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PUBLISHED WEEKLY, J
A FAMILY PAPER DEVOTED TO POLITICS, LITERATURE, AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, MIHM6, AND NEWS.
" i Ifairs Dislinrt 115 $t 3otilam, but car qb tfie f ni."
RBFUS M. DEKKON, Publish? r.
ROBERT P. WARING, Editor.
CHARLOTTE, N. C., FRIDAY MORNING, NOVEilBER 10, 1854.
HSusinrsis Curb, &r.
a. ?. warsbg.
.ttloi ttftj at Lttr,
Oytc trt Lmmtrrnm Brick BmiUimg, 2nd floor.
C II A R LoTTK . N. V.
ELMS &. JOHNSON.
Foruardiu and f oiiiuiissiuii Merchants.
NO, 10 VENDUE RANGE,
W. W. ELMS.
June 23, '54.
It. HAMILTON. tt. M. OA'I'ES.
HAMILTON So OATES,
c o in isskj : w si a t,
Cru'r rf lich:rl'in and lnvrtl Strcrt,
COLUMBIA, S. C.
June 9 1 85 i iy
T. SI KN1IOI K . C N. AVEU11.L.
FORWARDING & COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
CHARLESTON S. C.
Hand, IVil.iaais At Wilcox. I,,, , ,
, '., . - Lai test on, S. c
J. K. Hani. on At Co. ) ,.i
uriiii i. t - thar.otte, N.C
imam. INjkm At (. o.,
B. Ubaadbrr, Chataraawaja -Ana- 11, '."il fan
RIIETT & ROBHf,
FACTORS & COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
A'a. 1 .." 2 Adtttttic Whaif
CHARLESTON, S. C.
V?' Lilc T.il advances ana ie on Conignments.
I r tSjaoei-al titration given to the s.tle of Flour, ( 'oin,
Jbe . .tiiit IV'.iii o r 1 ihj e;i, rienea) la the iMMUWtW, (
fed cn;fefe:it f lT'-iiij' a rtiafacHun.
Mi r.li 17, I85L 31 ly
Dry Good3 in Charleston, Sc. Ca.
IMPOMTMSS OF DRt UOODS,
N..s. 109 und 21 I Ki.iir r. t, ennaer of Market Street.
CHARLESTON, S. C,
11 int iti-iti W imIi ii-, Rhiuket, !wc., Crpctiga sad
urtani M itoruil-. ::ni Ulcll Dross f-J,..ds, trunks,
M lattttaa :int Shawl. Term t'ash. Obms Prtc Only.
M ireh 17, 1 " 1 31 ly
RAMSEY'S PIANO STORE.
IS1C AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
N DNNS & CO.H5 Patent
Diacoual t!iainl I'lANOS:
Hallet Dauvia Co.a Patent
Suspension Bridge PIANOS ;
.4'hiekeriaga, Travers' and
other Lc-at maker' Pianos, at
ii nbia, S. C, Sept. 21, 1053.
BY JENNINGS B. KERR.
Jati.i iry 28, 1-03. 2Stf
AT GREAT RAIMJAINS.
r i 1 1 !: aafiibri bai in turv, of his own maM&ctarr
I mmd imaortatioa an roortHoua stock of WINDOW
SHADK'S, iilt I ornici-, Paper Il.in-iots, Matraaai,
S.tiM Di!'iiit, llaiuaaKr, l..nc ai.u HUKUn iwiain.",
'I'.i-st U, I. op, & C. Ail ai" v. hich are oiTeini at price
Ilia! are appreciated bj all clat baaera ni tctmouiiial
II. iv. !;ls!A 177 Kingt.
Mar 24, '."! lv CHi lesion, S. C
" Mi n lag Mat iiinery."
(IORNISII PUMPS, Lilting and Foriin'. Pomisli
t'rnthers, Stamps, Steam Rne;tea, an I general
Mining work, oiada Iry tbe anbacritwrs at short notice.
LA NO, COOK & C(X,
iluJdon Machine Works,
Refer to Hod on, N. Y.
.1s. J. Hodi, Ks.. New-York,
jne i'. 1 .l 13-y
JST C- a.' 'tE 7TcJL'-l3Lii,
Si' 1 l.stoHii , VjTJf.
M'lli: aabseribera maua&etare Mining Machinery, as
I follows, vi : Tin: CoaRisn Prinze F.n;ie, nigb
ami low pressure Pnntping, Stampirtr and Hoisting
Stkis Fm.inks; Connisn Pran, STsnrs, Cnt"stiEs,
U'ivrnrs. IkonBlocks, PrVUm ol all siz"s, ami every
variety of Machinery tor Mining parposes.
