3 .jjv.w .
i. f -
. riS. 4
THE NORTH! PARI ?IfIAN, FAYETTJ! VlLLE, N.
made up of smaller particles of the same mate
rials. This rock is known as ; grindstone grit,
and is ased for grindstones. - Intercalated with,
this grit, we find beds of clay slate, . which was
originally fine blue clay, but is now a' fissile and
tolerably hard rock. Beds of this slate also
overlie the gray grit. " Over the slates we find
a finer grained sandstone, generally colored red
by peroxide of iron. ' Then comes,- over this, a
bed of hardened clay, called fire-clay, or under-
day of the coal. It is supposed ta have con-H
stituted the bottom of the lake or estuary into
which the coal plants sunk in the formation of
coal, or it may have been the soil in which many
of the coal plants grow.
In the fire-clay, bands of clay-iron stone, car
bonate of iron, and strata or bands of iron ore,
occur, and this finds its analogue in deposits of
iron ores in modern peat hogs.
Directly on the fire clay lie the first "beds of
coal, with a covering of thin splitting slates,
charged with bituminous matter, and called coal
shales. Several alterations of coal," fire clay
and of shales occur in these coal fields. . .
It is obvious both from the structure and
mineral composition of coal, that it ,was derived
from plants, and has resulted from a-ajculiar
change in vegetable fibre, called bitnmjMization,
winch resulted from a kind of formation of veg
etable matter under water, analogous to the
bitumization known to take place in vegetable
matter at the bottom of the peat bogs. '
There are fave beds of coaun the Ueep Wiver
..... 1 1 - j
scries ; but the two upper ones are too min 10
be worthy of exploration, Jby themselves The
THE COIL L1ID8
i, ;.,,;.,.,. neeo River, JVorth Carolina.
New York, September 24th, 1853.
Thomas Andrews, Esq. - ' ","?"
Dear Sir. In accordance with , the instruc
tions which I received from you, on the 13th
ultimo, I proceeded to examine the coal, lands
on Deep River, North Carolina, which I had
partially and cursorily explored, with you in
April last. ' ;
Having now spent a month in examination
of the coal lauds in question, I am prepared to
give a prettv full account of their probable
value for coal mining. In this survey-I.was
most ably assisted by your agent, Wlljam
AlcClane, Esq., to whom I would present my
thanks. I shall also call your attention to the
large deposits of valuable iron ores that occur
onlhe same territory, and make some sugges
tions as to the use that may be made of your
small coals, in the manufacture of iron from
North Carolina lias been, perhaps unjustly,
reproached for want of enterprise in allowing
her vast mineral resources to remain for so long
time idle, and the public generally have not, to
this dav become fullv aware of the fact, that
this State may justly claim- the very highest
rank af a mineraliferons country.
Theormer want of railways and of canals,
nd of good and deep harbors for large shipp-
prevnWd the due development of the m-
al wealth ot the btate : and her exports
an outlet mostly from the ports of
leston, South Carolina, and Xorfork, Vir-
. led foreigners, and many , of our own o
pie, jtoltfhdefvalne theiiommera of N-TJarJalua.
ataeir in this fatate, Hallways and plank
roads are now laid, and are rapidly extendiii"-.
jne siacK-water navigation of Deep River is
to be completed by next spring; so that barges
may run to Fayettcville with their loads of coal
A new port is rapidly growing up at Beaufort
where the largest class of ships may enter and
from whence they may go to sea, let the 'wind
blow which way it listeth.
These are among the few improvements that
have accompanied the new developments of her
mineral resources, and will tend to excite still
further to develop the vast mineral and agri
cultural produce of the State.
Copper, Gold, Lead, Silver, Iron and Coal
are among the most valuable of the minerals
that will be largely exported, and quarries
of excellent soapstone and of gray sandstone
will also be opened, when ready means of ex
portation are provided.
The agricultural produce of the State is well
known to be equal to that of any other State
of equal .area in the Union. I have premised
these remarks, because I am aware how little
is generally known at the North of the resour
ces of North Carolina.
The immediate object of this report, is to
bring distinctly into view the importance of the
coal mines of Deep River, which are destined
to furnish no inconsiderable amount of fuel for
steam navigation, and for various manufactur
ing establishments. -
The existence of large beds of good bitumin
ous coal, in a region accessibble to boat navi
gation, is a matter of universal congratulation;
and no one can at first fully appreciate the ad
vantages that will ultimately arise from a dis-'
covery of this kind. North Carolina is there
fore peculiarly fortunate in possessing such
mines, so conveniently situated.
GEOLOGT OF THE COAL DISTRICT.
The Deep River coal formation is believed to
belonsr to the new rod cinltnno i. -
such an opinion having W formed W most of ?'tercrossing hel.r,!er its southern sidv that
Ihe geolOgwtft tui bve TlsWSd it ! and exauifu-I - "'J . 1 nine 10 me
airsrrejrate thickness of
which are parted by a
IT. nno hnan . r . .. i i 1 -fr F - .
they descend under cover of the rocCthe part
ing shale gradually becoming tinner. This is
generally the case in coal beds so divided, and
the coal becomes more oure as it dpnarts frn.n
the exposed outcrop, aud goes deeper under its
The indications of coal in this basin, are the
occurrence of thin splitting shingle of shale in
clayey soil. This generally is a guide in findiu
the outcrop of a coal bed. "
fossil plants, common to the usual coal for
mation, are not found in this shale, but small
diamond-shaped shining black specks are seen
in great abundance, both in the sh nlf aiwl mi.
derclays. These are the scales of ganoid fishes
either the catopterus ofRerlfield
of palajoniscus. No entire fish has yet been dis
covered in these rocks, thousrh the scales m.d
the teeth are verv abundant, as nri nl&n tlin
teem 01 sauroid lislies and their coprolites.
