North Carolina Newspapers

    Syr WV -N?
tht. hthe British GerVme,;; Vhat ae treaty which they i f ,,h!,St "or m "later has been instructed to!cdged.
T" .L ..- .fii etr....t.i r it.; i .... ir. .u :.t. ni.iwit ti,. . - ..jwpnpy a neutral position in reference to tne
in lu metwiLiuiu. ii ib tat; uuoy ui Hie trov- " lui-uaKc im irn iicui iii iiic i i "ioioi i-uuree is to abrogate Kru'Tf'.JIa ;,. i,-:it: - i -j- n
,,l Kv-all mon, within Jt"- v,.r t. rightful possesion of -II that PTt ion of Central treaty by mutual couse,.t. ..d J l!!'!!.1 host! tu7 atJ Canton. h? J
. V .-' : , .'. - f ' . ; .m..r...,. ri.i,.i. ,., ;.- - ,,.-.. n,i ..:. i - - - praie wim ine British and French mini
aid in alleviating the sintering ot the people -V , i .i V . - 1- ""V -i'-jr - ic , - ,ne promptly, all diffi-i feters in all neacefnl me-isuresto secure lv
...... i?. .. r xi.. i.A. idt te of the treaty; in fact that the treat v s a, m Centra America wnnia u .. . ... Pfacnl. meawtres to secure iy
oeuineu u Wt-rp.uu oi uxe virtaal recognition on the part of the United hly ere this have been adjured t sat f !? ' P" k ,0 J
and to provide against a recurrence of the at(.a nr fh r..ri,r r n-.-...1. I t;.. nfK...i ... ".J . to tIie SdlIc-icomn.erce which the nations of the world have
i -x tt e , . , . ... -- --' uiub uiiiMiii eimer as " i.ii iaiiii:. i lie time urn
same calamity. L nfortuuatelv. in either - ' r . . l""e PP'
, f " , - , " . ji iui, m tne exiensive coast ot : in meaning ol the Clayton and Rnl-
aspect of the case, it can do but little. Central America, sweeping round from the swer treaty would have been devoted to this
lha:3 to the independent treasury, the llio Hondo to the port and harbor ot San Jo!in praise w. rthy purpose, and the task would have
government has not suspended payment, as' 'je Nicaragua, together with the adjacent Bay .bee" the more easily accomplished becanse ihe
it i"'"pt".-u to uu uv uie lauure oi me i -p " vumpHraii veiy small portnm "'wrwioiwe two countries in Central Ameri-lof the powers they represent
DciuK.3 in loo i li win continue to discliarge I" m oiraoom ana uupe Uon-jia laeniieai, Uemg confined to -securing salelpnYe cannot fail to feel a deep interest in
tta Habnitioa fr. ihn rwola a:i lnraS. t rflllPiTS Over nil tUa
sv ww khv I" UII1V 1X4 tXU. (111U OU'fl .
. . . 1 1 .O 9 Ipnnrrlin. yv 4 1. T x .1
.imiuniK i iiicii uonstiiciir.n t.ii
Idoes no more than simply proh bit them .., from nevertheless not refiise to contribute
ver. its .disbursements in coin will pass in
to circulation, and materially assist in rea
toring a sound currency. From its
credit, snouia we De compelled to make a
temporary loan, it can be effected on advan
tageous terms. This, however, shall, if
possible, be avoided; but, if not, then the
amount shall bt
ble sum.
I have, therefore, determined that whilst
no useful government works already in pro
gress shall be suspended, new works, not
already commenced, will be postponed, if
this can be done without injury to the coun
try. Those necessary for its defence shall
proceed as though there had been no crisis
in our monetary affairs
iiut tile federal ov-eminent, cannot, do
much to provide against the recurrence of
ex-njng evils. hveil if insurmountable. cr.n
tons ne permittea 10 wnnnoia. rrom assur-1
ances received, I entertnin no donht that the
three ministers will act in harmonious concert
to obtain similar commercial treaties for each
jEtranms overall the routes across the Isthmns.f that concerns the welfare of the independent
treaty w mist entertaining- these sentiments, I shsll .republics on onr own continent, as well as ofl
antfthe empire of Brazil.
x.enainptneir possessions m Central America reasonable adjustment of the Central AmericauSLOiir difficnlties wi:h New Granada, which at
1 uicprem limits. it is not ter, much - questions which is not practically iiiconsistentTshort time since bore so threateninjr an aspect.
to ansert, that it in the United States the treaty 3wth the American interpretation of the treaty fare it js to be hoped
had been considered susceptible of such a con-'Overtures for this purpose have been recetitlyJment lVa -manner jos
in a lair tram oi senie-
jnst and honorable to both
pnuunuii, it never would Have heen nesrotiated made iy the British jroverument in
niuier 1 lie authority of the Prfei'flnt m tvAni.i flsinrit whir-u T .-xir:;.. iiv i-.;...... . mu-.r-i 1 ninrlimr
limited to the lowest po3si-l1.nave.ece'vef, tt,e approbation of the Senate Jwhether tliis renewed effort will result in sticfthat of Panama is the Teat highway between
a..v, u u,cihi wiivu-iion 111 me united States 3 ! pivparea to express an ooitiioti.Vthe Atlantic and Pacific over which a larsre
Wiis, that heii our government consented toA irief period will determine. -"portion of the commerce of the world U
violate its traditional and time honor.! nnlicv 1 More tlmn forrv vears asro. on tlipHrl f3irr-1i MAtUxM.A ti TT..it0 Stntps ar mnre
aim lO Stipulate With ft forpitrn o-avrrnino,,! IOJO. (vOlltrrPSS l;tsscn ill! rtct fifpMfinrr tr . 1 1 : J vl nf In nra. liw.w bv tlift rifv it-i t i.n t n,roiMnir i r
a - - - n"v limn i.i fi 7 7. f- ' - to aiiaiirt My III! tTt'I It'll IIIUII UIIV 'i"n n en i iuui u y vwi-iiuivii vi v uvi j vhi i
never to oecunv or aenmrp tprrltarv in tin limit. mis to sidinit (lifir vjssfl h.iUti with- t L,;f-d : r j ;tr oil tho-i n fnu IQtlif liVl.i-narir nput-;nno -tli tor.