THOMAS, CORSON St W EST.
IS'-I l'i-1 V
DR. P. C. CALDWELL baa a eclated his son. Dr.
JUSEPIJ W . CALDWELL, with bias in the Peac
liec of Medieiac. Office, '2mi stor- in FJnis' ne w brie,
baildiag, mar the C'oarthotise.
March 94, 1?54. 35-if
N. B. All persona iadchCcd to me by account are
rnjucstcil to settle the sumo at an early day
P. C. CALDWELL.
The American Hotel,
CHARLOTTE, N. CL
I BEG to announce to my triemis, the public, and pres
ent patrons of the above Hotel, tlint I have leased the
name for a tonn of years from the lt of January next.
After which time, the entire property will be thorough
ly llipaIld and renovated, and the house kept in first
elnos Stele. Tins Htftal is near the Depot, and pleasant
ly situated, rendering it a desiiablc house for travellers
Pec 10, lew. 22t C. M. HAY.
SARI H iJt SflABr,
AUCTIONEERS and COM MISSION MERC H ANTS,
eon muia, s. c,
1TT1LL attend to the sale of all kinds of Merchandise,
YV Produce, He. Also, Keal and Persona! Pioperty.
Or purchase and sell Slaves, Ate, on Commission.
Sat.CS Kom No. Kichardsou street, and iinme
Jiatly opposite the Tinted States Hotel.
Feb S, ISM THOS. U. M.mCH. j. m. c sua up.
Livery and Sales Stable,
BY S. B. RE A.
VT the stand formerly occujiied by R. Morrison, in
'".iiriottc. H rses fed. iured and sold, (iood uc
e 1 11 a ijati ms tor Drovers. The custom ol his friends
a 1 1 1 lie etiolic -r.-iierally solicited.
F.-bruiry 17, I8.rl. 30-y
S IhT'iv wivtn tli .I t n - il i r .1 M t 1 1 w U .ttnJ. , il..
J :i xt Ceaeral AaseapM t" North Carolina at iis n xt
I laioa, t.i amend the Ch irti r -if tii liwa of Ch.irli.ttc. J
Au-?5, 1954 MANY TAX PAYERS
- - -j , - - r t -
On tlic Influciieo of Wouioii Civiliza
tion Exists Only by JIarriuge.
Whatever be the customs or the lows of a
J country, it is the women who give the direction to
us manner. Whether free or subject, they reign
hi cause they derive tin ir power from our pas
sions. But this influence is more or less salutary
nccordiiit to the decree of estimation in which
they are held ; be thev our idols or our compan
ions, courtesans, slaves, or beasts of burthen, the
re-actmn wiil be complete they will make us
what they themselves are. It appears as if na
ture attached our intelligence to their dignity, just
as we attach our happiness to their virtue. Here
lin t) is a law of eternal justice ; man cannot de
base women without bt corning himself degraded ;
he cannot elevate them without becoming better.
Let us cast our eyes over the earlh, and observe
the two great divisions of the human race the
East and the West; one half of the old world
continues without improvement, and without ideas,
b Death the weight of a barbarous civilization ;
there the women are slaves; the other half pro
grtasca towards equality and enlightenment, and
are ihre see women free and honoured.
A few months ago was published in the papers
the account of an English physician, whom cu
riosity had led to the East. Being accidentally
introduced into the slave market, he perceived a
score of Greek women, half nuked-, lying on the
grntlnd, in expectation ol a purchaser. One of
them had attracted the attention of an old Turk ;
the barbarian had examined her minutely as one
would examine a horse, w hile during his inspec
tion the merchant praised the beauty of her eyes,
the eh-gancc of her figure, and other minor perfec
tions ; he protested that the poor girl was not more
than thirteen years of age, that she was a virgin,
and m-ither dreamed nor snored in the night. In
short, after a close examination, and some bar
gaining about the price, she was sold, body and
soul, for about sixty pounds. The soul, it is true,
was but little; considered in the bargain. The un
happy creature, half-fainting in the arms of her
mother, (for this horrid compact was made be
neath the eyes of her mother,) implored with
piercing cm s the assistance of her sorrowing
companions. Jul in this barbarous land all hearts
were closed; the laws render one insensible to
the evils which they sunclion. The a flair was
concluded, and the young girl was delivered to
hor master. Thus vanished for her, thus must
vanish for all women in this part ol the world,
that delightful futurity of love and happiness
which nature has prepared for them. Who would
believe it ? this infernal transaction took place in
Europe in 19, at the distance of six hundred
leagues from Paris and London, the two capitals of
the human race : and at the present moment it is
the living history of two-thirds of the inhabitants
of the gl.-be. What monsters would be produced
by such an union! What kind of progeny will
arise from ihls conbinr(ion of vileness, hatred and
misfortune! Worshipper of Mahomet, is this one
td the companions of thy life, one of the moth
ers of thy children? Thou requires! from her
delights for thyself and an affectionate disposition
fur tliy son ! An aflecimuate disposition ! Noth
ing can be expected from this sorrowing creature
but '.by own degradaiion and that of thy posterity.
