North Carolina Newspapers

    NORTH CAROLINIAN.
FAYETTEVILLE, N CL
SATURDAY, January 29, 1859.
The Legislature. We refer the reader to
the proceedings of this body in another column.
Ia the absence of our correspondents' favors, we
have availed ourselves of the reports in the Stand
ard and the Wilmington Journal that our reader?,
to whom we forward the " Carolinian " on Friday,
may be kept advised of what is going on at the
Capitol. A report has reached us that the Coal
fields Bill passed its third reading in the Commons
on Wednesday, but not in time for the particulars
to have reached us on Thursday. We may receive
confirmation of the truth of the rumor by the
mail to-day, (Friday.)
The Monroe Doctrine.
We Lave frequently heard the question asked.
" What is the Monroe Doctrine and what gave
rise to it?" For the information of those ot our
leaders unacquainted with the origin and bearing
of this Question, re have prepared the following
article :
In the fall of 1822, a Congress of Sovereigns
was held at Verona, consisting of the Emperors of
Russia and Austria, the Kings of Prussia and Sar
dinia, and the representatives of the respective
majesties of Great Britain and France, together
with the representatives of other kingdoms of Eu
rope of Josser note. The attention of the Con
gress was mostly occupied with the condition of
Spain, at that time governed by a legislative body
styled the Cortes, King Ferdinand having been de
posed by his subjects. The monarchs present at
the Congress, and the representatives of France
were of one opinion, and took the ground that Spain
under her then existing government, was an exam
ple dangerous to the " divine right of Kings," and
urged that the Cortes should be dispersed, and Fer
drnand restored to the throne of his ancestors
England protested against this proposition, but her
protest was overruled. By the consent of the
other continental powers, a French army invaded
Spain in the spring of 1323, overthrew the popu
lar government, and Ferdinand was re-established
in all his power. The Spanish -American colonies
were at this time in revolt against the authority of
the mother countr', and in December 1S23, Spain
addressed a formal invitation to the courts of St.
Petersburgh, Vienna, Berlin, and Paris, invoking
tlie aid of those powers to enable her to retain her
sovereignty over her American possessions. Eng
land strenuously opposed this proposition, and her
prime minister, Mr Canning, informed the French
minister in London, that England would consider
any foreign interference, either by force or by
menace, in the dispute between Spain and her col
onies, as a motive for recognizing the independ
ence of the latter without delay. At this juncture,
Mr Canning applied to Mr Richard Rush, the rep
resentative of this government at the Court of St,
James, for an expression of the opinion of our gov
ernment as to the policy of the allied powers. Mr
Rush applied to the President, and in December
1323. Mr Monroe sent the message to Congress,
which contained the " Monroe Doctrine," It af
firms that this government had participated, nei
ther directly nor indirectly, in the political affairs
of Europe, that with the action of the allied pow
it " r j -r- , .
ers on me vonuneni oi i.uropo we womu not in
terfere ; but if those acta affected the countries
and governments in America, we must intervene
to prevent such actions. Mr. Monroe declared at
the same timo that any interference by European
powers with the existing state of things on this
continent would be considered as a " manifesta
tion of unfriendly disposition towards the United
States." England's remonstrance and the " Mon
doetrine" had the desired effect. Bolivar and his
compatriots triumphed.
Subsequently, in tlie controversy then pending
between this country and Russia with reference to
our boundary and her's in the Northwestern part
of this continent, Mr. Monroe again declared his
famous doctrine, that the American Continents,
in consequence of the free and independent con
dition they had assumed and maintained, were
henceforth not to be considered subjects for future
colonization by any European power." This went
a little further than England had anticipated. She
regarded the doctrine with favor when applied to
the other European powers ; but this universality
of application was never dreamt of by Mr. Canning
when he applied to Mr. Rives for an expression of
the views of the American government. Such, in
brief, is the much talked of and important " Monroe
Doctrine.".
The Broken Bell. The following paragraph
appeared in a late number of Winner's European
Times:
"We regret to state thatfhe big lell. tho gift of
C ardinal olsey, and the pride and boast ot Sher
borne, terminated its career on Sunday evening in
last week. As the ringers were ringing for service
it cracked so that it is no longer fit for use."
How many important vents have occurred, in
England's history since the old bell was placed in
the tower at Sherborne. The name of the giver,
Cardinal Wolsey, forcibly recalls to mind the in
stability of human greatness. Once the dispenser
of fortune and office to hundreds, basking in the
sunshine of royal favor ; but fortune and favor for
sook him in the hour of his necessity, when on his
death bed he said to Cromwell,
"Had I but served my God
With half the zeal I served my king,
He would not in mine age
Have left mo naked to miue enemies."