1 - ...v.j I I V 3 .... . mi LIIUII i JN' I V f 1 1 1 I If I rtrff'lllllll 21 III I 'II II T V Ci " - I, U - vvaaw A. U 1 J IJ. V IVUU. ' HIV
: . i i - i . i tii:7. .
Central American-portion of our own
continent. fSnational iiroilm t ions the norts of the TT tliic letliinns Tt. is finr 7rifirial lexrisiature had iiMssed law w
the CfiiisiHiri t iV.t 4Vk A :c ... . i . . Mstxtu titi..i. t!.. l-.. r,. ..r..... . . ... . t . i i . i ... r i i . .i .i.?
" " ... ivi nuts narnuce wjis ma i j im- ..juit- nini- iiu uur own ves-rlufv, tlieretore, to taKe care inar iney sii'iuior tne eieciion i ueieaies on
Great Britain should, in this respect at least, neisels Irvided they woul 1 reciprocate to usnot be interrupted eitner bv invasions from our Iday of June to a convention to meet"
placed in the same position, with ourselves. Isimdar advantages. This act congrmed the Sown conntrv or bv wars between th indenend-f first Moiidav of September, for the DurDOse of
Whilst we have no right to doubt the sin-SIvci!"'u'ity " the productions of the resiKctiveSent States "of Centra! America Under onrlfrHmimr a. constitution orenaratorv toadmis-
centy of the British ffovemment in their coii-5,onMn uions who miht enter into the nro-?treatv with New Granada of the 12th Pecem-Ssion int.. the Union. This law was iu the mainith IT?,; . Stt hi.onn
on th
construction 1
J its Spll
crex-jjyn oHyygtional liank; tlns.wouiu iur-nish-no
adequate preventive" secu The
liistorv of the'last Bank of the rfiWcTStates
atjunuantiv proves trie irum ui tins acitiuu."j" i,
a bank could not, if it would, regulate
.druction of the treatv it is at the same time!
my deliberate conviction that thi
n 9ioositiouAoth to its l-itH
i mam i
o irtier iurrt:eiiiitiisvriiii
were instituted between the two, jrovernments
Fnr I he nnrnnsp if irsuill of removillir thCSC
.... ...... , , j,irr!ih(ri.ii;i.iil
difficulties; and a treaty having this laudable!., ' ,
r i
the issues and credits of fourteen hundred
State banks in such a manner as to prevent
the ruinous expansions and contractions in
our currency which afflicted the country
throughout the existence of the late bank,
or secure us against future suspensions. In
1 S2." an etlbrt was made bv the Bank of
- i
England to curtail the issues of the country
banks under the most favorable circumstan
ces. The paper currency had been expan
ded to a ruinous extent, and the bank put
forth .all its power to contract it in order
to reduce trices and restore the eqnilibri-
- - - 1 x
urn of foreign exchanges. It accordingly
commenced a system of curtailment of its
loans arid issues, in the vain hope that the
jointstock and private banks of the kingdom
would be compelled to follow its example.
It found, however, that as it contracted they
expanded and at the end of the process, to
employ the language of a very high official
.authority "whatever reduction of the paper
circulation was effected by the Bank of
England (in 182o) was more than made up
by the issues of the country banks."
Iiut a Bank of the United States would
not if it could, restrain the issues and loans
ot the State banks, because its duty as a
regulator of the currency must often be in
direct conflict with the immediate interest of
its stockholders.
restrain and control another their interests
17th of October, 1856, and was submitted ly
the President to the Senate on the fillowin
10th of December. Whether this treaty, ei
ther in its original or amended form, would
have accomplished the object intended without
ivin Inrth to new and embarrassing compli
cations between the two srovernments, may per-i
haps be well questioned. Certain it is, howev
er, it wns rendered much less objectionable iy t lie
I'lilTerent amendments made to it bv the Sei.ate.
The treaty, as amended, was rati6ed by nie on
the 27th of March. 1851, and was transitu' ted
to London for ratification by the British jrov
erument. That srovernment expressed its wil
lingness to concur in all the amendments made
by the Senate with the single exception or I ii-a
lanse relatinsr to Ruatan and the other islanilsl
in the Bay of Honduras. The article iu the,
original treatv as submitted to the Senate, af
ter reeitinsr that these islands and their inhabi
tants "having been by a convention bearing
Idate th 2Tth day of Anurnst, 1856, between!
her Britanic Majesty and the republic ot Hon
duras, constituted and declared a free territory
under the sovereignty of the said republic of;
Honduras," stipulated that "the two contract.-;
;nr parties do hereby mutually engage to re-j
cognise and respect in all future time the inde-
dependence and right of the said free territory;
us a part of the republic of Honduras7
Upon an examination of this convention le-
rween Great Britain and Honduras of the 27th
of Angnst. 1856. it was found that, whilst df
lo.seu arrangement with Uie U nitca States ler. 1 84fi we are bonnrl to "nnrantv
I lie act of .May 24. 18:28. r. moved t his re-trnlitv of the Isthmus
UfCiion, anl Hu rei.y off. r l sinilfaT'T Brrt,ich the Pfliii)nifi rnilrnn
.'ijiii iptj.ty il 1 1 I'll t rrrm i x. M , .
