "Prcsidenr Monroe in 184,
and reaffirmed in my first annual message,
thai no foreign Power slrtll, wiih our con.
sentbe permitted to plant of establish any
new colony or dominion. cvt any part of the
North .American continent, must be main
tained. In maintaining this principle, aod
in' resisting ; its invasion bv any foreign
Power, we might be involved in other wars
more expensive and more difficult than
tljai in which we are now cngsgr d.
The provinces of New Mexico and the
Calilornias are contiguous to the territories
r f iho United States, and it brought ui.de r
ihe governrocBi of our laws j their resources
mineral, agricultural, manufacturing,
and commercial-would soon bo develop
Upper California is bounded on the north
by our Oregon possessions; tndif held by
the United. States, would soon be settled
by a hardy, enterprising, and intelligent
portion cf our population. The bay. of
San Francisco, tmd other harbors along
the Cil.-rr.hn coast, would eEbrd shelter
for our navy, for our numerous whale styps,
end other merchant vessels employed in
the Pacif;c ocean, and would in a short
period becomo the marts of an' extensive
and profitable commerce with China, and
o'.hers'countrjcs of iho Eist.
These advantages, io Which the whole
commcrciarworli would participate, would
at once sccuredlo, the' United Spates
by lo cession of this territory; while it, is
certain tint t. long as it remains a part
of iho Mexictn dominions, they can bo
enjoyed neither by Mexico herself nor by
uuy oiucr iiuiia,, ;
New Mexico- is a frontier province,'
an J has never been of any considerable
value to Mexico. Frorn' its Iccalitjr, It is
naturally connected with our Western; set.
llemems. The territorial limits of the
Stale of Texas, 100, as defined. by her laws,
before her admission into , our Union,
embrace all lint portion of .'New Mexico
lying east cf the Rio Grande, while Mex
ico still chims .to twU-jhis territory as a
part of her dort.inions. . The adjustment of
this question of boundary is important.
. Tfccre is another coneicJeration which
induced the belief that the Mexican gov.
ernment miht even desire lb place th'fs
province under the protection erf the goy
ernment ol ihe United , States. Numerous
bands of firco and warlike savagesander
over H, ar ;rpoa its borders. .Mexico has
been, and must continue to be, too feeble
to restrain them from commiuing depreda
tions., anJ nrderj, not only upin the
inhabitants cf New Mexico. itself, but upon
those 01 ihn other northern States of Mex-
li would be a blessing to all these
northern Slates to havo their citi2rrs
protected against them by .ihe power of the
United States. , At this, mement. manv
Mexicans, principally females and chil.
dren, are in captivity among them. If
New Mexico were held and, governed by
tire Ue;:c i States, we could effectually
prevent these tiibcs frorn committing such
outrages, and compel them to release these
ues, and restore them to their fam
i.i"s and friends. , . , -
In proposing to acrviirc New Mexico,
and the Calilornias, it was known that
but an inconsiderable ptriion of the Mex
ioan pronto would bo lrar.ferred with
bun, t1,? country ptobraced within these
provinces being chiefly an uninjibited . re-
Tl.eje -a ere the .leading considerations
h.ch indj.-rd me to. authorize the terms
vfpr sco which were, proposed ,tuMexir'o.
I i.ey were r j Jcted;and negotnuons being
ataucnJ, l.j'iiliiies were renewed. An
cssilU 'was ride by our gillant army
ujoo tho Eircr'y.fortifted place near the
gates ( f the city, of -Mexico, and upon the
city itse'-f; and after several, days of con
Ctct, the Mexican forces, vastly surpcrwr
n numlcr to o-ir own,-wero Hiiven-frm
tha city, sdJ it was ccti'; Vd tyour
It-t:- . 'Tif;"f 5 ' : "v z n;ns re
ceived of t?-3 i-.-.fAiort L'o r-'t f ihe
ngjliatior.i. L-r.vir,'; llsit h i cor.'.inued
preu-ncc wiihth'J er;
;ive of r.a ;?cd, I
was trsnsrr.rilcd to
October last. Ti 1 !
will be ir.rorr..cJ of 1
ct J ta produc
mined to recall our
t i.tch o th'is Tct
I im cn via stxih of
j reca!!; and that. in
the existirg state ct t...."gs, l, shall not
dceb it proper ta c.aka any furiher orer.
rc i ' 1 0 1 . : .
wl.'ci tr.ay 1
Men) pre;- ; " rf t'.a U.
ljor.2-J t I 5 t-i ! April
r" ;rcs hi:L -i i:urrtd;.'
iuj.tljed cf. m-y cf.or
fr.J, t' 2 prt
rr.tr;;:.o 1 2-c:z'-T.i iri
p .vsrci;r. cf t! 0 v. sr.
siJcrsr.cn, acd tl.wcbs;;atei p
H 1 coa.
cf?!;'co i.i pr-.'re: t Mir, rr.trst
inCjence the icrrTt cf peace w5 :hil may v
be deence j proper hereafter to ec-pt
O-.: arms hvirr been everywl ere vic
toriojf having fjubjected ta our fnilitarr
occupition a large portion of the eccmy
country, incluiir.j Ins capital, and r-gotia
lior.s for peaco, t.svin failed, the impor-.