The Right Way. Last week, when the news
arrived of the final passage of tho Railroad Bill in
the Senate, it was not received with any noisy
demonstration on the part -of our townsmen. An
enterprising firm laid a fine pavement of brick in
front of their store a proceeding on their part
both laudable and suggestive.
The special term of the Superior Court for
Pr.iven Count v met on Monday last. 'The New-
bern Progress says, the cases of n. P. Whitehurst j
against the North Carolina and Fayetteville Insu
rance Companies are first on the Docket, and were
probably token up ou Tuesday.
i v Mr.Set7ard's Bill v "
Mr. Seward has introduced a bill in the Senate
amendatory of the' act which prohibits the slave
trade. It would have been more consistent in the
Senator had he left this matter in other hands. He
could not vote for that constitutional and just meas
ure, the Fugitive Slave Law, because it was not
in accord with his peculiar views ; how can he ex
pect to punish others who act unconstitutionally
when they but follow his own example. He has
certainly not forgotten the "old adage, "Practice
what you preach." We give a short sketch of the
bill from an exchange paper :
This bill provides that, in addition to the vessels
now employed, the President is authorized to em
ploy fen steam .vessels, to be approved by the
Secretary of the Navy, and to cause them to be
properly equipped, to cruise on any of the coasts
of the United States or Cuba, or the coast of Af
rica or elsewhere, where he may judge attempts
may be made to carry on the trade in contravention
of the acts of Congress ; confers the powei on the
Legislature of any State to pass liws prohibiting
foreign slave trade within its limits, and to declare
such punishments as they may deem expedient,
consistent with the Constitution of the United
States.
No vessel is hereafter to. depart from any port
in the United States for the Coast of Africa until
due notice is given of the intended "voyage to the
District AltomeV of the United States for thajt
district : the district attorney shall cause an exam
ination to be made, to be continued until her actual
departure, to ascertain whether she be designed,
directiy or indirectly, tor the slave trade. V esseis
attempting to depart in violation of this act to be
declared forfeited to the United States, with their
stores and equipments. Any vessel departing
without clearance to be forfeited. No vessel be
longing to any citizen of-the United States shall
on any pretext depart from any foreign port to the
coast of Africa, when such vessel shall have been
sold after her departure, without first returning to
the United States and being duly registered and
licensed anew in some port of the United States.
Respectability.
In England, where there is a distinctive
line
drawn between the various grades of society ;
where a privileged class is one of the " time-honored
institutions ;' where the titled nobility enjoy
privileges more than the commoner though those
exclusive rights are frequently questioned by the
restless democratic spirit of the masses, neverthe
less, they are tolerated as among the recognised
institutions of the country. There are only cer
tain employments which the scions of nobility will
deign to accept as suited to their sphere. Prom
inent among these is the army. Aristocratic
Young England glories in an epaulette, although
the mechanic's son, by deeds of daring in pres
ence of his country s enemies on the battle-field,
or for some other qualities which mark the charac
ter of tho true soldier, may occasionally be re
warded with a commission, and rank with him who
is heir to an earldom. The mechanical pursuits,
however, are considered improper fields in which
to develope the genius of nobility ; it must have
something speculative, ideal, dreamy. We expect
to find a different state of things in our republican
countiv, where every man is a sovereign in his
own rirht: whei'e the law makes no distinction be
tween man and man, and where the rapid advance
ment of the country has been achieved by the
stout arm of the mechanic, the indomitable energy
ef the cultivator of the soil, the activity and en
terprise of . the merchant, and the wisdom of men
of practical mind, who have guided with steady
hand and firm resolve the councils of the nation
There is great fear that wealth and luxury are
making sad havoc among tho sons of many of our
citizens all over the country. There- is an almo
universal desire among the youth of our land to
avoid being employed, as their fathers were, on the
farm, in the counting house, or in the workshop.
where the country would be benefitted by their
productive industry, from a preconceived notion
of a want of respectability. Tho ranks of the
learned professions are overstocked with many a
youth, who, had his talents been exercised in the
field of mechanical labor, might have proved an
Arkwright, a Fulton, a Watt, a Whitney, or pos-r
sibly a Franklin ; but whose talents, for lack of
practice, have remained undeveloped, and the pos
sessor spent the best portion of his manhood as a
briefless lawyer, or a patientless physician. The
army, too, (not the ranks,) has its attractions for
the youtliful aspirant after respectability, and af
fords another melancholy proof of the desire on
the part of young men to avoid those employments
which tend to increase tho productive wealth of
their country. We have an illustration of this in
the fact, that for the ten appointments of cadets
to the West Point Academy at present at the dis
posal of the President, there are more than five
hundred applications on file. The list of appli
cations is increasing daily, and will probably num
ber thousands before March next, the time when
the appointments will be made. We opine a false
idea of respectability has more weight with these
embryo heroes, than any " thirst for glory at the
cannon's mouth." Verily, we live in a progressive
age.