lO nie oi ijrin oi men- caiois. vi -, Jew (iranada has and. nossesses over thi &t;A
thtse priucipies. our coiMiti-rcial ' treaties - and iTerritorv " Tliis oblir.atioti is founded nnon
nts have bet!, founded, except w xtu'enn;va!ec.ts crranted bv the treatv to the sov
iet us li':e tliat tliis e.( cut i-'. lemmont and the peonle of the United States
mav nt tontr exst. U nder these circumstances. I recommend tc
t)iir relations v;ii Russia remain, iis the(v
the nen-sfair and just; and it is to be regretted that all
- - . 2 ..... . mm
of IVniama, thromrh the qnaliued electors had uot registered them-IIov the msijCongress, requiring that the const i-
in passes, as wen as seives an" '"u unuer us provisions. - lltution oT"M innesota'"shoud be subject to'
A MBhe t9&e the electioirfor
ex ten
delegates an
whose avowed ooject it was if need be to
down the lawful government by force, and
establish a government of their own under the
5so called AopeKa cou&utution. ihe Persons1
fcCoinrrpss the passage of an act authorizing the attached to this revolutionarv organization'
prcdeces-Biami and navMi forces ot the united Mates to3 The act ot the territorial legislature had
-gear i'
nave cvt been, on the iint tr en.:iy too'mg.rrestdeiiT, in case ot necessity, to employ the abstained Irora taking any part iu the election.
a I fe preset:! hmiifi'iir, as well as n;s
ors, have never tailed, when the nccasnui in
f'ni'.nl tit ; ii - (i i f.; t tiikiia ff-iAxtd tt i ! I trt finr iinji-n iixl
try, and their friend hip has always been r ion for the security of any other route across convention : aud in the excited
hiiriily appreciated by t e government and peo-Jthe isthmus in which we may acauire an inter- afeelnig tlirouUout Kansas an apprehension
pie of the United States. jest ,v.v treaty. aextensively prevailed that a design existed to
v th t ranee, onr ancient relations of friend-1 With the independent republics on this con- jforce upon theia a constitution in relation to
ship still continue to exist. The trench gov-stinent it is both otir duly and onr interest toisiavery against their will. In this emergency
Bat the Water Witch was not prop-ltrue to the resolution adopted on a celebrated
erly speaking, a vessel-of-war. She was a small x occasion recognising "the right of the people of
steamer engaged in a scientific enterprise lo-gall the Territories including Kansas and Ne-
tended for the advantage of commercial siaiessbraska acting through tne legally and fairly
'o-eneralTir. Under these circumstances,! am3expressed will of a majority of actual residents,
and wnenever tne number oi ineir lnhat Hants
jnstifies it, to form a constitution, with or with
out slavery, and be admitted into the Union
upon terms of perfect equality with the other
States." f
The convention to frame a const itution br
Kansas met on the 1st Monday of September
last. Ti-ey were called together by virtue, of
the territorial legislature, whose lawful exist
ence had been recognised by Congress in d:fft i
ent forms and by different enactments A laree
did lot
i - 0 iri tutrn iDiitrn Ulltl IU
vote at the election for delegates; but an op
portunity to,.4o this having lieen fairly afford-
eti. ineir reiuai to avail ijreniseivfs ot their
right cotilA in no manner a Q.Xct h legality of.
the cfHyTTtion.
This CjOStion prnceeded to frame a con
stitution TorKansiis, ami finally adiourtVd on
the 7th day of No-vember. But Jittle ifTBlciflfy
occurred in the convention, exrft onthe sul
ect of slavery. Tlutrjilrl!iat flie gene
. . . -m mi i mwrn m mm
provisions of ourftntr State coust it uti
are so similar-aaand, I mav add, srt excellent -
that the differeTHfcaJietween tlratu is not essen
tial. Under the earlier practice of the irovtm:-
irient, rio constitution framed by the convention
of a Territory preparatory to ititndniission into
snuiuiiteu to
constrained to consider the attack upon her us
unjustifiable, and as calling for satisfaction
from thi? Parae-ua van eoverunient.
o . , t
Citizens of the United States, aiso, who
nr.nx .t.ihlii:ii0H in biKiiies in Pariiruav. have
had their nronertv seized and taken from them
, JT . . . . , .1
and have otherwise been treated oy me aumor
'ties in an insuItHisr and arbitrary manner,
which requires redress.
A demand lor these purpose win ne maai
. , . :i: . Tl;.. ...ll
ui a nrm Dm couciuaiory sini. mu in
. 1 1 I I ,t ilta h.vuitntlVn .- - .i ... , -
llie more pruua'iijr iib lautcu n xjavu....,lr0)rlln n, lIjt, (;u:7.ens oi IMHisns
snail ne auuiunijr iu uc umci utc.ii.aiu i"cin111K properto rejster their i ames
event of a relusal. lins is accoru.ugiy recom
It is unnecessary to state iu detail the ah. r
ming condition of the Territory of Kansas at
the time ot my inauguration. lite opposing
Spartie then stood in hosti e array against eacii
other, and any accident mirht have. rchrhted
A i Mh - F x1t ft t I . 1 n H . . - t . 1 . . x- III.' . f
ftilC Liiatti ii nai, UiSiui, at lino i;i 111
cal twomeiit, Kansas was Icit without a gover
the. pepple. I trust, however, tlflatgample set
of the
y into effect this guarantee of neutrality jjoniitted to provide to submitting to the people
protection. 1 also recommend similar leg-Jthe constitution which might be. framed by the
of public
iu several recent instances which lenltivate the most friendly relations
spirit of
claring the Bnv Island to be a "free territory.
xi.. J..: ... r .1.. .,i. i;.. If. .
