. - ' - - ' V- :;' I S PUBLISHED WEEKLY tBY X II O S3 . t lv . A T l EDITBS AB FKOrSIETOS. TERMS? T Dott Jv annum In advance it not 4 ia advance, i aac Itotuas. Kaarderior iim paper will receive attention rai accompanied ky the Momrr. " jUTrrtwements win bo inserted at Oxa Dou U arr sonar of ten lines or lew, the first in. Mrtign,aa4 l wkxtt-ftt i sxra for each con. Smaee. Ovarowwequare eoontcd two, over lava three, &. rh number of insertions de. and mast be marked sa the narjrin, or the ad. Ttimewenl will or continued" liU forbid, and -aarfed accordingly. Court Order will bo &trgct sis dollars, invariably.' Tat cbarte for announcing the name of a can JI for t5 ia 83 inranablv io advance. Lrttrf to the Editor must come free of pMU c, or itoey wui receive no aiMnttoa, - - - - lateinprraure. P-rat! bo 'th peklea feelinj, . Oct thy cradled lmrea bent, Eirjy year awar cUima revealing. Yet lb y w'ili f oaspeaU ' ' IIt ibaa teen that bloWit blighted Br admr untimelir froctT ; A!l thj labor anredjuited? -"-'' i Erety gforioas prooiiae lastf .. Wife with ajonj wuaoVen, -SickKjfraoi aIictions rod,1. I thy prvp thy idol bruken F-m&j trurted next to Godf ' llitundl o'er thy aupe a mourner, - tK thyrhoven fiend ashamed, Ht I.Vm to her burial borna her, 7 . I'onprritcJ uoreclaimedt Ct d'. m thy tender weaknes taming 1 u tby b'-rcn appointed guide, IVjih a Ura-porum burning, T-n; wi'h fill aS.etku' tide? t.tt o&se burden buariog. Itjrkvr tiian Ibe grave can throw Ijt ili a bow ttice down despairing , To a hi-ntafc of woe? Couiirr! on thy tona depending. S'rong in aiirud, bright in btoom. Hi t thou tn tby pride descending, Sinaded to tine unclouded tomb? -Rm! on r;!e pinions aourinr Kei fcke oix uf God like birth And, Jcb-JVi V aid imploring, Sweep l!to tpuLei from the cart!). Tbc Welcome Back. Ss t i ibc b-ioT tht brings a hoino' W &k H uS ofKj to ateet w t'Mt 4t ar i!m; a we come, T a- tt av-4 io gr . tn i j -.- i bit i pet it frowns and wralh, 1 J . Mk ttf Mild - - - , m,w ,t,i4 ( -wj a t'f'id kwcsaing. , jttiwly eVar at tt kraeward track. ? - awl nn of wsicuaoe bacJu vTs J, arory way, Ti-f a kreugahrd. ; !.' ww to W bpa to elude oar stay, $k4 rtfcl Bihl aJaaiH.lif !ttJ? s wartia of taw ekas jnXt ray . T gaae tit S f it pvTKSUre, Wr r mw4 tSdi wrtco-uc tack betray VTt i fun fcert chirtfran! ! ; - J:yakr taawc.jk'JMWward track, I: nc are but sure of a welcome' back! Lire II CALIFORNIA. f.Ts'f Celebrated ride in Cali fornia. . ncr hns tlio I l- of the nJc it C 4. 1'rt nvrnt, '!: wisai ditybrrruk "nn tht 221 Marc!, 117. :;.jt L eu:. (Jul. Frvmonf, his trien i DaJus(jirt!ioUiVCi-J IliisiiO") T.co, nn J h; s-iapi Jicob 0jJs n,sat out fro.n L Uu iijUiis Ani-lca (th; ciiy of the an. g) in s urhern part of Upper Califurpia, i-j piJLteJ ia llw shjrtest ttrrte to Monte., ftj.on !hs Pacific ocean, distant full lour l .Jf inTi-TWNy4!r4vt;r a muata iuacuuii;ry,muoh of it untiihnbiied, with BJo::i f r ji i t vt.i a trace, and mny defiles tnp, i.'irucularly the iinriiime defno of E. Rn?-m, or Ponui G rui, fiiiet n tf.ile lit t-tua", nnw by t'tii jouinj Ci,);'.rji moumaio into the sa of o pr and which canopy be pasieJ when the tide is out asJ the ra calm, an J even then in nwiiy p'ice t!trnugh tho v avc;- The, town of S.o'i B.rbira and S j d" Luis Ohispu, and tail rir.clws, are tha piincipul in eb;;.d"!ceaoii route. Each of the ti;r t;fns itiidcr- the'' saddle." Thesk !ie lurses ran ahead, without- bridle or kilter, an I required unrau attention to keep u the trUcS. Wbsn wsnled lor n cbarj'e, say at distances of twenty mites, they were cfuglit by fhc lasso, thrown either by Din Jau or "the servant Ja.ob. uaa .1 tha horses were shod. ' 'T'ie usual pit wis a sweeping gallop. The first diy they ran ope hunlred and tareaiy-Sve w.'xt. The : next d iy they mafle.anothcr one h3adredaa'diwuuy.five milesnsiiflgJ. the formiltbb maintain of bant a Uirbara, aa ttiu:d:ng upon it the skeletons of sme . ,6 ly h iriiipirt of near double jhnt nmr-1 v-t n.cn peruiied in the crossing oi inai tertlV- m yj:i?nin by tho California bat Uliinoa Cnrislmis dy-, 1341, "amidst a .ngin tcmp-.M, an