It would seem that the fishes all underwent
putrefaction before they were enclosed in the
mud, now constituting the shales and lire clay,
since they would have been preserved entire,"
had they been enveloped before decomposition
On working the coal mines, it is not impro
bable that perfect fishes will yet be disentombed
and then we may be able to describe them more
Fossil plants are fouud in the slates and gray
grits that form the lower series of the basiu, but
they cannot be here described so as to convey a
distinct idea of, them, without lithograghic
plates, which I presume will not be prepared
for this report. Lignites also occur in the gray
grit, aud some of them are fine jet suitable for
LIMITS OF THE COAL FIELD. ' -
On the west we find the limits nf tfco
John Mnrchison's and George Wilcox's -mines-
on me east, a little atve Rocky River, when
the coal crosses Deep River, a little to the east-
waru ,)i ueorje s tJreeK. It is nnhl. !,
abundant Bupply attainable, eve'Sfrit extends
w"V mile m wiuiu, , , w - '
Ptiouvv ejmustescTl 4o find ine
coal bed, is; as before mentioned Unknown
but since we see the coal, not WoSWn halfa
mile distant, dipping down beaS that plain,
"a 1" "TTl6" cW-isbe there;
" lau "B.iy reacn u By nearer to
the outcrop, if it should be founA fe too deep
at the Domt whfT th. .TV- wc .
: On therBelmdu? -SSSSSK
near the surface, if it continues. Mo the
slight inclination shown at. Ice JEIaugh
ton's upper pitj where the coaltl 'is nearly
Selo rdtrJTrdUbt' aDd fcisimpossi
ble to predict the exact depth Sc bed from
a given point, though we W W nroner
sounding with the angering
Zu?A &fable eStimate oS'Ufbr a
"uu " F uynes near, which
to have -disturbed the coal beds
men tiupiiou. in many viae
tint lii ,t:i. -r . .
kuuv uc ci ujiuuu oi trap dvki
be epoch of
t is obvious
a r a. f . i . 1 j
cvuMuu.iy oiine coal strata. andW 'eed shifts
.. -. 7..
n S5- coat
1 dvkV.-is well
The dvkes of tran n i"Z"J l
rvr"0- , "ts re common in I itl coaldis:
Z17k m r sch dvkiV: is well an
derstood by miners, as wn r r1 ! .
by miners, as well
ous; but thev are P-pneroii r s , . . ,
. , , , - c -.iijr - very jarrow, ana
Sr 7i 6 CXerted tf mechanical
or chemical power over-tfre coal U f The ron-
version of sojQf thecals
Zt $ZCi ' 18 ':tamo jted to the
W of the trap ro Vintheir
rmvmrx ..jafChe unlift
at took place dnring : the cmptidtfj of these
igneous trap rocks. -Vv-'iv i'; f - v 1
Owing to the smalh.ess of the3yas of trap
their chemical effect on the coal is quae limited'.
Good and highly bituminous coal bedJare found
quite near to the semi-bituminous andJmthracite
coals, as seen at Marchison's, Binmain's and
Evans' coal mines. . ,
At the Gulf the most bitaminoSi' variety of
coal is found at Haughton's mines, and the same
kind is also found at tie Farmervilfe mine, op
posite to the Egypt plantation. ;
PETER G. EVANS COAL MIXE AND WILCOX AN
THRACITE. W 7 '
On the plantation of Peter G. Evans, a fine
exhibition of the outcrop of the coalis seen on
the borders of Indian Creek, .where it is ex
posed in the natural embankmett of the stream
for a considerable distance. Th coal dips with
its accompanying shales and fire clay, twenty
degress south-eastward. This roal near the
surface, is not so bituminous as that got out at
Haughton's mines at the Gulf, sokie of the beds
being anthracite, but it is a solid Ind good coal,
capable of bearing transportation; without
breaking more than usual into siiall coals. It
is proposed to open these minesin season to
send coal to market, when thejslack water
navigation is completed. t t
After examining some dykes ; oi trap rock
which intersect the strata, in an fist aud west
direction, on the road between P. Q Evans' and
Wilcox's, we went to Wilcox's antlracite mine,
a little beyond the trap rocks seen tin the road.
The anthracite dips at an angh of twenty
five degrees to the south-eastward This coal
is, supposed to have become debiiumenized by
the action of the heat from the tran dvkes nenr
at hand; but it is remarkable that jn Bingham's
estate, a little to the north of this'antlirncitea
coal bed, with the usual proportionof bitumen.
is seen dipping bdow the anthracte i Whatever
may have been the cause of the formation of
anthracite at Wilcox mines,- it i certain that
iuuuciii'c ui il wuu quite local.
ea tne iossus wnicn occur in the rstrata :Bv
..some it has been supposed that this coal was of
- the same age with that at Richmond, Virginia
wnicn nas oeeu acscribed as belonging to the
ooniic oi lias group.
This opinion has in its favor the geograph
ical position of the two deposits ; while the for
mer view is maintained, uy reference to the
peculiar lossiis that have been found in the
Ueep Kiver shales and sandstones. However
mis mooted question may ultimately be decided
it is certain that, whether the rocks are of the
new red or oolitic groups, the occurrence of
workable beds of cotd in such comparatively
iiiwici u iui-m, i a iiiusi curious and mterestiu"
exception to conclusions arrived at ia England3;
" '"ic cum nas ever oeen fouud in
either of those formations in Europe. The
Richmond coal mines have been wrought for
more than a centry, in rocks regarded as ooli
we, uuu now we are awe to show more exten
sive beds ot coal in the rocks which are either
the new red, or oolitic, iu the neighboring State
of North Carolina.
It was regarded a marvelous exception to the
order of superposition of rocks, that the Rich
mond coal should be found to rest in a granite
basin. Not less remarkable is it, that the in
dependent coal formation of North Carolina
rests directly and uncouformably upon the au
riferous talcose slates of that State.