If we expect one agent to ,,,, riLrhts
interests - ... .i i.ill
r wn,pn irs ofvereie-n-v over mem cuuiu
must, at least in some degree, be antago-asParceiv i, 8aid to ex,-st. It divided them
wistic. But the directors of a Bank ot ihefllYom tlie remainder of Honduras, and crave to
United States would feel the same interest ami
the same inclination with the directors of the
State brinks to expand the currency, to accom
modate their favorites and friends with loans,
and to declare large dividens. Such has been
our experience with regard to the last bank.
Alter all, we must mainly rely upon the pa
triotism and wisdom of the States for the pre
vention and redress of the evil. If they will!
lifford us a real specie basis for our paper cir
culation by increasing the denomination of bank
notes, first, to twenty, and afterwards to hlty
dollars; if they will require that the banks yhallStieren
.1 .- 1 I. ... I X. I X. Jl 11 -fH
their inhabitants a separate government of their
own, with legislative, executive, and judicial!
officers, elected by themselves. It deprived
the irovernrnent of Honduras of the taxing
power in every form, and exempted the peop
of the islands from the performance of military
duty except for their own exclusive defence, It
also prohibited that republic from erecting for
tifications for their protection thus leav-!
ing them open to invasion from any quarter;
and finally, it provided "that slavery shall nt
it any time hereafter be permitted to exists
at all times keep on hand at least one dollar o
gold and silver for every three dollars of their
circulation and depositrs; and if they will pro
vide bv a telf-executmg enactment, which noth
ing can .arrest, that the moment they suspend
they shall go into liquidation, I believe that
huch provisions, with a weekly publication by
each bank of a statement of its condition, would
go Jar to secure ns against future suspensions
of ?pccie payments.
Congress, iu my opinion, possesses the power
to pass a uniform bankrupt law applicable to
all banking institutions throughout the United
States, ami I strongly recommend its exercise 3
This would make it the irreversible organic lawll
ol each bank s existence, that a suspension of
Hpecie payments shall rroducc its civil death.
The instinct of ielf-preservation would then
compel it to perform its duties in such a man
ner as to escape the penalty and preserve its
The existence of banks and circulation of
bnk paper are s identified with the habits of
people, that they cannot at this day be sudden
ly abolished without much immediate injury to
the. country. If we could confine them to their
appropriate sphere and prevent them from ad
ministering to the spirit of wild and reckless,
speculation by extravagant loans and issues,'
they might be continued with advantage to the
But this I say, after long and much reflection:
if experience shall prove it to he imposihle to
enjoy the facilities which well regulated hanks
might afford,' w-thout at the same time suffering
the calamities which the excesses of the banks
have hitherto inflicted upon the country it
would then be far the lesser evil to deprive them
altogether of the power to issue a paper curren
cy and confine them to the functions of banks
of deposit and discount.
Our relations with foreign governments are
on the whole, in a satisfactory condition.
The diplomatic difficulties which existed be
tween the government of the United States and
that of Great Britain at the adjournment ofj
the last Congress have been happi'y terminated
by the appointment of a British minister to this
country who has been cordially received.
Whilst it is g-eatly the interest, as I am
convinced it is the sincere desire, of the govern
ments and people ol the two countries to be on
terma of intimate friendship with each other, it
is aj been our misfortune most aKvays to have
had some irritating, if not dangerions outstau
tiug question with Great Britain.
Since the origin of the government we have
Ireeu employed in negotiating treaties with that
power, and afterwards in discussing their true
intentand meaning. In this respect, the con
vention of April 19, 1850. commonly called the
rbtvton and Bulwer Treaty, has been the most
unfortunate of all; because the two governments
Had Honduras ratified this convention, she
would have ratified the establishment of a State
substantially independent within her own bin-
its. and a fetate at all times snbiect to British
influence and control. Moreover, had theUr.i
ted States ratified the treaty with Great Brit
I f I I...
am m its orirmai form, we suouiu nave ueen
bound "to recognize ad respect in all futtm
time" those stipulations to the prejudice of
Honduras. JJemg in direct opposition to trie
spirit and meaning of the Clayton and Bulwer
treaty as understood in the unuea states, int:
Senate rejected the entire clause, and substitut-
1 , I rf-fr ( ll A fMT
I ft Ifl ITS KT.Pllll 11 SliniHH rPl'ULTIIILIUII ui me -
- - - - - I m
ereign right of Honduras to these islands in
the following lantruaire : 1 he two contracting
parties do hereby mutually engage to recognize
and respect the island of Kuatun, lionaco, U Ida,;
Barbaretta, Haleua, and Morat, situate in thel
Bay of Honduras, and off the coast of the re-
public of Honduras, as under the sovereignty
and as a part of the said republic of Honduras."
Great Britain rejected this amendment, as
signing as the only reason., that the ratifications
of the convention of the 27th August, 1856.
between her and Honduras, had not been ex
changed, owing to the hesitation of that govern
ment. " Had this been done, it is stated that
her Majesty's Government would have had
little difficulty in agreeing to the modification
proposed by the Senate, which then would have
iiad in effect the same signification as the origi
nal wording. Whether this would have leeu
the effect ; whether the mere circumstance ol
the exchange of the ratification of the British
onvention with Honduras prior in point of
time to the ratification of our treaty with Great
Britain would. " in effect, " have had " the
aame signification as the original wording, " and
thus have nullified the amendment of the Sen-!
ate, may well be doubted, it is, peruaps, lor-
tunate that the question has never arisen.