Opinioxs of the Supreme Court. By Pear
son, L. J. in Owens v. Kinsey, from Curri
tuck, judgment reversed and venire de novo ; also,
m uunes v. Jones, from Hertford, affirming
the judgineut ; also, in Branch & Thomas v.
Morrison, from Harnett, affirming the judg
ment. By Battle, J. Tu Jarman v. Humphrey,
from Onslow, affirming the judgment ; also, in
Little v. Hornback, from Anson, affirming the
judgment, also, in McKenzie v. Buchanan,
from Richmond, judgment reversed, and judg
ment that plaintiff take nothing by his motion.
By Rcffin. J. In. llolton v. McAlister,
from Richmond, affirming the judgment ; alsoj
den ex dan Barbeeu. Taylor, from Wilson, affir
ming the judgment. Ral. Standard.
Dr. E. H. Andrews of this place, the collec
tor of the queer, curious and wonderful in
western North Carolina, has shown us an
engraving of the Lord's Prayer and Ten Com
mandments, written in a space easily covered
vvith a sixpence. The art of cutting steel
with such minuteness and precision is really
wonderful. The engraver is an American.
Charlotte Democrat.
Duncan K. McRae, Esq. We learn that
this g-ntleman has decided to remove to Knox
ville, Tenn., where he has formed a copartner
ship in the practice of law with Mr Baxter
formerly of North Carolina. Ibid.
A Model County. The county of Jones,
has not a single person in its Jail or Poor
House.
No Nomination yet. Advices from Baton
Rouge, 25th iust., state that no nomination
for Senator has yet been effected. In the last
ballot Air. Beniamin was dronned and "Mr
Sandige lacked two of nomination,
The total revenue of Maryland the past fiscal
year, was $1,019,228,95, of which the sum of
$434,141 31 Avas lrom the city of Baltimore.
C o rrespo ndence.
. 1
l-Voin our Washington CoIWSnmlnt ,
Washington- City, Jan'y 24, 1859.
no. IV.
Meaning of G. TV. C, attaclted to Treasury
Documents in Mr Madison's day The
adding of Sonora and Chihuahua will
make us square as to Territory--St. Dof
mingo in a row Spain may follow suit-
Cuba ready to decare her independence:
God grant her t,ucress Wilmington, ard
N. C. interested Mr Brandis report made
Counter move of Mr Ritchie How wilt
the Blach Republicans move ? No doubt of
the South. ' In vain wisdom. cries aloud1'
Facfic Rail Road Douglas and Fitch.
Pistols and coffee Blademfairv or bacTcl
out Investigate
W 1 , B
aiion into the Nmii Depart-
mcnt Diylomalic reforms
" Cutting down
and drag out "-Melancholy accident -
good boys stay at home at nights. '
Following the programme laid down in my
last, I shall commence with the news current
here from abroad, then in Congress, then the
Executive, and close with matters and things
in general. If
The recent rumors from Mexico have not asl
yet settled as to tne permanency ot the power
of the President rnlers. OF one thing we are
certified, that as Mr Randolph used to say. of-
the Treasury when Mr J. W. Campbell . presi
ded over it and signed his official reports w
only his initials, the government wants cash.
and it is probable that the idea that we can
purchase Sonora and Chihuahua whenever we
desire to do so, has some foundation. Our
northern border being now 49 deg. on the Pa
cific, a lino due west from the month of the
Rio Grande, in 26 deg., would give compactness
and shape to our Republic. Of one tiling be
assured, that Gen. Robles, when Minister from
Mexico here, was ready to grant us this terri
tory, because it was no nse to them, and they
needed the money ; and his party are now in
power.
If Mexico continues her present distracted
condition, with no commerce, no agriculture,
she will soon lose her place as one of tlie family
nations
If this event occurs, and her political I
sues, we claim the kgal right to ad-
demise ensues
minister on the estate as next and nearest kin
and will not allow any strangers to intermed
dle. The last steamer which arrived, brought news
that a part of the government of the Island of
St. Donrngo had changed rnlers, and that the
empire of His sable Majesty, Faustin the First,
had been ended by a revolution. It will be
recollected that this Island has, since 1181,
(when the negroes rose on their French mas
ters, under Toussaint) been under black rnlers.
Till 1844 the Island was under one govern
ment, but the cruelty of the blacks drove tho.e
of Spanish and Indian blood to revolution, and
it now is divided into two separate States. Tlie
west known as Ilayti, under tlie dynasty of
Faustin Solouque, and the eastern portion a
Republic under Santana as President.