It would be very interesting to science, and of
no small practical utility, to institute . i-i,riH
comparison of the strata and of the fossils which
a l A.. I ,
.uiaiwic nru aoove-nained coal mines of
orin Carolina aud Virginia ; but my present
duties will not allow me time to do this nor
wouiu me discussion seem to be fitly placed in
a report on a purely practical question. The
mercnant leaves all such matters to be dispos-
,jj ouciiiiui; uifii, aim iooks chieny to the
practical bearings of the results of their deliber
ations. Simple -aP'af,Vder'Pt,"on of the rocks
Wtftetrtontain the coar wilTof course be expect
ed ia this report, and such I shall endeavor to
give so as to enable others to know the true
position of the coal.
mediate, outcrop, and become thicker and more
solid as they enter under cover of the rocks
-! It iaobTious that when the coal ted reaches
beneath the plain of Egypt, it will be morel in which you have an estimate applied to the
fnftoruift. And nf hotter nnatitv tlion it to a XT'.. nonn I? , 1 u.i- - ,
cpmpact and of better quality than it is at Far-
mersyule, near the surface. , ; .
-f 'If the distance from the line of the Farmers-
rule outcrop is one-fourth of a;' mile, or four
hundred and forty yards, if the , coal : continues
to dip at an angle of twenty degrees, the depth
of the bed at the borings in Egypt, would . be
two nundred and thirty ' yards nearly, or six
hundred and ninety feet; but it is not probable
that the coal continues to dip -at such a bold
angle, for the successive borings in Ejrypt in a.
Hne toward the outcrop, indicated nearly hori
zontal stratu oi snaies neiow Kgypt. The pres
ent depth of the borings- is two hundred and
eighty-two feet, and several seams of "bone
coal," or a mixture of coal with shales, have
already been penetrated, and the last perforat
ed strata consisted of a highly carbonaceous
black shale, like that over the coal bed. We
may therefore expect 'soon to hear that coal
has been reached.
At Belmont the. coal is nrobablv stm
the surface, for the outcron at II
the coal plunging beneath Belmont estate
angles .varying from ten to thirty degrees. If the
angle of the dip should prove to be ten degrees
then at four hundred and forty yards south'
twenty degrees east from the
coal would be eighty yards, or two hundred and
ioriy ieei, irom the surface, and at one mile, or
one thosand seven hundred and sixtvflrrls 'ri?.
tance, it would be three hundred nnd t-t
ju.uo, uiiume iiuuureu and SixiKliet rip
wmH tne angle waiitnnnit
mite, the depth would be six hundred and fifty
yards, or one thousand nine hnudrcd and fifty
It is not probable, however, that the coal
will continue to dip at a high angle far from the
ontcrop, for we find in other American coal
faclds, as in that of the V yominar Tallev that
although the coal begins at the outcrop with
a bold dip of twenty-five degrees, it assumes a
nearly horizontal line when it has reached a
depth of sixty or seventy feet below the surface.
This seems also to be a jreneral law in tln for
mation of most coal basins, and we have good
reason to believe it will be found to be the law
in the formation of the deposit of coal on Deep
It is obvious that if a bold dip was long con
tinued beneath the strata, that our coals would
soon pass beyond the reach of the miner, and
the coal would only be attainable near the out
crop. It is a curious and providential arrangement,
that coal is always found in shallow through
shaped basins, and that it is very rare for itto
sink to inaccessible depths.
Professor Walter R. Johnson, in his admira
ble report on Farmersville coal-mine, savs -
ine thickness ot even six feet two inches of
coal, worked in a chamber seven feet nine inch
es in height, or at the point where I last meas
ured the bed, is abundantly sufficient for very
" The whole coal will not of course be remov
ed, but with careful mining it would not be ne
cessary to leave more than one-fourth in the
ground. The gradual inclination of the beds
does not lead to the snpposition, that you will
ever have to descend to an excessive depth, and
be thereby compelled to large proportion of
coal for pillars."
In working coal mines it is generally found
to be most economical to siuk shafts, and to
drive levels, and then to cut out chambers in
working the coal. The - advantages of this
method over that of working by slopes, is ob-
Hi3.- xriiiiiHge ami ventilation nrtt mnw wmr.
ulgrges extent of grdnnrl v.Ll xt
tWitY. 3 i. il.. . . i ',. - .
"itu iegiiiu iu me vaiue ot coal land per
TV. 1 a . J- . .
tic, i oeg leave xo reier you to the excellent
State report, of Professor Emmons, pages 132-3
Deep River coal that is obviouslv mrrpct.
-'. "If the thickest seam of coal is worked, which
has a thickness of six feet, exclusive of thin
band of slate, it will give for every square yard of
sunat-c iwo . square yards ot coal. A square
acre has 4,900 superficial yards ; hence, there
will be- 9,800 square yards of coal in each acre,
and as a square yard of coal weighs a ton, there
will be for every acre, 9,800 tons of coal. A
thousand acres will give'9,800,000 tons of coal,
Oa square mile, 212,000 tons.". "
f rrnsting that ypnr enterprise in opening the
I 'J mines of North Carolina will be dnlv ' re-
Jded I have the honor to be "your obedient
crvant, CHARLES T. JACKSONn
Since the above! report was set up in type,
Mr McClane has discovered a bed of coal .' four
feet ten inches in ; thickness, in Egypt, on the
south side of the river, where he perforated the
coal at a depth of 361 feet from the surface.
Our predictions are; therefore fulfilled, and the
coal has bdfen found at. a convenient place for
mining. C. T. J.
Secretary Dobbin's Report, and Ifary Rcfsrm.