The British government, immediately after
rejecting the treaty as amended, proposed to
enter into a new treaty with the L nited States,
similar in all respects to the treaty which they
had just refused to ratify, if the United btatesj
would consent to add to the Senate's clear and
unqualified recognition of the sovereignty of
Honduras over the Bay Islands the following
1... 1 . 1 . - x. WJ I. . . ........ 1
conuuionai stipulation : iiencei mm so
soon as the Republic of Honduras shall have
oncluded and ratified a treaty with lireat lin-
tain, by which Ureat Britain snail nave ceded,
land the Republic of Honduras shall have ac
cepted, the said Islands, subject to the provi-1
sionsand conditions contained in such treaty. '
This proposition was, of course rejected. Af
ter the Senate had refused to recognize the Bri
tish convention with Honduras of the 27th
Amrust. 1856. with full knowledge ot its con
tents, it was impossible for me, necessarily i g
UUruilb Ui tUC UlUtieiUiia JkiiA Lwnuiuviio,
eminent nav
eed not be enumerated, evinced a
ood will and kindness towards our
which I heartily reciprocate. It is,
standing, much to be regretted that two mi-'
Hons whose productions are of such a character
as to invite the most extensive exchanges and
freest commercial intercourse, should continue
tti enforce ancient and obsolete "estrictioiis of
trade asrainst each other. Our coiuinerciu!
treatv with France, is in this respect an ex
ception from our treaties with all other coin-
Imercial nations. It jealously leuve.- discrimi
nating duties both on tonnage and on articles.
the growth, produce, or manufacture of the one
country, when arriving in vessels belonging to
the other.
With all the European governments, except
that of Spain our relations are as peaceful as
we could desire. I regret to say that no prp
irres whatever has been made since the ad-
jSjournment of Cougress, towards the settlement
if any of the numerous claims of onr citizens
gainst the Spanish government. Besides. t-heSf:
mtrage committed on our flag by the Spanish
war-frigate Firrolana.on the high seas, off the
oast tt Cuba in March, 18."5, by firing into
the American mail steamer El Dorado and de-
aining and st arching her, remains unacknowl
edged and unredressed. The general tone a.nd
temper of the Spanish government towards that
of the United States are much to be regretted
Uur present envoy extraordinary and minister
plenipoteuliarj' to Madrid has asked to be re
called i,and it is my purpose to send, out a new
minister to Spain, with special instructions on
all questions pending between the two govern
ments, and with a determination to have them
-peecnsy ano anncaoiy anjnsied, it this be pos
sible. In the meantime, whenever our minister
urges the just claims of citizens on the notice
of the Spanish government, he is met with the
oojection that Congress has never made the
We can
never fell indifferent to their fate, and must
always reioice in their, prosperity. Unfortn
nately, both for them and for us, onr example
and advice have lost much of their influence in
Iconsequeuce of the lawless expeditions wnicn
have been fitted out against some ot them with
in the limits of our country. Nothimr is better i
al'and ratification of the people
?d "-"ohip be tojrowed on
vention ot Kansas would act in aecFdaOT witIf
ytnis example touncieu as it is, on correct princi
ples; nnu nence mjr nisi ructions to Uov. Walk
er, in favor of submitting the constitution to
the people, were expressed in general and un
qualified terms.
In the Kansas .Nebraskr. act, however thU
requirement, as applicable to the whole con
stitution, had not been inserted, and the con
vention were not bound by its terms to submit,
any other portion of the instrument to- an elec
tion, except that which relates to the "domeJt.
ic institution" of slavery. This will he rendered
fit became uiy duty, as it was my uiiquestioiiablejcear by a simple reference to its lan.ruaire
hfi vino- in view the nuiou of all irood citi-M.-.. i. :i i . . . .
. o . - , , " "uo nvu iu M-piBinii'Muvery into any Territorv-
...... ;.. cmiiiiirt. m Mi Ipn itorial lnws tn pvnrpssa o..x. x 1 , .. . - J J
'cua " oun . : i iw oiute, nor 10 exciuue it there rom. lmt tr.
(calculated to retard onr steady material pro-Jany Territory or State, nor to exclude it there-Ilbetweeil master and slave and a few others
rress. or imnair our character as a nation, than
the toleration of such enterprizes in violation
of the law of nations. '
It is one of the first and highest duties of
any independent State, in its relations with
the members of the sreat family of nations, to
restrain its people from acts of hostile agsres-
their citizens or subjects. Ihe
most eminent writers on public law do not hesi
tate to denounce such hostile acts as
and murder,
an opinion on the true construction of the pro-ieave the people thereof perfectly free'tb form
visions concerning slavery coiuaiuea in tne or-yalld regulate their domestic institutions in their
game act of Congress oi the : 30tu May, 18o4 own wav According to the plain construction
uougress ucwuicu t. v.. tne-sentence, the words "dmnoct;.
meaning oi una "-c101"" -""'i ""tious ' arc limited to the familv 'l l.o
from, but to leave tne people tnereoi perfectly
free to form and regulate their domestic in
stitutions iu their own way." Under it Kansas,
when admitted as a State," was to "be received
into the Uuiou. with or without slavery, as
their i nnst itution may prescribe at the time of;
iheir admission."