Nature has so willed it, that true love, the most
exclusive of all the feelings, should be the only
possible foundation of civilization. This senti
ment invites all men to a simple life, exempt at the
same tio.e from idleness, from efT minacy, and
front brutal passions. AH is harmony, all happi
ness, in lira intimate link which unites two young
marrie d persons. The man, happy in the society
of his wife, finds his faculties increase with his
duties: he afWntls to out door avocations, fake
his part in the burdens of a citizen, cultivates his
lands, or i- usefully occupied in the town. The
woman, more retiring, presides over the domestic
;: n an .rem- nts. Al home she influences her hus
hand ; diffuses joy in ih midst of Order nnd abun
dance ; both sec lh ms-Ivcs reflected in the chil
dren seated at their fable, who promise by the
lorc., of example to perpetuate their virtues.
Contrast with this picture of the European fam
ily thai of an Eastern one; the former is based
upon '-quality and hue; the latter, upon polygamy
and shivery, which leave to love its brulai fury,
but which deprive it ol its sweet sympathy and
its dirtne ii. unions. - man may shut himself up
with a number of women, but it is impossible tbat
lie can love several. See him, then, reduced,
amidst a crowd of young beauties, to the saddest
of all COadt'MMM lhatol possessing without lov
ing, and without being beloved. Inebriated with
the coarsest pleasures, without lamiiy in the midst
of his slaves, without all'eclion in the midst of his
children, he imprisons Ins companions, ho mutil
ates their keepers, and makes his house a place of
punishment, crime, and prosiimiion. And, after
all, dues this animal life yield him happiness ? No ;
his senses become Lluutcd, his mind becomes en
ervated, and be vainly pursues unto the brink of
the lomb I bo sensual delights which, while they
excite him, elude his grasp.
In order properly to estimnte the wretchedness
of a similar degradation, we may allude to the re
cent history of a French officer called Seve, who
has lately become celebrated in the East under
the name of tollman-JJey. Being obliged to quit
the service at the period of the fall of Napoleon,
Seve offered his services to the I'acha of Egypt,
who, on account of his military talents, employed
him and made his fortune, without requiring him
to change Ins religion. In Ip'SG, Seve was living
in a most luxurious style; he .had in his harem
the most beautiful Grtek and Egyptian slaves;
but, says the author to whom we are indebted for
this account, amidst all these delights his heart
was a void, and he sighed for a companion worthy
of him. "Send me," said he, a French, an
English, or an Italian woman, it malters not which,
1 promise you to marry her, and will send away
this troop of creatures, w ithout soul and without
ideas." Then added he with fervour, Nothing
more is required to complete my happiness than
a true female friend, whose heart and mmd would
embellish mv solitude. This treasur" woulJ en
able mp to enjoy all tlie rest." On reading this)
narrative, one cannot help admiring, huw, w hen
si cial institutions htve not deeply depraved the'
heart of mm, a sense of natural rectitude forcibly ;
bringd him back to order, that is to say, to virtue. 1
Polrffantv is a puro snttnal sta'e it ojve-s us !
O ' . .. .
tn!v slave ; mnrri'ge gives its a companion ;
tlu former csaiMhlfrc: icbanHhVv in 'he ho-iv of
the man, the latter forever banishes it, and sancti
fies the house of the citizen.
From these facts, which comprise in some de
gree the history of the East, it may be inferred
that civilization is only possible by means ol mar-
riage, because in marriage alone women are called )
upon to exert their intellectual and moral power.
European society has entirely arisen from the
nower of the wife over the husband, und that of
the mother over the child.
Al the beginning of the world God created only
one man nnd one woman, and ever since the two
sexes have been born in about equal numbers.