J a demge of r3in and ftd, mire ki lieg ihlSKat of tho Sierra Xevadt ;he d iy of severest suffering, mj Ff.mv.n ar,J his mca.lhat they have ever pi.J. A:i3i-i :Kipirly"topped to sup with "rfrfr"6 ?rX"TjuTn ""Dinii , Tn3 pMiTn"eiU H$1 L i s Obispj -was reached, the own? .f Ua .J. and where an affct- Kt nwmi.in su.imit I.tpot. (7olrnel Fre- ia n:i n.ienr-e of an incident which . ft'rvJ the, that history will one day ti'!; and he was attained till eleven in the morning receiving the visits fth? inhabitants, , (mothers and children Kieivkd.i taking a breakfast ol honor, sdsviing for a relief of fresh horses to WbHiJ!, ia from the surrounding count -Ih re the nine horses from Los A o- -ff' aeje left, and eight others taken, in ftr phceV and a Spanish boy added to prtv to assist in manigipflf the loose .ksfs. Proceeding at the- usual gait tiil rgat tight, -aady having made , aomo Knts y raiki, Djij Jesus, who bad spent Ii 1 1 the night b-loieriih his lauul), nud rAtt Odd waj ! make a TccleXal- DsDiy wnh but little sleep, becJime fatigued, na proposed a halt for a few hours. It was iothe valley of the Silinas. (Silt River, cnWH Duena Ventura io the old mps,) and the htunt of marauding Io- oians. f or sale y during iht;ir repose. Iu party turned off iho trace,' issued.- through Canada into a thick woid, and laid down, the horses being put to grass at a short distance; with jho Spanish by in tfte saddle to watch. Sleep, when comminc ed, was too sweet to bo easily given up, and it was half-way between midnight and day, when -the sleepers were aroused by aaeslampedo amunglhe horses, and the calls of the boy. " lhe cause of the olarn was soon found hot Indian, but white bears this valley Lbeing iheir great resort, and the place where Col. i. and thirtv-nve of his men encounters J sonm hundred of them the summer before, killing thirteen upon the ground. The character of these bears is well known, and the bravest hunters do not like to meet theni without the advantage of numbers. On discovering the enfmy. Col. P. Jell for his pistols, but Don Jeus desired him to lie still, saying that people could scu re bears; and immediately hal. j lioed at them in Simnish. and they went off. Sleep ...wont off nlso; and the recovery of tho horses frightened b the bears. building a rousing fire, making a breakfast ; fr m the huopitnble supplies of San Luis Obip.j, occupied the party till diy-break; when the j lurni y was resumed. Eighty miles and the afternoon brought the pirty to Monterey. The next (fry, i'n the after noon, the party set out on their return. and iho two horses rode by Col F. from o-in Luis Obispo, being a present to Don Jeui, he (l).ih Jesius) desired to make n exiierinient t wht one of-theih could do. Tiiey were brothers, one a gras loui'gnr than llio other, both of the same color, (cinnamon,) and -lienco culled .el canalo or lot canalos, (the cinnamon, llw- einnHflfun ) -"-r Tho '' ilde.r wiis th ii tnken for tho trial; the journey commenced upon him ut leaving Monterey, the after noon well advanced. Thirty miles under the saddle done that evening, and the party stopped for the niglti. In the morning the cider canalo was again under the saddle for Col. P., and for ninety miles ho carried liim without a change and without apparent latigue. It was still thirty miles t SUn Luis Obispo, where ilia night w-ns to he jpasscd, and Don Jusuii insisted rMcanali could easily do it, and so snid the horso by his looks and actions, But Col. F. would not put him to the triil, and, shifting the saddle to the younger brother, lhe elder was turned lo-se w ruahd jremafping thirty miles without a rider, fie did so, immediately taking-the lead and keepinj jTall tho way, and entering San Luis in a sweeping gal lop, nostrils distended, snuffing the air, and neighing witlv exultation at his return p O to Ins native pastures, his younger brother ail the while rurmi'.g at the head of the horses under the saddle bearing in his bit and held in by his rider. Tim whole1 ei lit horses made their one hnmlred and twenty miles each that day, (after thirty tho evenitig before) the