Did Vnrress mean by this language that
the delegate elected to frame a constitution
robbery is!. onld decide this Question of slavery, or did
athev intend by leaving it to the people that the
Veak and feeble States like those of Central jpeople of Kansas themselves should decide this
erica, mav not feel themselves able to assert Inuestioii bv a direct vote? On this subject I
and vindicate their Hfrhts. The case would be l..!,fVR 1 had never entertained a serious doubt
ar different if expeditions were set on font land therefore in my instructions tj toveruoi
within our own territories to make private war 1 Walker of the 28th March last, 1 merely said
against a powerful nation. If such expedition jthat when "a constitution shall be submitted tol
were fitted out from abroad against any portion the people of the Territory, they must be pro
of our own country, to burn down onr cities, ftected iu the exercise of tneir right ot voting
murder and plunder our people, and usurp our jfur or airamst that instrument, and the fair ex-
rovernment, we shall call any power on earth fpression, of the popular will must not be inter-
to the strictest account for not Dreven.tinir-Jrmited bv fraud or violence.
such enormities 3 In expressing this opinion it was far from my
r. ver since me aaminisr rat-on or lietierai a;, .,, interfere with the decision of th. "
"line Ibiwti s- vt. - w ' " ,1
" Ipeople of Kansas, either for or against slavery.
ST ai T.'1..,.,.. tl,; I K.itrx. l vi'ii vs carefnllv nbslaiiie.1
on foot a military expedition within the mitsj1ltrn8ted' Wlth lhe Uuty of taking "care that
oi tne uiieu oiaies, 10 proceed rrom tnence ,0.0 uu ftll,hf..llv evecntd. mv onlv des-
airamst a nation or btate whom we areire was lhat the .,eo.,ie of Kansas should furn
at peace. 1 he present neutrality act of April j... . nPuul! .wM.n, renn.reH bv til(.
I20th, 1818, is but little more than a collection ':.. tvhx.ti.Mr fr .r.rai..t ch.verv
.UI EOIIIV .. ..w..-. . , "
. iwa ..-1 .. ii ui cii-ixtxttlt tlixxir i ill -.i irp intn ttir.
J..... : J X. t .1.1-1 , J'" -"- UlOlllll-l O.X.V..,.. V..V... .
-uen, , to empioy me laim ana Tj,,ioii. In emerging from the condition of j
anavai forces a nn tne m.iitm -tor the purpose?,. ;..i .,o"0 ;, ti1Mt rtf c.,v.u:
appropriation recommended by President PolkSof preventing the carryimr on of any such ex-s it WttaUeir duty. iu ,y opinion, to make
... ins annua, message o, member ,147, "topea.i on or enterprise trom the territories aud$kow tnt,ir wilf by t,,; vltes 0f the majority,
... . .... ;........ x. ...x ...x ti.t, ,.t .-,j-.. ..... ... .... um. me ,-,- . , direct question whether this important
ll re
uomesiic lnsiuinions," and are entirely dis
tinct from institutions of a political character
Wm ' . .t 1
iesiues, mere was no question then before
the people of Kansas or the country, except
that which relates to the "domestic institution"
of slavery.
The convention, after an angry and excited
(debate, finally determined; by a majority of
only two, to submit the question of slavery to
the people, though at the last forty three of the
- f. tl , x-tr i
nity aeiegaies present amxeu their signatures
to the constitution.
A large majority of the convention were in
favor of establishing slavery in Kansas. They
accordingly inserted an article in the constitu
tion tor this purpose similar in form to those
which had been adopted by other ten it m ini
conventions. In the schedule, however, pro
viding for the transition from a territorial
State government, the question has
itr i . t jt
Washington, acts or uongress have been in ..,.i f v-.,njll! either for or ae-amst slav.
e x - . - i i.i . .. ji'i v'i'iv. - - o
loice 10 puiiisu severely me crime ot setting , t..;s i have
X. -....J f A 1 V.. .J x.". . . .. .
inmsiati case. j similar recommenoaiionio uctaiu any vessel in port wnen there is rea-
was made by my immediate dredece-sor in his2s011 to believe that she is about to take part iu
message ot December, 1853; and entirely con-Ssuch lawless enterprises.
currinjr with both in the opinion that this in-1 When it was first rendered probable that an
- . . . a ... . - -
demttify is justly due under the treaty withlattempt would be made. To get up another
Spain of the 27th of October, 1795, I earnestly lunlawful expedition against Nicaragua the
recomfnen such an appropriation to the favor-SSecretary of State issued instructions to the
able consideration of Congress. jSmarshals and district attorneys, which were
A treaty of friendship and commerce wasSdirectcd by the Secretaries of War and the
concluded at Constantinople on the 12th De-fXavy to the appropriate armv and navy offi
cers, requirniir them to be violent, and to use
their best exertions in carrying into effect the
provisions ol the act of 1818. Notwithstand
ing these precautions, the expedition has es
caped from our shores. Such enterprises can
do no possible good to the country, but have
i I ready inflicted much injury both on its inter
wvMr at w n . ... -
sdomestic institution should or should not con-i
tinue to exist. Indeed, this was the ouiy pjs-
sible mode in which their will could be authen-i
ticaliy ascertained.
The election of delegates to a convention!
to n
ly and explicity referred to the people wheth-.
er 'hey will have a constitution "with or w ith
out slavery." It declares that, before the You-"
stitution adopted by tie convent ion 'si a 1
be sent to Congress for admission into ti i
Union as a State" an election shall lc h-hi i
decide this question, at which all thu ui
male inhabitants ol the lerntoiy a!; tl
age of twenty one are entitled to vote. Ti .