The great importance of this reform cannot
be too highly estimated. The whole country,
to a man, has felt the necessitv for n snrir
and thorough revision, together with a consid
erable increase of our navy. The - rapidly in
crcasinsr importance of our' commercial iuterentsr
tending to every quartc r ot the glob?,
caTTs upon Congress for a navy adequate to their
protection. 1 he able and spirited manner in
which this subject is urged upon Congress and
the country by Secretary, Dobbin is meeting
with a prompt and hearty response, which we
trust will insure its speedy adoption. The Bos
ton Daily Times, in an able article upon the re
port, thus refers to the hold and liberal stand
which the honorable Secretary takes against
the restoration of the inhuman and brutal prac
tice of flogging :
" The Secretary is the friend of the sailor,
and shows that he has a full regard for the wel
fare of the men upon whose exertions and good
conduct the well-being of the navy, and perhaps
the safety and honor of the country, on some
occasion, may come to depend. He is, we are
glad to see, not only averse to the restoration
of the barbarous, unchristian practice of flogg
ing men, but is resolute in his expression of that
aversion. We have been repeatedly told, dur
ing the last year or two, that the desire to have
that time-dishonored 'institution' the 'cat'
restored to the navy was universal among the men
who serve in our national ships ; that the men
who were liable to be flogged were begging for
the chance of having their persons scarred and
dishonored, even with tears in their eyes, just
as the old people of. "New Zealand implore
that, somebody will have . the kindness to kill,
and roast, and cat them, the practice of canni
balism having unfortunately fallen into disuse
through the progress of Christianity and civili
zation, in that group of islands ; but notwith
standing all that has been said of . the scnti
mental griefs of stout manners because' of the
cruel refusal of government to allow them the
luxury of having their ' flesh torn from their
backs, a democratic Secretary of the Navy is
so attached to his principles that, he will not
give a word in support of the proposed restora
tion of the old practice, and probably looks up
on such proposition as he would upon one that
should contemplate the introduction into the
navy Tf the old punishment of ! keel-haul ingA
beautiful Dutch invention -w --:
T toic ln . l-Tirm-ir -tK- ' OA1V 'mi .
f arming LAND 1 mti!U ,mM wL
within ,e mile of the I.SetreV1llf tteTil,e
1 1 1 1 T. nnnota nn I . J. - . t . v ! ucrraunr
uc premises. Also 1SI fn .
no.xes, most of which werp put thl f"'""" rpenitae
.-uv.jb luiuilUIU. HUH k OT All L-in.l 1r '
i - niftaun. it Minin -... M -
tion. Terms made kuowa on 7lav ofl 'OU8 tQ r
' " . KKII.T. nimiiiT..-.JV
lce. 24, 1853.
The annual hieeting of Stor
be hold m. ti.i .1... e.i. , oau, uo.,
- . "v ""i nay or Jannnrv
the Town Hall
Dec. 24, 1853.
Will be rented
on Monday Jan'y 2d, 1854. a IIoT, 71. "T
Wilmington Itoad, the nronertv of slT t ' """e
Wilmington PoH ;...! Lot n, h
---........,., ucmeen James Simrl'.
'J a i
Dec. 24. 2t
A. M. CAMrBELIv Aucfr.
luuipuaf, iuc 19UI or JAllnnrv irj a
to a Decree of the Court of Equity for the' Cobnty ot
Cumberland, 1 shall expose to sale, at the Markf
iiuu.ve hi r ayciievuie, iue ioiiowing valuable TRACTi
AH tnut liar! nronertv- in T.owrr F.(tVni.-
known asO'llanlon's Wharf, includinir the Vrol,.V.S
on Water street. - ' ""f
A Lot in C'anipbellton, known as the Flaxseed WareO
liortse Tot . pio-btv font hir il.;. -4. fi r !..:. .W
me lot, eighty leet by lliirty-nve feeV inched. J
Improved Lot in Campbellton, known as theiwjiite-
ad Cot. ... f. . AJ6-J'
Lot on T'ater street ininintr th&xfharTIn
' A r.Tt ancr uweHTne TionFe on
the State, at present Occupied by Joseph'.
of the Isank ot
200 acres or Land, near Mrs Iott a a short distance
from the Western l'lank Road.
Terms Five per cent. cash. For the residue, six
months' credit, for approved Notes at Bank.
ARC11 D A. T. SMITH. C. & M. E.
Dec. 24. 1853. 73-4t
JB- SALE OF STOCK. -a
In compliance with the expressed wishea of the Stock-
holders in general meeting, held on the 22d innt., theC
hhhr n ill rilllljlltril b OKFVIVllMJUVl 3 mnniuic n -
tited to be xold on the 23d mot., is postponed until
Wednesday the 11th day of Jairy 1854, when the Stock
of such delinquent Stockholders as maybe in default
on that day, for the non-payment of the Second Instal
ment, heretofore demanded by the Board to be paid on
the 1st Septemler last, will be positively told at the
door of the Office, at 11 o'clock.
By order of the Board of Directors,
Dec. 24. 3t J NO. M. HOSE, Sec'y-
TO THE TIIAVEI.IM; PIBIIC.
Th Warsaw Stage leaves Fayetteville every Mon
day, Wednesday, and Friday, at 3 A. M. Returning,
leaves Warsaw every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satur
day, on the arrival of the Cars from the North, say
C A. M. M. McKINKON.
Dec. 24, 1853. 73-3t
CllAKE'S CHEEK ACADEMV,
MOORE COUNTY, N. C.
The Second Session of this School, located nine miles
East of Carthage, near the Fayetteville and Western
l'lank Road, will commence Tuesday the 3d of January
Tuition, (payable in advance,) SS, $10, $12 50,
and $15 per Session.
Students can be prepared here for the University of
Board and W ashing can be obtained in the neighbor
hood, convenient to the Academy, at from $5 to $7 per
month. - -
For further particulars, direct (post-paid) to the
Principal, Crane's Creek 1. O., N. C.
A. R. BLACK, Principal.
Dec. 24, 1S53. ,73-5t
The Board of Superintendents of the Common
Schools of the County, are requested to meet at the '
oflice of the Chairman on Thursday the 5th day of Jan-.-
uary, 1854, (that being the tirst -Thursday,) at 12.
o'clock.'. ED WD LEE WINSLOWCh'n.-';.