older, cinnamon making ninety miles ol his uiider the saddk, that day, besides thirty under the saddle "the evening bufore; nr was there the least doubt that he would have done the whole 'distance' jfn the same time-, if he had continued under the saddle. After a hospitable detention of another half day nt Sin Luis Obispo, the party set nut for Los Angeles on the same nine horses which ilu-v had place, and made the ride back in about the same time they had made it up; namely, at the rate of 125 miles a day. " On this ride the. grass on the road was the food lor lhe horses. At Monterey they had barley: but' these horses, meaning those trained one domesticated, as the cannlos were,-eat almost anything Jn tho way of vegetable food, or evt-n drink, that their maa'er uses, by whom they are petted and caressed nd rarelv sold. lifeaH sti 'ar, coffee, ond even wine (like the Persian' horse) they take from the hand of their master, and obey with likflfBocility, his slightest intimation. A tap of -the whin on the saddle springs them into ac Hon; tne cneca oi iurei- icm vu" i i i . i i r.. tUa Spanish bit) would stop thorn; and stopped short, at speed, they dd not josi4e the rider or throw Jam forward. ,.TI)vy !eap;on any thftig rnani best, or weapon, on which their master direct them. - But this descrip. sofa wm.i-uu-uvu concerned, of course, only applies to tne trained artd domesticated horse. . AwrtJU ISCNDATIO AT ClSCIXNATI A telegraphic dwpatch to the Pniladelphis Ledger, dated Cincinnati, Dec. 15, says: The w.ielrs of the Oiiio have now swell eto the highest poiot attained during ihe greaT Bbod 1 83T; a nff the lower na. I, of the city is entirely inundated. At least five thousand famiTies have been rendered ho-jseless by this disastrous 8 'od, and great distress must ensue inconsequence. nublic meeting of the citizens has been called to provnie the means of Me- via.ingi their destitute cona.i.on. stores south of Pearl street are .Hooded, It is useless nno injnu",. . ... ...1-..1.1. iho d amige. or to ende give ad idea of the distress exjstin nness has been alrpost entirely sus pended. Half the luirtSer 10 the c.tyw ifloatisnd boats have been carried off the stocks in the sWp yr- . '-' - , The snow is eighteen inches deep md rriore i now falling ' Derate J to Politics, Litentare in J' O'cireral Intelligence ASIIKVILI7E, -X. ., lcr. . We remember on individual that resided in this city i not msny years ago, who owned a ctmtiderable amount of property, but who was so much addicted to the use of strong drink, that his friends arranged matters in such a way as to prevent its be. ing squandered, by removing it from his reach, and after taking care .'that ha was well provided with tho necessaries of life allowed him a certam sum of money. As he grew jjlder. Ids Appeiilje-tcia' auunger, and hu duly allowance wa not sufficient to gratify his increasing ihirtff lie would go to T7is friends and plead for an hour or more at a time, . for a little more of the ready, but they wee inexorable. At length they told him to go to a certain physician (who was intimatrly acqutin;ed whh the tsmily) and probibU he would loan him What he so rf.Och Oeaired. The poor fel low went to the doctor, and asked him the favor. , "I II tell you what I will do," said the medical .man, "I will buy your carcass at a fair price, come,' what wilt you takeTor it?" - . . ' Five doVart," coolly replied the toper. "Let me let I 'your pulse," said the phy sician, grantrg the poor lellow Dy tne wiit arid looking him stea l.lv in the eyes. Ah! that wtlj dj here s the money, Con'.ioiied he, handing the sol a five doliar bank note. "And now, go to the rum shop immediately drink as much as you want, and at the expiration of a your body will be at my disposal." "Vou don't mean to say that 1 am going to die so soon?" exclaimed the frightened victim (if' alcohol. "I do mean Io say thai if you continue to drink as you have done for the last sit months, in one wctk j-ou will b a dead man and of course, as I hive purchased vuur body in a fuir, "badness Lke way, I sliiill be at liberty to operate upon it."