Thus each man ought to have his companion it
is the law of nature; all the rest is only barbarity
In order to convince you that such is the law of
nalurn, allow yourself to bo charmed by the most
delightful of all scenes ! Observe these two young
lovers, experiencing the same transports, they
have but one thought, that of living and dying to
gether. All that is divine upon earth animates
their bosoms. Do you not feel that they are the
two halves of the same being which have agarn
found each other ? and do you not perceive how,
m proportion as ihe two souls form one, its senti
ments ure enlarged and its joys purified ? Oh,
how easy the practice of virtue appears to love !
lie who knows how to love, is strong, is just, is
chaste, can und -rtake every thing, and suffer ev
ery thing. The soul of true lovers is like a holy
templt), in w hich incense incessantly burns, in
which every voice speaks of God, und every hope
is of immortality.
In his paternal goodness, the Creator has placed,
al the brightest epoch in the lives of the dwellers
upon the earth, happiness by the side of virtue.
Is ii not a wonderful thing, that the woman who
has not the power of resisting him whom she
loves, can yet find in so weak a soul ali the ener
gy, all tho heroism, uecossary to sacrifice hor life
lor him ?
It is bocuuse woman ia made to love, and that
in her weaknesses, as in her sacrifices, it is al
ways love which triumphs.
Far, then, from interdicting love to young per
sons, I would bring them up lor this sentiment, I
would make ii the end and the reward of virtue:
my pupils should know that the qualities of the
soul can alone render us worthy to love and be
loved ; that love is but a tendency towards the
beau 1 1 In 1 ; that its dreams arc but a revelation of
the infinite; that in attaching itself to perfections
too frequently ideal, tho soul points out to us the
only objects which it can eternally love; in a word
that it is always the moral beauties which move
us, even in the contemplation ol physical beauty ;
to corroborate this idea, I would point out the most
ordinary physiognomies becoming beautilul under
the inspiration of a generous sentiment ; and on
the Other hand, lo the most perfect physiognomies
becomihfi degraded beneath the impression of a
low and malevolent passion ; and I would con
clude, that, for women the most becoming coquet
ry would be lo embellish the soul sooner than the
body, because it is the soul which renders all
The Language of
The following is extracted from a letter written by
n democrat Irom Pennsylvania recently defeated
in his effort to be re-elected lo Congress :
I might have been re-elected with an over
whelming majority had I joined the sect in fact,
its support was tendered to me if I would join
ibem ; hut 'I spurned the offer, preferring a thou
sand defeats upon democratic principles to one
triumph upon know-nof hingim.' I therefore
naihd my flag to the mas', and was determined,
if I fell, to fall fighting in its defence. I did fall,
and my glorious principles fell with me. Hut,
thank God ! they will one day rise again, and ap
pear in still greater power and aplencor than they
have ever yet done. Democracy can never be
crushed. It is the grand foundation upon which
our government and our countiy rests. While
know-nolhingism w ill be hissed at as treason, de
mocracy will be honored and cherished."
Webster's Rule of Okatoby An Instruc
tive Ankcdotk. Daniel Webster, a short time
previous to his public reception in Boston, was
Ira veiling from New York (o this city, by the
overland route. When the cars reached Spring
field, Mr. Waitc, the well-known excellent con
ductor, stepped into tin; forward car, and, as usual, .
announced 1 'bpringfield station twenty minutes
allowed passengers to dine !" Mr. Webster, who
was silling by him arose, and pleasantly tapping
him on the shoulder, remarked "Young man that
is one of the most interesting speeches I ever heard
in my life." --Vessir," calmly replied the con
ductor, "all speeches are good in which the speak
er and the hearer heartily sympathize." "Very
true," said Mr. Webster, "and I have always no
ticed that ihose speeches are always considered
best which are fiuiahed in good season for dinner.
The President of tiie Senate. It is under
stood that the Hon. D. R. Atclmon, of Missouri,
will not be in Washington during tho coming ses
sion of Congress. His term expires on the 4ih of
March nxt, and we take it for granted that his
determination to remain in Missouri during the
winter is the better to enable him to attend to his
share of his contest w-ith Colonel Benton, the end
of which may not come off for some months to
come. His absence from the Senate Chamber
will make the election of another pro tern. Presi
dent of the Senate necessary. From all wc leuru,
there can be little doubt that honor will fall upon
Senator Ruk of Texas. Al least, that is the
opinion of all here w ho are credited with beinir
men of shrew duess in hwkiug upon things politi
cal. ru-!Uui(0'i Uu-.