are to vote bv ballot; and "ihe ballet c. st .:
said election shall be ciuh-rsed Vn. st , ; ui i -i
with slavery,' and 'const it utun with i.o sav-
ry. " It there ne a inajoriiy in uivt-i -i uh.-
"constituiKiii with siavciy, ll en it is lo be
transmitted to Congress by hc president f tl e
convention in its original form. II, on the con
trary, there shall be a majority in lavor of the
"constitution with no slavery," "then the arti
cle providing for slavery shall be stricken from
the construction by the president or mis con
vention;" and it is expressly declared that "no
slavery shall exist in the Stale of Kansas, ex-
ember. 1856, between the United States and
I'cisia, the ratifications of which were ex-
chamred at Constantinople on the 13th June,
1857. and the tieaty was proclaimed by the
President on the 18th August 1857. I his
treat v. it is believed, will prove oeueuciai 10
American commerce. 1 he JHiah has manifested
in earnest disposition to cultivate friendly. re
b.tions with our country, and has expressed i
strong wish that we should be represented at
relit ran bv a minister plenipotentiary: and I
... .........l tt...t .... .... ... im . i... ,,-x..i.i r..i.-'v1
ettiiu iiiein i iuui nil aewiui'iiuuini .rt txx.xiiv i.xi
this purpose
Recent occurrences in China have been tin-Jibe seizure and closmtr of the transit route
avotahle to a revision of the treaty with thatathe San Juan between the two oceans
lUM MTltl. .7,..,!. I..' Tl... .
ests and its character. They have prevented!
peaceful emigration trom the United States to
the states of Central America which could not
fail to prove highly beneficial to all the parties!
jtjwiit-i-i iiei.. aii pecuniary point, oi view alone
aour citizens have sustained heavy losses fromi
mpirc of the 3d Juiy. 1844. with
he security and extension of our
The 24th article of this treaty stipulated. 4Yr aj
revision ot it, in case experience should prove
ihis to be requisite: "in which case the: twos
zovernmeiits will, at the expiration of twelve
veiirs trom the date of said convention, treati
unicably concerning the same, by means of
suitable persons appointed to conduct such ne-
otiations." 1 hese twelve years expired on,
the 3d July; but long before that period it wasJ
-ascertained that important changes in thejl
ireatv were necessary; and several fruitless at-sl
tempts were made by the commissioner of the
b nited btales to effect ciianes. Anoti;crS
effort was about to be made for the same pnr-9
pose Dy our commissioner, in conjunction with,
ihe ministers of gland and trance, but this
was suspended by the occurrence of hostilities
.n the Canton river between Great Britian aHd
the Chinese Empire. The hostilities have ne
L-essarily interrupted the trade of all nations
with Canton, which is now in a state of bloek-
ide, and have occasioned a serious loss of life
and property. Meanwhile the . insurrection
within the empire agaiust the existing imperial
dynasty still continues, and it is difficult" to an
ticipate what will be the result.
Under these circumstances, 1 have deemed it
advisable to appoint a distinguished citizen of
Pennsylvania envoy extraordinary and minister
plenipotentiary to proceed to China,- and to
ava'd himself of any opportunities which may
a view loa
commerce, an
giving bail. tor his appearance in the insufficient
sum of two thousand dollars.
I commend the whole subject to the serious
ittention of Conrres believinsr that our dutv
l . . ' J
ano our interest, as well as our national char
acter requires that we should adopt, such meas
..--.r. ...:ti I ..or i . .
uit-o u. iu w euecmai in restraining our citi
zens trom committing such out races
T .... .
i regret to inform you that the Tresideut of
rarajruay has retused to ratify the treatv h.
IWPPti tho Phlturt fitaloo ..J ll.. o. .
.. ... V.....U u.iro nnu iuui, otaie, as
amenaeo oy the tsenate, the signature of which
was mentioned in the message of my predeces
sor tn Pnmrrpea at. th. .i. x : . .
- r J. . us session in
ueeemoer isod. The reasons assigned for this
r dusal will appear in the correspondence here
with submitted.
It beincr desirable tn rl
oi . 5 V.. v - i a. hi me ntuess Oil
jime river lja tr ata and its trrbnto.;-.0 e :
.-.ut.u xsj IUI IIUVI-
ration by 'steam, the Ur,ited States steamer
V ater itch was sent thither for that purpose
in 1S03. I his enterprise was successfully car- wi. uutii reoruary, io&, when, whilst in
the peaceful prosecution of her voyage up the
rarunn wittm
. steamer was ured upou by a
Paraguayan fort. The fire was rotnLt. ht
yas the Water Witch was of small force, and not
... o.s.,t:u iur ouensive operations, she retired
from the conflict. The pretext upon which
the attack was made was a decree of the Pres.
must necessarily take place in seperate dis-lcept that the right of property in slaves i.ow
tricts. From this cause it may readily happen,
as has often been the case, that a majority of
the people of a State or Territory are on one
side of the question, whilst a majority of the
treoresentat i ves trom the several districts into
which it is divided may be upon the other side.
This arises from the fact that in some districts
delegates may be elected by small inajorites,
whilst iu others those of d'.fiereut sentiments
may receive majorities sufficiently great not
only to overcome the votes given for the for
mer, but to leave a large majority ot the whole
people in direct opposition to a majority of the
delegates. Besides, our history proves that
inuuences may be Drought to bear on tne rep
resentative sufficiently powerful to induce him
to disregard the will ot his constituents. The
truth is, that no other authentic and satisfac-l
tory mode exists of ascertaining the will of a
majority of the people of any State or Teritory
i..a rt;i.ilvfiimoslt and contradictory con-llwhich might be contained in a future conven-loffer to effect changes in the
. ' .. in, fi.o. nnr? mnot im iinn .i n tilt inn bet wnen the same narties. to sanction them 3f-.i vnrable to American commerce
U mm vuv u uwawuuvHHw ' - - - ' W' J - . . . -w - - L
f..,..t;ntiR noon its first and most
.s,.Ix Whilst in the United States, we Le-Hin advance
Keved that this treaty would place both pow-
uj uie 151.1puia1.10n
existitar .treaty
He left thel
TTniteH States for the olace of- his deat.inMnr.