( The cool, serious manner ol tiie doctor j pi.zzled our hero, and he already "began to hear the death rattles in fcis throat! "Hrc!" roared he, "tke bick the mo ney , I hive no notion of being made mince meat of ill so short a 11011!'' "But," a id the knight of the lance, "if is a regulir buincs transici in." "I doo'l cart! here's yi-or money!" and ay he dasla d out i f the offu-e, to the uo little auiusiiiot (f his tornuoter, whosio-nl lor several minutes cotvuls with laughter. The toper that wis, never drank I q r afier that day, and io a very Urie while became a aobi-r mau. ,. . -PEACE WITU MEXICO. BT A LEEK T GALLATIN. I. Tbc Law of Nations. It seems certain that Mexico miist u'ti mutely submit to such terms of reacc as the United States shall diCiate. An bete riigeneous piipula'.iun ol seven million, with very limited resources, ailu UO Creust; . . ; dustrac.edby iiiiernal dissenstons, and by t tho ambition of its chief, a prey by turns in nnar'chv and to military usui'pcr: oeeo- i 1 -t . : I living among the nations 01 me civiozeu j I . a . 1 wotld, either physically or meii'.allv ' whether in no h'.ica! e ducation. s:ci4l s'.a:e ! . . or anytlr respect, but an ii.h iior p,i- i f dgel law of nations, lion; cinnot contend sueces-fuilr with 8n j . ttWw iw;i drcomei involved 111 ener-'elic, intelligent, enlighteued and unu j jre nv.mfest.is, and every other pub ted naiion of taentv roillioiis, possesd ol i nc act issued for the purple of justifying unlimited resource and credit, and w j .v-1 itw ail the Lent fi;s of a n-gi.br, tr...Tfc', t Yrom .haiUnd free government. All this was a..u- j roto trom tnati . , - r1 . cipaied; but tlie extraorainary successes h the Americans have exceeded the mes' san- oume expeeuiions. JilL the .. advance J nosts 01 the enemv.- New Mexico. tM-for- ma. inenneoi me user uio .vrr, - - v r Ijwcr uto orir. aj all the sea port, which it was deemed ne cessary lo occupy, havejiien subdotd. And a small force, apparently inconpv icnt to the 'object, has prnetroted near three hundred miles into the interior, add is now 111 quiet possession 01 ine rir mn.-c metropolis of the Mexican domin ons. The superior kkill and talents our dis tinguished Gcuerals. and tiie uuparailellrd bravery of our troops, have suiiuountrd all ObsTaclcs. Rj whomsoever commarwrd on either side; however strong; the pesi tkms and fortifications of the .Mexicans, and with a.trementJU3 numetrical swpesi. brity, there has not been a single engage, menf in which they have not bewi-com-nletely defeated. The most remarkable T.1.. r J..lua,. K..';V ii rl.i-Mi'inei1 in - aiaTvofunieefs7hoU, uadisctf.lined in cv- ry sense of the woid. Lavd vied in voierlness and bravery with the regular forces, and have proved themselves, in ev ery infctaoce. superior in the opea field so the b-jt regular lercesot Mexico. , Anee forces are t now annihilated or dispersed; and the Mexicans are reduced tof a pct'y wjirfa rej otguexri'lASJ .tulv4M-c-,ez-0- noy:ng, cannoi oe prouuti "j -...- . 1 .On. .. a as n'ta his truo that these splendid successes have beta purchased at ,a price f.r excte- ling their valde. It is true that. neither ihe (1orr rX these military deeds, nor the it. ultimate utility of cur couqnests can rooipeosfite the lamentable -We of ilie. rm -oy thousand va!uhb!e lives sicnficed in ih fil.t fihe s-Jll creater iftrmber who have met with an obscure doath, or been disabled by disease and fatigue. It is true that their relitivrs, t'.Krir parents, their wives and children find no consolation foMhe misery inflicted upon them, in the siiM greater losses jexperienced by the Mexicans. . But if, dwrcgnrding private calamities anJ all the evils oifc getx-ral na: lure, the necessary consciences of this JA3UAKV, C ISIS. war,le revert solely to iheeluiive post tioa jo'', the two countries, the Impo tence; of the M sxicaos and their total iua. bifitytp contfpue the war, with any ap. peararj-e if success, are still manifest,' ; , Thi rjyestioo then Wcurs:,JiVhst afe the tersuf which the United States have a right l iiaoose on Mexkof All g'0 that It inust be aoMhonoiabIe peace;" but the tno meaning oi this word must in the first p cc bo ascertained. J , t The notion, that anything can be truly honorMe hich Is cmtrarf to.josticcJ aill. t an abstract proposition, b J repu.' diau-d by every cilizeo of th& . United S WiU any one dare to thai a peace can fee Jtonorable, which d)es not conlorm Withjjsticcl . - ir ' Tbeie is no difficulty io discovering the DriBei..''