Mystery. The. Buffalo Democracy snys
thai on the morning of the 15th iust., there was
taken from a stench trap in that city, a human
hand cut from the arm at ihe wrist. The hand
was smnl' an'l de!ieiih evidently lltat of a woman,
and appeared to have been in the water for some
tune, as the fles i was much decomposed. The
storv of this hand, and to a-Rom it once belonged,
are of cnurse a my?'.ery. not to be cleared up
p. rh . p i!' (h J -y when !! things ?huil be made
Support your own jllcclianlcs.
The following sensible remarks, which we find
in some of our exchanges, we transfer to our
columns, and w ould earnestly commend them to our
readers in this city, and the State at larg :
There is no troth more undeniable than that it
is the bounden duty of every community to
support its mechanics. They are a worthy and
i l ii ! n;nnn cn 1 1 ! a ftnee rt f rrrn nnH l o find ftitl tOWrf)
or villiage flourishing without their aid. Indeed
their presence or absence is n I ways a true
of the condition of a place whe'her it is advancing
in wealth and importance, or sinking into decay.
Whenever we pass through a villiage and hoar
the frequent sound of the carpenter's hammer, the
clink of the blacksmith's anil that village, ve
say to ourselves, is flourishing. It cannot be
otherwise, for the producers are actively employed,
and ouiuuinber ihe consumers. Whenever and
wherever this is the case, the people are growing
wealthy, and at the same time training up the
rising generation lo habits of industry and morality.
Where, if a city or village pursue the opposite of
this course neglects its mechanics nnd supports
those of some foreign town those who can will
be compelled to go to some other place, and those
who are compelled by tho force of circumstances
to remain, will become idle and profligate ihey
will cease to produce and be consumers in a few
years they become beggars, and their children
ignorant and vicious.
If there is any truth in the assertion, tbat we
ought as a nation to give the preference to domes
tic manufactures, the fact is equally true with re
gard to the community ; both are sustained by the
same arguments. If a merchant would have
around him substantial customers, let him by every
means in his power support and fosler the mechan
ics of his village, and as they become more wealthy
their custom will increase, especially in those
articles on which he makes ihe greatest profits,
for it is undeniable, that as men become more
wealthy, they also become more luxurious, and no
merchant will deny that articles of luxury always
afford the greatest profits. The habit of importing
large quantities of cheap nnd half made articles of
competitions with our village mechanics, is short
sighted and wrong, both as regards the mechanic
and consumer; and if the merchant would look
further into the operation of things, he would find
that he crosd the path of his own interest by
doing so. Let the merchant bring the enso to his
own door, and he perhaps may better understand
it ; suppose that every individual who possesses
the means, and yvho uses in his family four or
five hundred dollars' worth of goods per annum,
should, instead of buying of him at retail, go to
some cily wholesale establishment and purchase
his year s supply would he not in bitterness con
demn such an illiberal course, and would he not
any to him with truth thai he was warring against
his own interest, by destroying tho business of his
town and giving it to another; and that his little
ness would react upon him in double fold by the
decrease of his property and business ! So, in the
ease above instanced, could the mechanic say the
same to the merchant. We say, then, let all
classes support each o1 her. nnd by mutual ex
changes keep thai wealth at home, which, if un
necessarily expended abroad, tends to destroy the
business of your neighbor, and which in turn
destroys your own.
The Town Bull and the Bass Viol.
The following anecdote from thp New Hamp
shire Telegraph is too good to be losl :
Many years ago there was in the eastern part
of Massachusetts a worthy old D. D., nnd although
he was tin eminently benevolent man nnd a good
Christian, yet it must he confessed that he loved
a good joke much heller even thnn the most in
veterate joker. If was before church organs were
much in hsp. It so happened that the chnir of
the church had recently purchased a double bass
viol. Not far from the church ivns a pasture,
and in it a huge town bull. One hot Sabbath in
the summer he got out of the pasture and came
bellowing up the street. About the church there
was plenty of untrodden grass, green and good,
and Mr. Bull stopped to try the quality, perchance
to ascertain if its location had improved its flavor,
tit any rate the reverend Doctor was in the midst
of his sermon, w hen
"Bon-woo-woo," went the bull.
Tho doctor paused, looked up al the singing
seafs, and with n grave face, said :
"1 would thank the musicians not to tune their
instruments during the service lime it annoys
me vory much.
The people starfd, and ihe minister went on.
Boo-woo-woo," went the bull "gain, as he
passed another green spot.