Retnfns'jaf the nmabpt-ntp'i.'ldrBn in.ituiimr! v.
d a little to the south of HvH . I. . - !.jmpm&mmmm rjM.rwrcn
out no mines have been opened so far to th I u'v is conimoes TO occur
eastward. , inrougnout tne bed, will injure the value of the
The whole length of the line nf .,t ..r coar Ior siting of iron ores, r -, ,
the coal, following its curves, is not 1pss tl.nr. " palweb estate.. .T;2t:
sixteen miles, and its direct length i not fo- Palmer's estate contains th ' siim-K-Cl S'kL. i
from twelve miles TMa nnn i. . that, ia ovrwvcosi ot ii Trtf 1
, u,. appears tu i ---- mi v. jjymiis mines, as is onro that ti.:..i-..-. c ; aa '
vflncii-iT tUn ,i. r . . . I u.,:.. c 4i. i- ..! - . CT 1 sure inat tiiickness or rr4-if
. v i , i;Ut uunutiu li I i rir i ii ot Tua hQcin c uuiiuua 11 (jiii 1 ; 1 1- 1 1 1 1 f ot rnomitm-AnAni.. 1 1 i t n , r no
will be won inmf,nn I Lnt nn "Z r". "V Trv',,3UCVH Considerable time and labor -ni
4 vvv.u.7ufiui; 1 . -1 "-O" ' -Jf MCCU UlttUe avruinr lw T a.- ... . ' v W
It would be most desim bt t b x ' ;
one hundred feel t of rocf overhead in worki i
these mines; and therefore, whon i."."
rtoin,I U -,....4 ... '--"!- nave US-
. -k- -ii T l!OSll,on ot coal by the au
t:ilhl Sun in scl Pces as will it
dily adopted into other services, and the stopr
mg of whicli was looked unon with ; m.fK
horror by the conservatives of other times as
luc American Danishment of the 'cat' has been
smucq oy me togies of our day and nation."
, .v Murac 11, iiiuuu ine coal snaies are noon
It is obvious that such an extensive nntemn m the soil. Iron ore is ahnnd-int. tklo i
r 1 j. . . - - . . : "v,4-
ot coai, uipping soutnwanlly at various angles uon ana is oi good quality. Some of the coal
of from ten to thirty degrees, indicates a mnt obtained near the surface is a true nut ht-!w.;t.
powertui bed ot coal, and the dips all so to aud much of it is dry coal
iuu mai nes Deneain JUtrvnt and! j am oi tne map. it is easv
13-1 1 1 . . - 4 1.. ... .
eniioiK. uiauiaiions line relations ot t.im oi t u -.
. 1 , -v,li jjiauiULiuil
w e cannot, until the bonnes reach the rnj.1 delineated, and therefore it will La
give the depth to which it extends beneath the me to enter into a repetition of remarks at. nh
-i4...l- . 1 1 1-4 ... -
u u. muse plantations, oecanse we do not ocaiuy, tnat are generally applicable to all of
L-r4w Ii 1. n4 4- 4. . . I 41 A r . "
vf.. mrac me .-Lrii.i.a, turn to liecome nparlir tuein.
DESCRIPTION- OF THE COAL-BEARIXG ROCKS OF DEEP
-tne rjottom rock of the coal basin, which
rests unconformably directly upon the aurifer
ous talcose slates, is a coarse conglomerate,
made 'up of pebbles of pre-existeut rocks, which
have been worn round and smooth by the action
y.f 4.1 . .....
vi me ocean s waves causing attrition among
me iragments or rock at the bottom and on the
ancient shores. These pebbles are now consol
mated into a hard rock, bv cementiner of the
pebbles and fine detritus, so that they are firm
ly imbedded, and the rock is suitable for mill
stones. Upon this coarse conglomerate or mill
stone, rests a finer grained gray sandstone,
horizontal, as the auger indicates thp stmt a
in Egypt, where they have been bored into sev-
rai places. .
nen me farmersville slone is wnrt-rl t
me turning point, we shall know the snot -Wp
we can reach the same bed, on the opposite side
of the river in Egypt; but it is probable that
me auger win seme tins question before lono-
oy peneirat.ng tne oert ot coal itself, for thp
ast .oorsngs indicate the proximity of a coal bed.
IS THE COAL IX A BASIX OR TROUGn ?
This question has been raised bv tlios
ciouin tne lact ot the existent nf ti,o 1.1 t
v- UCU VI
oai soum 01 tne outcrop, and therefor T K!,...ii
c,ulc ' lines in exposiiiir mv views . h
vv e nna one margin of a co.ll deposit, ex-
lcuul"ff JCts "'an twelve miles parallel
with the line of strike of the strata, and the
com is iounu to oe regularly included between
expended in explorations with the anger, before
."...vo uc "i.niiHgeousiy opened
I beg leave to refer to the lat
ker R. Johnson's report, for nri.. 4,ri.
analyses and researches on th -i '
. lRirpr,.nl nr.,1 1 " .-.iecp
to see exactly "1" 'S '" Z:.- 1CTOmena them to your
.. - i-aiciui vouiiuiiiuuuil. as mni c c nf ..4
... ., , - , "'wnai uiia-
iilu nui& on coals.
i The analytical details allndo.l t :44
ji utu UiUlU'
jv.u.uo c uiu nressea lor snnno i.
444144CJA tll4W ..-,.1 ,i .. .. 4 I . '
t4.u. nuuiu uui ue SO interocr.,. u-
1 J 41 1J Ulf
gc.icitti icaucrus me omer portions of the report.
1 would respectfully call your attention to
T 1 41. ;
a uiivc me impression, tnat when mining-
operations extend excavations into the de-hitn.
menized or anthracite coal bed. that it will ho the large deposits of excellAnt .1.4
fonnrl urlian k 1 1 . , .. lrJ : 41 j:4 . -u'"iiudl
..v 4ii iUai icutmrs a ceriaiiiueptn, 1 iucwui uistrict 01 leep Kiver
it Will fl 111 til In liitnminnni! mIU. n : .l 'I . Thou o in tli4 "l.7l.l 1
-"4wu mr a v llllll j j o M 11 CM 1 T A
parts ot the held,
little value to that
as in oilier I j uiai-Roana" iron nrn
If -4 T , .. . . 4 r: 1 ' 4 4 I1UU-
ai iioi. suouia attach but iron, ciay iron oaus. and hmun k 4:4-
"iuu mi cuai, since oetter urau mcs wcur iu sumcient. nii,i,,;t:.. 4
U' Pl(it IrtL' i .1 l. .... ..C 4 .. iri 1 4 m..l 41.. 4! f . . " IO
""-" 4HU.UI4H.II.C aieicuuiiy procurea irom ""ii me erection 01 a blast furnace for th
Pennsylvanist. 7" V : manufacture of cast iron. '
Ihe excellent bituminous coals of Deep River Large quantities of iron ore. shales st
will always command the hie-hest. nries in ti.4 ta of carbonate of iron ;n , 41 .... . .