-s br which iho relation." teiwreo. eaiU;Jifalia tjaliiina about KVdT'H rcgnfated, aodihe reciprocal duties which they owe to each other. . I heso principles, these duties, have long since been pro claimed; and the true law ot , nations sJ nothing else than the conformity to the suolime precepts of the Qospcl morality, precepts equally applicable lo the relations between man and- man, and to iho inter course between nation and nation. "Thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself." "Love vcarlfnemie." "As you would that men should do t.i rou, do you also to them likewise." The sanctity of these com. man is is acknowledged, without u. single excep'ion, bv every denomination of Chris- wevkjthn, or of men professing to be such. 1 lie skep'ical philosopher acinus and ad mires the precept. To this holy.iulewe should inflexibly adhere when dictating the1 erm of peace. The United State:?, tho1 tiiey have the p iwer, luvo no" right to im pose terms inconsistent with justice. It ould be shameful dereliction of principle, on the part of those who were averse to the anneiation of Texas, to countenance any nuerrpt to claim an flcqtiisitiou of i?r riroTryii'r other advantage, on account of the success of our arms. But in judging of the ac'.s of our govern ment, it imnt br admitted that statesmen think ncu:ifrmify to thesn '"usnges which ronsfhiite ilie 1 iw of nations, not as it h uIJ be, bit as it is practicoKy, suffi cient to justify their conduct. And by that inferior standard, those acts and our duties in relation lo Mexico will be tested. II-InIrmnif ie to Citizens of lhe Culled States. The United S.otes had, and continue to have, an indubitable right to demand a full inl-iuniiy for any wrur.gs inflictetton our citizens by the Government of Mexi co, 10 iinlaiioo 01 ireaiies or 'i i.ie ac koowkdged law of nalioqs. The negotia tion fo'safafying ihoae jwst detnaniJe fed 1 en interrupted by tlie annexation of Tex -a. When anaUcmpt was subsequently nude to renew them, it was therefore just I and pr per that both subjects should be tlssciMvd at '.he same time: and it is now absolutely necessary, that those just claims 1. . j t. . r..n.. .... .u ;.i...i r.. in t ... i soouiu uv luns uiunuiu iui 111 i j "s'iij ill 1.1. l ,ee that m ay oe conciu.iea, anu mat payment should be secured against any tKisaibie cntingency. I take it for graTTt- ..si rk .1 n.. f:.iw Krivo Kipn .Sitll hn r - sjs'.aun d hvour ti ivernmenr, out sucti as are ! .Uu'.vd on treaties or Hie aCKIlowl its cdoct, a!w, embr,,ce every ground of compla.01 which can po-w.bly be alleged. law - I - A- .1 .. .1... S .1 l.ut u,.,.tr.i.g, ua, wc rrlu, ,w .a... n i .r 1... ;,i..,n,o! nfniir rmirm " -' ... ....... v - jnnght l.nv Utn a just cause of war, it is rn., ceriaio that tliose claims were . not ' cause of. fiut 111 which we are now in- v.-lved. It mayb' proper, in the first place, to obeivr, that lhe refusal ojjdoing justice m -caacs ot iliiakindT or fht'long delays in providing for the in, have not generally produm d actual war. Almost always long protla'-tcd iegr:iatior.s have been alone retorted U. This Ins been strikingly the rase with the United States. - The claims .f. Great Britain" for British, debts, seeured Ay tho treaty of 1783, were not settled and fjaid till the year 1803; and jt was only subsequent to that year, that the cteims ol. the L nited btatcs, lor oeprcoa lions committed in 1793, were - satisfied Tie very plain qur stum of slaves, carried away byrne British 'forces in 1815,, in o- tn violation oil the treaty ol ISJIJ. was not settled and (4m indemnity paid tiTT the tear 182G,. iTMSfiJajgut "gainst rrauce de-TToTTlpredntioncnftwySd to the yeor 1906'lo .1813, wi re not1 settled and paid fr iktiluJitor 1834. Jn all those cases - ' 1 : .: 4 poace was prescrveu y puueutc oou wi bra ranee. ' ' m With respect to' the Mexican inJcmni tit's-, the subject has been laid mora- thao MHMMjrtore Congress, not without suggcv lions that slmng measures should be re- yorlcJ to. iiut tongresa, ia wnoro aioc ; is vcs:ed the-power of declaring war,nw lormly fleciineu comg v. , i-nnv-niioa was entered into on th 1 1th of ADrit. 