The parson paused again and addressed the
"I really wish the singers would not tune their
instruments while I am preaching, as I remarked
before, for it annoys me very much."
The people tittered, for they knew as well as any
one what the rertl state of the case was. The
minister went on again with his discourse, but he
had not proceeded far, before another "Boo-woo-woo"
came from Mr. Bull.
The parson paused once more, nnd again ex
4f have twice already requested the musicians
in the gallery not to tunc their instruments during
sermon lime. I now pirticuiarly request Mr.
Le favor that he will not tune his double bass viol
while I am preaching."
This was too much. Lefavor got up agitated al
the thought of speukiug out in church, and stam
mered out :
"It isn't me, parson B , it's that d d town
Sensible. There is a vein of sound practical
common sense in thr fiiMnuina linra urtiii-K uc
" - & - - - j
commend to al! creation. The aulhor a West- :
ern mm is a genius he is bound to rise. Such j
a brilliant specimen of hard, common sense, j
"wedded to immorlai verse," has hot ol late years
been indited. We see in it an Epicurian devotion :
to happiness mingled with the philosophic indif- !
ferencc of WPkins Micawber, Esq. Read it,:
"think well on't, and after vou have finished, put I
yourself in position to lake a peep at creation"
twixt (he toes of your boots. Here are the lines:
Oli, there is not in the world a pleasnre si sweet,
A to sU near tiia vrindow and tilt op ynur tret ;
Full awiy .it the Caba, whoar fljvor just S'lits,
Ami ;j iz nt the world, 'nvixt the 1h3 'A roar bootj (
TIic last Earthly Kcstiue; Place of Sir
Thp rprrni nnd momentous deoatch about Sir
Ti.kr lOr-iiilltn lino ft ri an a II tr o ll'-l L Cl!f t n euriosilv
twifll J. I U 1 1 1X4 II Ktso oo iui '"iy "
tavfcaaaaai snmoihinu more id its sponsors ami of
i he character of the climate and country in which
Sir John Franklin seems to have perished.
Mr. Rae, the author of the despatch, has been
- D --- --- " . ...
in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company lor
more than twenty years, and has long enjoyed the
reputation ol being one ot us uoioesi ami mini
capable officers. In 1846-7 he was appointee by
the company lo ihe command of an expedition to
explore nnd survey the unknown poriion of the
northeast angle of the American continmt. The
expedition, consisting of thirteen persons, started
from Fort Churchill in July, 1846, and after en
during almost unparalleled hardships nnd over
coming increditile difficulties accomplished the ob
fect for which it was undertaken, having trnced
the coast ol America belween Lord Mayor's Bay
to within eight or ten miles of Fury and Hecla
strait, and proving Boothio Felix to be a peninsular.
The London Times of November 1, 1S47, con
tains a very unassuming but highly satisfactory
despalch from Mr. Rae to the governor of ihe com
pany, setting forth the nature and extent of his
discoveries. He and his party arrived again in
safety al York Factory the place where ihe last
traces of Sir John Franklin were discovered in
September, 1847, after an absence of ouly a little
over a year.
Sir George Simpsou has ben Governor of the
Hudson's Bay Company lor twenty years and up
wards. He is the author "of Simpson's Overland
Journey around the World in 1841-2," published
in London in 1847, which contains more informa
tion about the population, geography and physical
condition of that poriion of our globe lying mirth
of the fiftieth parallel of latitude than can be found
in any other book. In that expedition he displayed
all the most desiruble qualities of a hero, n traveller
and a geographer.