market, and I should advise that the best coals working your coal mines n,i .i:4.- 4.
ai,I k. 4 4-- .,.4. ..4 . 4 . 41.: .. uuuiuuu to
-4,4.. oiiuu.u uc 6cui 10 a uistant marset, aud tuls "ppiy you can obtain readily from vari
the DOOrer Olialitips La Iron nn tK 44 rri-Annrl 011s nlnntatinnc in tl.n :4 ,
i 4,.i " ..i l k:1:.:: . r : : : r a iarge amount
" ui 1 r in" bteaui-emriues vi ihp ' u ores uuiaineu irom t.iio cnrr.. :i T
nnpLs r., 1...ri 44 " . 1.: i """" m
v.. 44 4,v ii iuuu uses atsieum saw-iiuus and '"g a co.n miue large quantities of m.ii
f4M.4T4443 tliril.1. 1 . .. I 1 1 1 1 4 I AA1 1 4 . ' KJl ' " l 4 1
hiuc wciuit u larire iucui ueinauu tor wai are nrouueea. ar. ion it nn 4k:j
,.l,. i " , . , ' "umu 01
t"u,s- -'oai raised irom the mine beino- l.rot-
- ' I 11. , . . O "4V44
coal, mixe at farmersville.. J. . sman to send to market.
Within an oxbow of llppn Rivw nmrlt . This coal should be made into i-
V 4U4.1UUVI1 WIWCUH 1 1 4. , f - , ... 4 I . , , V ... UllU
e strata of shnln onH ..i i 4.1. ... I mile from th TrrT-r.t nian4i;. i I be economicallv iimnlnvni i4r
. t. . v. 1411U lllCl MV. HIIll TO 4114 41-14 ll w..w j j v 4-444414.441.44411. 44. 4 T , II 11144.4 H 11. I - . ..... j ..VI 44, Bill t I 1. 1 TI IT ll-nn 4n
lem to thp s0nthw.jt.4l I7'ii : 41 . I lno shnft. has Wn cnnlr : i, -.i j,S . , I All tne mrr iron that oan K i" i .
t .1 1. 4 1 1 1 1 f 1 44 1 1 1 1 r I Illi.' inn 44. A I C3 " - . . . . u444 44 lULU 4 11 IT 4 1 111 1 441.41. 11 1111 t i n V 1. 11 4,4- 1 1 1 l I UllOll lUrt...
C...1T44- . . o " Uk .. i? 4. .1 . . . . I. " I l.l..4 e..Z . . ----4-44 11UIU
Notice ! , .
tho i.;4 r 1 r. ' m -,ajpriai on hand at
r .4...v.1T usutu i,y Mr. j.;. Kuller, and havin-r
emracred the aorriooo f f t T '"- "-tvinj;
k.4.4," ".. . : wnoHe work
s..w.sCMlllml enure satisfaction. I am now
prepared to execute all orders for Timber Wagons, Iioad
Wagons, Carts, Drays, Wheelbarrows, Ac
I have on hand and will constantly keep jmod ,t
Dlvof Iron Avlf4 rh;n. ti.. r . , - . . 8.1 'V
thing that the Wagon-maker can need. .
to ml'paHi 1 ?' 4 th': lmPr Iron Axles, made
to 01 nir at tin uhAi(m-
- l'IIU( Hv.-H, III ut, t.
T hirA ran 1 ,
v u hih i hi i ('(imnufnn t u nt.l... a a
business, and will give it my whole and undivided at-
My prices shall be as moderate as the times will ad
rn.t ami I will challenge any Wagon-maker in the Uni
ted States to equal my work, either in point of ?tvle or
it to converge towards the ends or the the workinf? of this mine is now about toflje re- one b,ast furnace can be readily sold on th,
I, .. 4 l . i ' 4.444, I - A, . . a . . . f erwii . w.4tnn 4 1 . 4 . t 1
orth Carolina was the first State that caused a geolo
gical survey to tie mane unuer order or ner legislature,
Professor Olmstead having lieen commissioned by
the Governor to explore the gold regions of the State.
Partial explorations were also made subsequently by
j roiessor Mitcneii, wno prepared a geological map of
iue fetate, representing particularly the great bed of
Mtuu.-ione belonging to tne coal scries oi rocks, At
the present time, Professor EL Emmons is commissioned,
as State Geologist, to make a geological survey of the
entire State- It would, therefore, appear that North
Carolina has taken adequate measures for a full expos
ure of her mineral wealth. The fact that few of the
citizens of the State have engaged in mining enterprises
is owing, probably, to their attention being devoted
mostly to agriculture, and they were unwilling to
enter upon business which they are generally but lit
U acquainted with. C. T. J.
north-eastern aud north-western extremUiac so
.4.4 me .1 1 1 u vr .-, we put on tne man
tilt imp 4! i i-i4-1 i .. 4TflSi : .. A
. . . , . . vs --114. 44 I 1 1 . 1 141 1 II L 1.1 14W -T141
centre oi a larere narrow nrrninrl, Bh,r,
4ow, aitnouKli no southern ediw f iiii.h-o;.
has yet been discovered, we may safely assume
that the coal deposit has a basin, or trough-like
shape, for such a form is indicated bv on nf ;tc
cwlao t liA 4-1 .....11 I a -
m" "'""J "en-Known. Again we know
that this trough-like form is the usual shape
of a coal field, and although we may never
.ice me umer rim oi tne basin we have
right to assume that it will have another side
symmetrical with the one we have discovered
us inucii so as we nave the richt to assume tl.
existence of symmetrical planes in a crystal one
half only of which is exposed out of itsgangue
In many workingcoal mines only a small por
tion of the basin is known, but still the coal is
legaruea as in a basin, or trough, such being the
general law oi aeposts ot the kind. Professor
oiiunian nas well described the anthracite coal
beds as being "like a series of canoes set one in
the other." Such, we feel confident will ulti
mately prove to be the form of the Deep River
It is sufficient for practical rturnospa to know
that there is an adequate supply of coal - enough
to warrant the opening: of reo-ular minus with
4k .. " , " - ...4-44
iue requisite macninery tor pumpin
nnmtn Artf I . 4 i i J I Giirkt at n.iiind 4U n 4 , 1 1 1 . .