The fact is that when "two nations like Great lin Jiify last, in the war, steamer -Minnesota.
Die lesilxr lift tin
a-.c..t ..t v..... fM...... ' J:., . .Jou an important and exciting question like
Sihat of slavery ih Kansas, except by leaving it
tu a direct vote. How wise, then, was it for
ti t. '.
uourress to pass over an subordinate and in
termediate agencies, and proceed directly to
the source ot all legitimate power under our
"low vain would anv other principle prove
iu practice 1 This may be illustrated by thd
lease of Kansas. Should she be admitted into
the Union, with a constitution either maintain
ling or abolishing slavery, against the sentiment
of the people, this could have no other effect
than to continue and to exasperate tne exist
ing agitatio t during the brief period required
to make the constitution conform to the irre
sistable will of the majority.
The friends and supporters of the Nebraska
and Kansas act, when struggling on a recent
occasion to sustain its wise provisions before
the great tribunal of the American people, uev-
er differed about its true meaninjr on this sub
ject. Everywhere throughout the Union they
(publicly pledged their faith and their honor,
liat they would cheerfully submit tne question
llof slavery to the decision of the bona Jide peo
pie of Kansas, without any restriction or qaiin-
catiou whatever. All were cordially uuitea
upon the great doctrine of popular sovereignty,
WHICH is mt: nai uimgiuic ui uui tree niaiuu-
tions. 11 a u it men ueen insinuated trom any
dent of Paraguay of October 1854, Frohibitingiith the requisitions of the organic law for the
foreign Vessels of voar frnm natrirattinr the! . . x- :.. .1 i. t.l
. . " ' rt c fimemoers 01 a kuiucuhuh, t.iiereaiier 10 oe
1 mat otaie. AS raracuay, nowevr, . ,.twrl to w;t ,h0 Id the Question of Urv
was the owner .of bat one hank of the fiver offfponx ti,e oeoole. and to substitute their own
ers upon an exact equality
that neither will ever "occi
Britain and the United
:wo nations like Ureat 1" juiy ia, m me war. sxeamer Minnesota.Uthat name, the other belonging to Corrientes. a"Hifo7that of a legally
States, mutually de-.Specal ministers ic i China have also bee. , atate of the Argentine Confederation;: eTai
the or-
held under
ascertained maj
in ttwx TWritnrv shsill in 110 manner be inter
fered with;" and in that event it is made his
duty to have the constitution thus raiuieu
i" . . t "I ' 1
transmitted to the Congress or tne uinieu
States for the admission of the States into the
At this election every citizen will have an
opportunity of expressing his opinion oy tn
vote "whether Kansas shall be reccneu n.n
the Union with or without slavery," and thus
this exciting Question may be peactiuiiy set
tled in the very mode required by
iranip lnw The election will
Fegitimate authority, and if any portion of the
inhabitants shall refuse to vote, a ia.i uj.p
tunity to do so having been presented, tins
will be their own voluntary act, and they alone
will be responsible for the consequences.
Whether Kansas shall be a iree 01 a n..v
State must eventually, under some auinoiuj,
be decided bv an election; and the question can
never be more clearly or distinctly preseuicu
the people than it is at the present moment.
Sliould this opportunity be rejected, she may
be involved for years in domestic u.BlW.u,
possibly in civil war, betore hue
make up the issue now so fortunately tendered,
aud again reach the point she has already at
tained. . , .
Kansas has for some years occupied too
much of the public attention. It is high tune
this should be directed to far more important-
objects. When once admitted inio um t -.
whether with or without slavery, mc
beyond her own limits will speedily pass aj,
and she will then for the first time be .elt, a
she ought to have been long since, to maib"
her own affairs in her own way. n
tntinn on the snbiect o' slavery, or on any oilier
subject, be displeasing to a majority of the peo
ple no human power can prevent them trom
Changing it within a brief period. Under these
Icireumstaiices. it may wen oe quesiioneu wai
ter the peace and quiet of the whole country are.
I - . .. ? . x .1 U t rw 1 1
not Of greater importance man nic mric
porary triumph of either of the political parties
in Kansas.
Should the constitution without slavery be
adonted by the votes of the majority, the rights
of property in slaves now in the Territory are
reserved. lue numoeroi mese is very bih:i,
but if it were greater the provision would be
Jeaually just and reasonable. These slaves were
brought into tne lermory uuuci tuc whom
tion of the United States, and are now the
j-fcf h Air mQctprs The point has at
. or lesunjo or ercrci? any dominion OTfrlnxa nto'ming the mot friendly relatrons withand France.
decree would be obeyed cannot be acknowl
uoritvll; 5.1. u AoAA hv the hitrhest tri-
al T IIX V .. , . . . . . I. T I , J . - KlRHUI-il .. .. ,
. . . . .v. wx . 1 rr i i .. i- 1 111 ii'i in bxiuii. - v..- w a . . a. irinL-i i . w i in. u. a 1 1 . . ri aaA Br a.. . f- -i .1 . 1. 1 n 1 1
; ,, ft-.;r i U . - j r ....-. mw u r nn ntorl it the frovernmentR of drt-at Rrit,;.. '.. . .. " .oi n -! -v..-...-vm.. ,...--..-- lo-.ywuj. nf tha pniintrv ana n- Tu "- r....x,
u,:,,;!!. .,,. wrjsiruu-, ...,..u , a .x.,., rigni 01 us gOTernment to exnect-tDa sucu a i;,1Et,,tlv rejected. Everywhere thev reThainwlI"""-' V ..i..xiftr-v of Bo-7er--itrn.
. . . iujmm..- a 0 .rxix-i mar wiien u lumiimhj vm

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