For a description of the country and climate
about York Fort, where the lust traces of Sir John
Franklin were seen in 1850, we have referred fo
the pages of a work entitled "The Hudson's Bay
Territories and Vancouver's Island, wilh an Ex
position of the Chartered Rights, Conduct nnd
Policy of the Honorable Hudson's Bay Corporation,
by R. M. Martin, Author of the History of the
British Colonies, &c." published in 1849, from
which we quote the following;
"The northern territory, which was very imper
fectly explored until ihe recent journeys of Dease,
Simpson and Rae, from 1837 to 1847, is inter
; sected with lakes, marshes and rivers lo a greater
1 extent than any part of the known fdobe; and it
would seem as if tho inner snrinas of the earlh
there burst forth. Some parts investigated are
truly regions of desolation ; vegetation ceases in
the latitude ol sixty- degrees north no. land is
seen capable of cultivation ; the whole surface is
rugged and uneven, and the open valleys nearly
devoid of all vegetable productions. The soil at
Churchill Fori, (one of the Hudson' B iy Compa
ny' Stations in latitude fifty-nine degrees north,)
on the shores of the bay, is extremely barren,
rocky, dry, and without woods for several miles
inland ; a few garden vegetables are with difficulty
reared. At York Fort, in latitude fifty-seven de
grees, two minutes, longitude ninety-three degrees
west, tho soil is low and marshy, and equally un
productive ; and, though the trees are larger than
those inland of Fort Churchill, ihey are still knotty
and dwarfish. The country around ihe faclory,
although elevated above the river, is one entire
swamp, covered with low stunted pine, and per
fectly impenetrable, even in July, when it is in
fested by clouds of mosquitoes. The land seems
to have been thrown up by the sea, ant! is never
thawed during the hottest summer, with the ther
mometer at ninety degrees to one hundred degrees
in ihe shade, more than ten or twelve inches, and
then the soil is of ihe consistence of clammy mud;
even in the centre of the factory it is necessary to
keep or. the platforms to avoid sinking over the
ankles. About Albany Fort, in fifty-two degrees
north, and Moose Fort, in fifiy-qne degrees twenty
eight minutes, the climate is more temperate, the
soil belter, and potntoes and garden produce are
reared, but with difficulty.
"Proceeding further west, the temperature im
proves, but all around Hudson's Bay, particularly
at Fort Churchill, the climate is extremely severe;
and from the middle of October to the middle of
May the country is buried under snow. The ice
does not break up generally uniil July, and at
York Fort, two degrees south of Churchill, tho
thermometer in January has hern at fifty degrees
below zero. Even in rooms at the factory, where
a fire is perpetually kept up, brandy freezes into a
solid substance ; the rivers und lakes, ten or twelve
feet deep, are frozen fo the bottom, and the Hud
son's Bay Company's European servants are ob
liged to observe the greatest caution against the
ellecls of cold air, which is frequently filled wiih
small particles ol angular ice, and driven by the
wind against the face or hands, raises the skin in
white blisters, which break out in thin watery is.
sues. As soon as a room is thoroughly heated
and the embers burnt down, the top ol the chim
ney is closed so as to exclude the air, yet the walla
of the apartments are found covered with ice two
to three inches thick. The Europeans in the
I service of the Hudson's Bay Company, notwith
standing their precautions, and tho use of a large
quantity of woollens and furs, are frequently frost
bitten, und many of the natives fall victims to the
severity of the climate.
The sun is often obscured for weeks by thick
fogs, which are caused by watery vapors ascend
ing from the eea, which, being condensed by cold,
hang all around the coast, and extend inland to a
cmaiderable distance. The 'mock suns' and
moons, called pnraheha and paraselene, appear
very frequently in the coldest months. The tem
perature of the air is subject to tlie most capri
cious vuriations ; rain sometimes falls abundantly
with a serene sky, or tho sun will burst forth in
the midst of the heavies? showers. Such is the
region in which several of the Hudson's Bay com
pany's establishments are si uated. and which
could not be maintained but for the possession of
some more temperate regions, from whence food
Ia the Quarterly Review, No. xlii., vol. xxv., 1821,
Sir Jno. B irrow adverts to this remarkable occurrence
on board Capt. Parry's ships Iletiu and Griper: "The
daoptb of March ret in mildly, (;tt their retreat in Win.
ter Harbor,) ao that the solid ice, which lor aomStinic
had lined the ship's sides, bepsn to raclt. It tnrlorc
became necessary to scrape off thia coating of ice, on
w hich occasion Capt. Parry obserrce : ' It will perhapa
i i. ..!Hn that wo .hU iv (8th March) re-
I PUUI tt IJ aaar aswaaaaTasi awaa w j
! moved about 1 00 buckets full, each containing from nvc
to tx callous, bring the accumulation wi.iv -y-
. ... u . I. 1. .. a In k i ri
place in an interval of less than four wecKs, ano mm
immense quantity waa the produce chiefly of tbe men a
brcflh and of the ateam of tbeir victuala during meala.
Late from California.
The steamer Star of the' West has arrived at
New York, bringing laier dates Irom Culifornia :
The "tneral news from Culifornia is without
Accounts had been received giving details of
another party of emigrants, consisting of twenty
five, who perished for want of food and wcter.
Their sufferings were beyond description.
Business in San Francisco and throughout Cali
fornia generally was improving, but there was
much complaint of tightness in tho money market
Real estalu was on tbe decline.