W.UU1CIH.CU, a su-aui engine naving pev pro- j f "v Hunk wm oe pron table to the
I nucu ii pumping out ine water." andr- trl "'"fa"J'
the coals. :;- :. '''VT'S-i --.'R-neltintf farnacesi''''win' Amni !.
Since this coal bed , descends bJlt 3 for castings, and foros - will ..n -1
. "'lUrif-LIl Mirj I V ' O"-1-7 " , vrx.iiA IIAVJ u juiuc
rivpr fltii. nocc-oo An a a 4-1. it. - i . , VM ? I nmAiinf . ? -
plantation, it is important to your Comninv to !ro.n' au r wnich may be sold on the spot where
ThJsirtne l . maue 5 Ior " will be cheaper than ii
know what can be learned about it.
. nil . ... 4 1 1 14 Nil II 14. I . - . . - - "
was nnea witn water while I was there so that iron tn-would require so much expense to
1 was able to see only the outcrop of thi coal J,d for transportation from the seaboard.
me biiaies aua nre clay that had lv.1.. rot mesione suitable for flux is found in the
up in working the mine. This .slone nXiT L, westrn margin of your coal field, and the red
reached the extent of eiirhteon vL . sandstone will mako n rmnrl stack for thn fur.
r 4 4 i . j4ius. on.a niu . . . .. o
oi twenty uegrees, and consBnimntin ' . -T uace; and the excellent soaDStone found at.
perpendicular depth of 16 8-10ths folthp Wamb'e's and Clark's quarries will make the
l'44'l I I4444IO 44 4 1. .. 4 ? 4 . . - V. 4 1. 1 hnnH4k.4 4 3 1 : - 44 .
4..44 ui.u.4 44 4 wmi, jjuiut are stated in P r or "cniiustoues, tymps aim iiuing ior it, as
Johnson's report to have the followin8 the fire-clay of the coalmines will make fire
bricks for the interior of the furnace
I am satisfied that iron can be manufactured
profitably on Deep River. If the limestone
tound mere aoes not answer the purpose for
flux, your boats returning trom Cape Fear River
after discharging their loads of coal, could
bring back loads of shell marl, which is nearly
pure carbonate of lime, and will make a better
In the npper part of the slope the th ' 1 Aux th&n any limestone, since it is more divid
of the coal was as follows : cn?ss ed, and will therefore act more promptly.
There need be no tear entertained with
Showing an asrerretrate
2 feet 8 inches.
1 " 6
i " Q 41 t
8 feet 8 I'neK L.
of 7 feet 2 inches of
1st. Bottom Coal.
2d. Intermediate Slate.
3d. Top Coal,
2 feet G inches.
l feet 6 inches,
water and hoistinar tin the coal nnH nm.ii t ow,,
satisfied we have proved on Deep River. The ' eet inches of coal.
coai certainly descends with the strata nnrl Tho m0 . .. .-:
there is 110 instance known of such thiVlr Wda f riH,.,c j V .. t?.at the coal beds not mentioned in your letter of instructions to
COllI n-ivinir Aiitat a email rlnn'l. rm.. 1: Li-.i.. . - . . ' lne diminution nf tha I mo and am informer! hv him tlint tlio-4i u
- e- o uiuvii. -me linear ex- tniCKness OI the fthaloo oj . . rn r J " irc
tent ot outcrop is, as before observed, from coal in olace of th ' BaDstitution of no difficulty in fandmg capital in the neighbor-
tDrulna 4in;. :i 1 4i. '. . I meiu. : " - , 1 1 t 4 . 41. :e : i 1 1 1. 1
gard to the practicability of manufacturing iron
on Deep River, and if the present prices are
maintained, the iron could be made at a very
high percentage profit.
I have, at the suggestion of Mr McClane.
called your attention to a branch of business
twelve to sixteen miles; hence there must be an
Mos. c9, b,ds .re ,hta Md poor SSerSS
hood to carry on the works, if it should be de-
RHGt'HATBSItAN BE CIKED,
We now oner for sale that celebrated remedy,
Mortimers Rheumatic Compound & Blood Purifier,
Which has gained such great Popularity wherever in
troduced, as the only specific known for the effectual
cure of this painful disease. This remedy lias alreadV
cured thousands of cases, comprising every seeming
form of this complaint, from the inflammatory (acutel
torm, attended with swellings ami nnkr,.n,nf .e .i '
joints, to old chronic cases of from ten to twentv and
a 1 y I ars 8tanainf?- T"ose who had for years resort
ed to the various celebrated springs, had tried .ill the
liniments and external applications, and lcen under
treatment of some of the aldest DhvsJpJana 1...0. ; !.:..
country and Europe, and were pronounced incurab'e
still, after all these efforts had failed, thin i....,...!
cured them. Manv who have been
hling upon crutches or confined to their herls tv.r .
certify to a complete and permanent cure by th use of
i.u4 vi.n. ylJ
We have not space, in a newspaper advertsiemcnt to
insert but a small portion of the accumulated evidence
m its behalf. This evidence comes from sources which
must inspire confidence in every mind. The conductors
ot high-toned public journals have published to the world
its wonderful and beneficial effects upon themselves and
those around them, and in some instances speak of hun
dreds of cures. I'bysi'oinus bare resorted to it, and cer
tify that, even in extreme caws, where consultation. lmI
been held, and they had decided that there were no hopes
01 recovery, even men. mcy procured tnis medicine il
administered it, and it effected a complete cure. Minis
ters or various denominations have written and nnMlm.
what it has done for themselves and their friends; while
merchants, officers, mechanics, and private citizens, have
mnui-iieu volumes 01 evidence ot tue ine-hest elinrneti.i-
such as accompanies no other preparation in America
We most respectfully ask those who are afflicted to
send to tne agent in their vicinity and sret a circular, ami
3 41 1..44 1 . ' ( . i- . . . . . . . . '
aw me letters aim certificates 01 Jtev, Jas Jlitchel, Kev
N. G. Berryman, J. M. Kelly, Rev R. A. Colburn, and
other clergymen; while we add the names of lion J.