tant qivs:iooa arL?, Ia what n.ar.ncr lha
war ' ought lo be , pro&ccued? and what -should
be oar, future puhc) T I cannot -djubi
hM we shi'J i,curear.i render,
available the -corqres's which we have
Irfady macrfand ihat, withjhis view,ws
should bold BT.d occupy, by cifr r.aval xnd ,
military Torres, all the porls, towns, .
cities, and provinces now in ur occupa t
lion,- or which may;, hereafter fall Into .
our possession; that we should prcM for
ward our military operations, and levy
such miliary contribution on tho enemy
as may, as far as- practicable, defray tho
future expenses of this war
Had the government of Mexico acceded
v iiiq vMiuig aua iiuvimi c ilia i.;ru9vu ,
thai mode of adjustment would have been'
prcfcrrcd ' Mexico having declined, to do
which could bo accepted by tho United . 1
States, the national honor, no less than
the public interests, require tbat tV War
should be prosecuted with increased energy
and power until a-just arid satikfactory ,
peace cart .be obtained. ' In the meantime,
r it t I .v '
as Mexico reiuses an indemnity, we
should adopt measures, lo indemnify our
selves, ' by appropriating permanently a
portion .of her territory.' Early after Iht
commencement of line wr New, Mexico
. . . . ;. : .. , ... . ... a
qikJ the Cihtornias were lake d possession
of by our forces. ' Our military and naval
iccroriTTamJeri.were onScrtd to corquet and
hold them, subjpci lo be exposed ot vj a
treaty of peace. - '.:'"" t '
These provinces are cow in our utro?spu
led eccupfc;ior,ahd hate bcerl so fjmany
months; all rc&Mance omiho pari of Mex- '
ico having ceased within ihcir -limits'. I
am satisfied that they should never be
surrendered to Mexico. . Slioull Coo-' ,
gress" concur with me in this opinion, and
thai they should be retained by the (Jailed .
Stales Tas Indemnity, I can ?rceivo;no
good reason why iho civil jurisdiction and
laws of tu United States should not at
' ... ... .1 1 . . ' .. . m ..
once oe exienaea over mem; - 1 o wan tor
a treaty of peace, such as we are willing
Irt maWft'. h wK!(K tir rlnflrtns Intv'krA
. V. 1 J . i.jr t V
tUCTII WUUIU UOl UU r.u.ucU CSmlOl US
good policy, whiU: dur bwfl Interest, and
that of tho people inhabiting them, re
quiro mat a stable, responsible, ana tree.'
government under t our authority should
as soon -as possible, be established . over
them. Should Congress; therefore, de.
lermine 10 hold ihse protinces permanent.'
ly, and that ihey aha'f horeatisr be coo.
sidered as constituent parts of our country;
the early establishment of territorial gov
ernments over therri will ba important
for ihp more perfect protection of, persons.
and property; and I recommend that such
territonal governments be established . It
will promote peace and tranquility among
the inhabitants, by. allaying all apprehen
sion that they . may stilt, entertain of beings
again subjected to the jurisdiction of Mex.
ico.' 1 invite the early and favorable con
8iderntiod of Crrgress ta this . important
Subject. .( -
Besides. New Mexico and the Californ.'
ias, there arc other Mexican provinces
which h?tve been reducfd lo- our pos
session by conq-icst. These other Mex."
ican provinces ars ? now. governed by our
military aid nav.1l commamJers, tinder
the general authority which is Conferred
un-n a conqueror by the laws of war.
'I ley should continue to be held as a
mearfs of coercing - Mexico to accede to.
jut terms of peace Civil as Well as rril
itary ofiTcers nre required to" conduct such
a government. - Adequate compensation to -be
drawf) from contributions levied on the
enemy should be fixed by Jaw for such'
officers as may be thus employed. Vhat
further p revision may become necessary,
and what final disposition it may be proper
Ill IIIJRC "l uinu, II1UM urw.liu uu 1110
warriand the" course which Mexico may
think proper hereafter to pursue ' . '. '
With theviews I entertain, I cannoti
favor the policy which- hss been suggested,
or to retire to a designated line, and sim
ply hold and defend it Tt withdraw our
army-.altogether from the conquests rhey
have made, by deed of unparaletled brave,
ry, and at tho expense cf so much bWJ
and treasure in a just 'war on our part and
ine which, by tho,acl of the enemy, vo
cviurd not hoooraoiy have avcided, would
be to degrade t lie notion in its own celt ma,
lion and in'thit of tha world.
To retire te a lice, and simply hold and
defend it, would. ivt terminals . the war,
O.i the contrary, ft would encourage Mex,
ico to persevere, and lend to protract it
indefinitely. It i not to be expected that
Mexico, after, refusing to establish such
aline as a permanent boundary, when
our victorious army era in possecsloa c,f
hcreapitaT.end in the heart ot her coucfry,
would permit us t hold it 'without resii
tance., Hiat she would eootlmte tha wsr,
and in tb? most harstsinj and naiyirig
forms, IheVa can' be no doubt. A border
warfare ofthb most savag character, ex
lending over a Ion Uae would bj cuceii
Highland Messenger (Asheville, N.C.)
groups preceding, succeeding, and alternate titles together.
Dec. 23, 1847, edition 1
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