It was srriouly apprehended that some acci
dent hud happened lo ihe steamer Sonora, a
she had been gteally out of her time at last ac
counts. Mining oporalions prove successful. Tho Indi
an troubles have nearly ceased in the intcror.
General good health prevailed.
Safety op the Englisii Aktic Exploring
Ship Enteki'T'-ikk. The British sieamship Pey
tonu arrived at San Francisco from the Sandwich
Islands, being the pioneer of a new line of steam
ers between ilios-- points. She brought a full car
go and 37 passengers, a portion of whom went to
Now York in the Star of ihe West, the first who
ever arrived at that port travelling tho entire dis
lance by steam.
The Peytona brought in'elligcnce of the long
missing English Arclic ship Enterprise, which
arrived ai Port Claronel on the 21st of August,
having only lost three men during the whole
The Enterprise brought no news of Sir John
Franklin. She outeied the Arctic ocean in sum
met ol 1851 and passed through the Prince of
Wales Strait, but finding ihe ice impracticable she
passed the w inter of 1851-'52 in lat.71 3.Tnorlh,
Ion. 117 35' west ; after making every exeriion
to accomplish the objoct of her voyage ahe passed
the winter of 1852-'53 in Wollaston Bay, in lat.
69 north, 105 30' west. The winter of 1853-'-54
found her in Camden Bay, in lat. 70 8' north
145 39' west. The ice released her on the 30th
of July last.
Great Massacum by the Indians in Sonoba.
The most important intelligence by the Goliah is
contained in the report furnished by Mr. llenr y
Livingston, who arrived at San Diego for the Col
orado, on the 17th September. The San Diego
Herald has the following account furnished by Mr.
Mr. Henry Livingston, to whom wc are indebt
ed for tho following important items of intelligence
from Sonora, arrived at this ciiy on Sunday last,
accompanied by Messrs. John Stein and Samuel
Simon. During ihe two days' stay of Mr. L. at
the crossing of the Colorado, a report w..s brought
in to the ff ct ihut a company of imigrants,
composed ol fifty persons, nil from Texas, wero
murdered near the Pimos Village, by a band of
Apaches, on the 31st of August. There were
several women and children in the train, who it is
feared were doomed lo a more horrible fale I
All the custle, GU0 in number, together wiih the
provisions, were curru d off by the Indians, leav
ing tho wagons in the road. This news was
at the time u few hours' travel in iheir rear, but
which happily escaped attack. Near Tucson
about the same lime a party of twenty Americans
were eating their dinner when a band of fifteen
Indians made u descent iipiu them, und carried
off seven of their finest horses, without a shot being
discharged by either parly, although the Americans
were well armed, outnumbered them and witnessed
Another party, a few miles the other side ol
Tucson, were attacked, one American killed, and
Iwe tl v-seven horses taken.
The panics before mentioned were all from lha
Stale of Texas.
The Apaches arc becoming more troublesome
and more formidab'c each day, and almost every
train which enters their range, will be more or less
harassed by them.
Fhoji ttie Sandwich Islands. The Kiflg of
the Sandwich Islands had prorogued Parliament.
In his speech he says :
" In ihe absence of ndequate means to suppress
insurrections, I must trust to Providence for pro
tection to my kingdom, and to your loyalty, re
commended by word and deed, for quiet subjection
to law and order."
Honolulu a Fhee Port. Dates from Hono
lulu lo the 16lh have been received. Tbe Haw
aian Legislature adjourned on the 12th of August,
the great measure of the session being the aboli
tion of tonnage duties, by which the ports of the
sandwich islands became, as far as shipping and
navigation are concernvu, free ports.
Washington, Nov. 1. I learn upon reliable
amhority, that England has abandoned the pro
tcction of Grey town.
The 'health of President Pierce has fully recov
ered. Several Congressmen have already arrived
here in anticipation of the opening of Congress.
We have a charming day for the 1st Novem
ber, mild almost as spring, and the avenue is
crowded with a gay throng of pedestrians.
Exaggerated reports have gone abroad about
the unhealthfullncss of Washington, which are
wholly untrue. The general health of our city is
The Comptboleh of the State. We learn
by a letter from Raleigh, that M. jor Wm.J. Clark,
ihe present able and efficient public officer at iho
head of this apartment, will not be a candidate for
re-f lection. This is now an important office, al
though it has attached to it but a meagre salary. .
The ensuing General Assembly will have to seiec
We hope that our present worthy and able
treasurer w ill be continued in office. A more faiih-
lul public officer could not be obtained.