Smith, late President of the Bank of the State of ilis
souri; Geo. O. Atherton, officer in the Bank in St. Louis;
Messrs Jas. H. Eddy. S. Downing. A. Holland, C. W.
Stone, J. W. Christy, Joseph Southack, with other pro
minent merchants of St. Louis, as also vast numbers of
This is home evidence, and these are livinff witnesses
where this great remedy was first introduced, and where
many thousands have been cured during the last two
years. The propietors have now opened their rZroot
Central Office at No. 1 Barclay street, (Astor House 1 In
the city of New York, where all orders for this medi
cine will be promptly attended to.
This is a vegetable spirit an internal remedy, pre
pared and recommended for this one disease alone. This
it will cure.
Price, $5 per single bottle, or three bottles for $10
W. V. ALEXANDER, Proprietors. '
No. 1, Barclay st, New York ci
Sold by J. IN. SMITH. ayetteville.
March 12, ly&4t
tnct fertile year isss,- mwt belauded to the Chair
man before or by the 5th of January. ' ?
December 24, 1863 r ;J 73-zt , ' ' ' !
THE LAST NOTICE. I
The firm of Cook-A Taylor was dissolved the first of
la,t May There has been hut little heed paid by thcir
fnen.ls to the call for settlement of their notes and ac
counts. We now distinctly say that all notes and ac
counts remaining unpaid will lie put in a train of col
lection during the mouth of January.
4 - .. JAMES G. COOK.
. .j-jt WILLIAM
SKGROES POIl SALE.
Will l,e sold at Public Auction at Kingsbttry, (about
Unvles from this nlnce. on tlie T?l;-t, 01....1; i.i
on Thursday, 5th January next, at 12 oVlnik Vift..,.n
or Twenty LIKELY .KI.AVKS .... 1. "
and girls; among the women is a first rate Weaver. "
erms tash, or negotiable paper.
Also, will be hired, at the Snnni t:m44 fin.l ..1.44.44
eral valusible Turpentine hands. ' .
n T,-M?r 1)eacriptioa of e. negroes inquire of Rev.
u. S. W llliaras. .
j. -.' . 'A. M. CAMPBELL. Auc'r-
Fayettevillo, Dec. 10, 1X53. 7i.4t.
I will hire, at the Market House, on Monday. Janu
ary 2d, 1854, for one year, a number of valuable wi-.
ants, amonir them some valuable Timb.... .i t.,-
pontine hands, cooks, house servants, Ac.
- A-M. CAMPBELL, Auctioneer.
Dec. Ii, 1S5.1. - 72-2t
JTIck Williams Kye Whiskey,
At wholesale and retail.
DeclT,. 1853 McDONALD A McMASTER.
BUViVSWICK CITY, GEORIA.
Large and peremptory safe of Building Lots in
the City of Bru nswick, State of Georgia.
The proprietors of the City of Brunswick hereby give
notice that a sale of five hundred eligible lots will take
place, by public auction, at the Oglethorpe House, in
aid city, on Ihursday the 12th day of January, 1854,
at 1 i yclock M. The sale will be positive to the high
est h'cWer. Terms One-third cash, and the remaining
two-thirds in one and two years. Title perfect. The
port and site of Brunswick hold out commercial and
maritime advantages superior to those presented bv
any other south of Chesapeake Bay. The climate is
44. .......j,, me luui-r pure. j? urtner particulars, with
Will be sold at the Market House, on Monday ,i
January next, at 10 o'clock, 20 acres erood LAND nil
under fence, joining the Brick Yard lands of J. E.
Patterson, sla acres cleared and under cultivation!
There is on the premises a good house.
Terms liberal. A. 31. CAMPBELL, Auct'r
Dec. 17, 1853. - ' 72-3t
Tiiomah Dkxtkk. Secretary.
December 17, 1853
C. E. LUICTE
Is receiving Distillers' Glue, Mess Pork,
No. 3 Mackerel, Scale Fish,
Club Axes, weighing from 6 to 7 lbs. ;..
Dec 17, 1853 72-4t C. E. LEETE.
The subscriler haviug qualified at December Term of
the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, as Adminis
trator of the goods and chattels, rights and credits of
the late Mrs Elizabeth Bethea. hereby nntities nil V444
sons indebted to the estate to make payment. Those
holding claims must present them within the time
limited by law, or this notice will be pleaded in bar of
a recovery. JOHX I. hcthhii
Cumber land county, Dec 17. 72-6t . "
M. HUTSON, House Painter,
Fayetteville, X. C.
December 17, 1853. -
A. J. O'HAXLOIT,
Auctioneer and Commission Merchant,
Has on hand, for sale, .
5 Hhds. Torto Rico Sugar, "
20 Bbls Coffee Sugar,
10 do. prime St. Croix Sugar.
25 Bags Rio Coffee,
80 Kegs Nails,
20 Bbls. No. 3 Mackerel, large,
15 Half bbls No. 3 do.
10 do. , No. 2 do.
20 Boxes assorted Candy,
10 " Soap,
18 " Candles,
5 Half-bbls. Snuff.
..'; " ' ;'"J -7 ,:4"-v "vv lV.:-'?J--:
v - f '
' iinM ' ''lit . '-u ijutnLt - '