1833. " between the United Siatrs and Mexico, ly t virtue of which ioint commission was appointed lor the ex . . . -1 -1 ?.. nminatiooond settlement 01 inose cinims. The rower of tho Commissioners termin ated according to the convention, in Ftb ruary, 1842.' The total amount of tlie A-merk-an claims, presented o the commis sioo.Kmoun'.cd to C 8,23 J ,605. Ol ihese, 82,025,140 was allowed by lhe com. miswmers; a forther som of $923,229 was allowed by the commissioners of tlie Unl. ted Stales, rejected by tho-Meaican.com-roissioncrs, aoJTeft ondeciied by thij.pm- VOLUME V1IL pire, and claims amounting Io $3,433 ,837 had not been exaniinedt ... ., , v ;, ., A new convention, dated January "30, 1843, granted to the Mexicans . farther delay' 'or the payment of the claims which had been sdmmed,by virtuo of which the interest due to the claimants : was made pay able on the 30h; of April, 1843, and llhe principal ol the nwards, and ih o inter. est accruing thereoo was stipulated to bo paid in five ye.irs in twenty equal instal. nienls'Mrerythrce months. The clnitn- am -receiirtd-the interest duo om he 3ihh April, 1813, nnd tlie first three instalments. The ogrnfof the; United States hoing" under peculiar circumstances, given a re. ceiilJpr the instalments due in April and July , 1 841, before ihey hud been actunlly paid, by Mexico, the payment has' been jihwd by , the United S. and disclwf.rvd ikftrjoimM".",. A thud Convention was concluded t.t Mexico on the 20ih November, 1643, by the Plenipotentiaries of the two Govern ments, by which provision was mxdo for ascertaining nnd paying the claims on which no final decision had bcuo made. In January, 1844, this convention was ratified by the Senate of the United States, with two amendments, which were refer red to the Government of Mexico, butes pecting which no answer has ever been made. Oo the 12th of April, " 1844, a treaty was concluded by the President with Tcxasrforihe annexation of that republic to the United States. This treaty, though not ratified by tho Senate, placed the two countries in a new position, and arrested for u while all negotiations. It was only on tho 1st of March, ,1845, that Congress passed a joint resolution" , for the annexa lion. " It appears most clearly that the United States are justly entitled to a full indemni ty for the injuries dona to their citizens; lhat before the annexation rof "Texas, ifiiTre was everv prospect ol .. securing that in emmtv; Hnd thai those inj irie, even it they had been a just cause for war, were in no shape whatever tho cause of that in which we nro now involved. Are the United States justly entitled to indemnity fur "any other cause? This question cannot be otherwise solved, th-in liy an ir.qutry into the hicis, and ascertain- inj by whom, and how, the war was fro voked. . lil....AuUcxatioii of Texas. At the timo when the annexation of Texas took place, Texus hud been recog nized as ac independent power, buih by tho United States- and by several of the principal European powers; but its inde pendence hua out been recognized by Mex ico, and the two contending parties, con.' nuicd t( b at, war. Under those circum- NtuncusYthere is not the slightest doubt that the annexation of Texas was tantamount to a declaration of war against .Mexico. Nothing can be more clear orrd undenia- ble than that, wheiiever two natiuns' urn ut war, if a third Power shall enter into 11 treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, with either ol the belltgerentsvand it sueh treaty is not,:uuiuigt--and iso lake el lecl immediately 'and pending ih wnr, such Watt is a declaration of war ogatnsi -1 .1. !!... '. .. - ,.f "V IHO oilier parti. 1 lie t-uusi b ui ine wnr between the two belligerents do not alter th fact. Supposing that thu third party , lte-Hef ferwg Powerj sImioIiI hsve-coneitf. ded lhe tcemy of ulliince w.ih that lielli. geron) a ho was clearly engaged in a most iiist war; .the treaty would not be the., less a declaration of war ag aiust tho oilier bel ligerent.' It Great l.nt.un and 1-rar.ee wcro at war, and the United States wero to enter into Well a treaty with " eiiheNcan, there be the slightesj doubt that thi would be actual war against lhe oilier partv? that it would be considered ns such, and that it must have been intended for that purpose? fat this moment, either-FrAiice or Eng land wi re to make such .11 -iVtaiy with Mex ico, thereby binding Aliemselves to defend and protect U ith nil their forces ogamsl. any other Power whatever, would not the United States instntilaneously piew such n treaty as a declaration of wur, and act urcordinglyt ' Bur the anm xatiori of icxas - by the U. Slates, aas even more than-a treaty of of fensive-and defensive alliance. It em braced oll-the conditions nnd all, the duties growing out of the alliance; uh J it imposed them Forever, rromjho moment tan Texas had been on ieled, the United- S beepmo bound to defend nnd ' pnXcct her, so fur as her leEUtmatc boundaries exten Ai.rt . Bimmul nn niT.i.sii.r. . or Ottaek. on tin' t -::-. . . .. : -. . '. s part ol Mexico: and they hve unnnrmty iictcd accordingly. There is no impartial pubhciit that win not acknowlediJC the indubitoblo truth of 7 I VOLUM1 ihf-se poeiiions it Pf.ears ojrifliiipiisjdA.xxLtt'i rhantieyiioina be serious! v denied by 0 djartd to Mr. Black, that h;s appesf. sincle person It appears that Mexico was at that time disposed to acknowledge the independence of Texas, but on tho express, .condition, that it should not be annexed to the United States; arid it has bceti suggested, that this was don under the influence of some Eu rnpean Powers. -Whether this Insi asser lion be true or not, is not known to me. But the condition was timarkable dnd of fensive. - Under an epprthension that Texas might be tempted to accept lh trrms'iLpnipoaed, the Government of the United," States rnay huve deemed it- t xprdienltodehot the plan, by offering that annexation, which had been formerly declined, when jhe nneernroeni of Texss was anxious it. It may be admitted thi), whether inde. pebdent or annexed tojho United Sutei, NO 19.. WHOLE NUMBER 381. tvTVrtni $2 pit ' annum t PAYABLE'. IN ADVANCE. TeXuS inUat be a el iveholding State, so J.mg as slavery shall continue to exist Io North Am rica. U-i whole population. ' with hardly any exception, consisted of citizens of the United States. Both ' for tlut reason, and on account of ils ed. 4 iWphical positioni'.il wos much rriore .na" (tlrof lHat Te xas should be a' member of - he United States, than of lhe Mexican con. federation. -Viewed purely as a question . (expcdiencyf the annexation might ,bT , . Considered as beneficial to both parties. V " Cut the expediency isTrot justicer Mexico j '-t iodyxas had a 1 perfect right lo '.adjust a. iVir tiJTerenees and make peace, on any trm$ they 'might' deemrope . THe ikat Lj nj ? prevciMiiiis resuo lUfllCnieo pre a ious di-poshiotr tltrm!trelyTo occupy Tex ' s; otid when the annexation wus accom-' ihed; when it was seen, that tho United - r"Y2HM naa appropriated ItK themselves all the advantages resulting from'he" ArriiJ' ican seitttinents in Texas, and Yrom their 5 subsequent insurrection; tha purity'oTrtio motives ol our Government becorrta opetl 10 suspicion. . Setting aside the justice of the proceed ing, it is true that it had been anticipated by thoso who took an active part in the annexation, thot thr weakness of Mexico would compel it Jo yield, or at least Induce her not to resort to actual wry. This was: verified by the fact: und had Government icmnincd in the hands with whom the plan 1 1 1. 1 ii .. '.r origmateoi war migni prouaniy nave Deetl avoided. But when no longer In power they could 'neither regulate the impulse they had given, nor control the reckless spirits they hud evoked. Mexico, sensible of her weakness, "de clined war, and only resorted lo a suspen sion of diplomatic intercourse; but a pro. found seneof ihc injury inflicted by the United States has ever since rankled in their minds. - li will bo found,- through alt" their diplomatic correspondence, ihroU"h nil their manifestos, ha.- lhe Mexicans; ven 10 this day, perpetually recur to litis never-forgotten wlH usive measure. And: on the other hand, tli" subsequent adrfiin- isir ition of our Government seems to buve iltngether forgotten this primary act of injiisti-'e, and, in their negotiations, to have icted us if this was only an accomplish- t-d loci, end tiud ocen a mailer of course. .' I V.....cgotiutioiis mid Wur. In September, 1845, the President of the United Slates directed their Consul at Mexico 10 uscertain from the Mexican Government wrrtther it would. receive an Envoy from the. United 3'ates, . intrusted with lull powers 10 adjust alt the questions in dispute between the two Governments! Tho answer of Mr. Do la Pena y Pensf Minister of lhe Foreign Relations of MexU co, was, " l uat annough the Mexicafc na. non ton wffs drply injured by. tho Unitedd. ' ":aies, through the acts committed by .rV hem in. the department of Texas; which , - O'ti them beiotigs to ms nation, ins government was disjioKcd to receive iho Commisuoner of the United Sttvtes who . Ii!ig1it"coino to thft Capita), wiili full powers Irom his Govern ment '.- settle tho pm stct dispUto in a peaceliil, reasoiwtblo tiud houorabie man ncr;',' thu. giving--u new proof that, even r . a w in the imdsi of us -iijirie and of its firm ilf -iimi to 1 ,u t Hlleooatu reimruf inn fnp 01, tin.) Goveriimeiii of Mexico does hot reply with contumely to lhe measures of ti-uso ftjibil. ps$iU lujMclljL w ad iuyifed , by its adversary; 1 ho Mexican' Minister at ihc same time intimated, thai tho previous recall of the wholo Naviil force of th Vn ted States7 , thi n lymg in sight of the port ol Vera Cruz, Wii3 iudisjiens ibie; untf ihiswas accordingly done by nir Government. Bui it is essenltui to observe that,while "Mr. Block "had, according to Ins instruc. tions, inquired wheiher tho Mexicun Gov. crnmenl would receive on Ehtoy from tho United Slates, with full power lo adjust nil ihrrquesliofrs- til dispu c between the two Governments, tho Mexican Minister find answered' lhat his Government .wss. do posed lo receive lhe Commissioner of the United Suites who m glit corner with full powers to settle tjtc prison! dispute in a peaceful, reasonable und u mumble man tier. - - -' , Mr. Slidell wag, in November following, nppointed Envoy Exiraordiqary and Min isti r Ph nipoteniriury of lhe United States o America near tho Government of tha Mexican Republic; and he arrived in Mexico on iho sixih of D';cemberr-;: " M r. Ileriera, ihe Presidoul oi , Mexico, was undoubtedly disposed to selile tho ilisiiuTeTtjewti n the two cjuntrlcs7 .BuiC taking ndvunt'ogo of lia: iniiatioD f tha r .iv. .-. i.:. ..-.i.t:..i v.-.. t.,.., ... ..uui ..j.p.ncoiw were attempting 10 overset him lor having mode, as they said, unworthy ronccjUiuns, The arrival of Mt. Slidell disturbed htm once in tno uap.iai at trus inno tnignt prove dcliuclive lo the Government, and thus defeat the whole nffiir. Under these circums'Knces Gejjcral Ilerrrra complain, ed, without any foundation, that Mr. Sildcll hnd come sooner ihun hud bx en liiodc-r. stood; ho rrsortcd to icveraf 'frivoloua" o!j. ciions ngaihsl tho le nor, of hi powers; and he. intimated limb the difficulties re- . spi Ctirig' Texas must-, h:i aejusted wforo bny ui hrr subject of " discussion should be t:ik n ido consideration. " - Bjv the main question ns1 whether' Mexico should receive Mr. SlidellMn tho ha racier oi Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Ph niputentiary, to resldo' in tho Republic. It . wus insislea by the Mexi can Government , that it ha (I only ' agreed i 10 receive a Com mil's ioner tip treat on tho questions which had, srUea, fron tho i ' ' 3 0" f v . ti 1 n

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