The state of Ilayti comprises one third, the
Dominica Republic two thirds of the Island,
which contains about 20,000 square miles : po
pulation 800,000 of which Ilayti has 650,000
and Dominica 150,000. The climate of the
Island is delightful. Its productions of coffee,
sugar and tobacco have fallen off sadly,
since the miserable and corrupt rule of the
Black race which degrades and blackens every
thing it touches. The English have rouch.ju.-i
fluence by their consuls and other diplomatic
agents. A few years ago Gen. Cazeneau of
Texas, was sent down by the U. S. to secure a
spot to establish a depot for coal for our Stea
mers. He made a treaty, but as soon as it
was known, the English and French Consuls
interfered and prevented its ratification by the
Dominican authorities.
The news from Spain is that O'Donnel the
present Minister of Foreign Affairs is furious
upon the proposition to purchase the "ever
faithful island" of Cuba, and that the Cortes or
Congress are unanimous in backing him. It is
also announced that when Mr Preston, our
Minister arrives, he will not be received as the
Envoy from the United States. AH this may
come true, aud if it does, it will only hasten
the event that sooner or later must come to
pass. When the fruit is ripe, it will fall from
the tree. Events are now transpiring in Cuba
to make this consummation of her destiny. It
is believed here, that the masses of the island
are ready to revolt against the despotism of a
government which, while it grinds them to the
dust, denies, them " life, liberty and the pur
suit of happiness." and it is said that a declar
ation of independence is already written and
ready to be promulgated.
The old fogy idea of " What will England
say ?" or " What will France do ?" has exploded.
What did England say when we purchased Lou
isiana or took Florida ? and Louis Napoleon is
too shrewd to run counter to the Democratic
sympathies in France for the United States to
oppose it. It is only with Spain and Spain only
we must deal ; and when she sees that that pos
session is last but one (Porto Rico) of her once
powerful possessions in North America, and that
by the progress of the age will soon slip from
her feeble and effete hands, this gem of the
Atilles.
The project for the acquisition of Cuba grows
more and more popular. At the North the
sentiment is one almost of unanimity. Indeed,
considering the commercial results, the North
has more interest in it than the South.
Your own esteemed State, however, is nearly
concerned. Wilmington will again realize, in
that event, much of that profitable and impor
tant trade, which so rapidly declined after the
mad policy of England in the emancipation of
the slaves in her West Indian Colonies. In re
turn for your Southern flonr, lumber and timber
Wilmington will receive rich returns in West
India produce and cheap sugars. " Let us
then, go to the death for the sugar." It has
been attempted to create a ' public opinion" on
the " ever faithful Island " antagonistic to the
policy of Mr. Buchanan. It is said the army
the people, and the " Senoritas" even have all
joined in declarations to the Mother' Govern
ment, of their loyalty and devotion to Spain
and their abhorrence of a union with the de
tested ' Yankees." Better advices expose the
fallacy of such opinions. Not less to be admir
ed is the supposed indignation of the people of
Spain at the idea of " selling Cuba" their of
fended pride. Offended pride, forsooth ! How
often lias not Spain sold part ot her domain !
Did she not sell Louisiana to France, Florida
to the United States, Jamaica, to England
port with Portugal, and suffer Gibraltar to be
wrested from her ? Can she be ashamed to do
what Bonaparte did ? The idea of Spain taking
offence at a proposition to purchase an isolated
and insular part of her domain while she rests
quietly under the subjection by England of a
part of her own soil, and is content day by day
to see the sun rise and set on the Cross of St
George as it waves from the Rock of Gibraltar I
"y it is very much like a poor and proud old
gentleman, who patiently permits au intruder
to occunv a chamber in his own domicil, while
tO OCCUPY a enauiuei. m mo uy-li -llii.ii,
he takes as an insult an offer of twice the value
for a detached out-house whose repairs quite
equal it tbey do not exceed its resources.
The committee of Foreign Relations have,
with singular unanimity of the Democratic wing,
adopted Mr Branch's report. It will be pre
sented to the House this week ; and be assured
that you will read it with pleasure and satis
faction. It will place the author among the
first Statesmen of the nation. The better opiu-
ion seems to be that this Congress will adopt
the proposition and place the amount (30,000,
000 dollars) in the hands of the President. Mr
SHdell, of La , made his report to the Senate
to-day, The President has done his duty, he
has placed the whole matter belorc the repre
sentatives of the people. Let Congress do
theirs.
From the English and French papers, while
eommentinir on the messasre. it is
is asserted that
- O - O f
the sentiments of the Message of
the President,
are not tne sentiments or voice or tne .Ameri
can people. Let the Congress respond and
then the transatlantic powers will certainly
know that we are in earnest. The minority of
the committee, throngh Hon. David Ritchie, of
Pa., and Mr Burlmgame, of Mass., and Mr
Royce of Vermont, have made a counter re
port, which makes an issue with the President
on this question. The report is able and in
genious. The National Intelligencer, in a
leader this morning, takes the same opposition.
So the issue is joined, and the case submitted.
Is it not strange that parties, like some reck
less individuals will not profit by experience ?
he old federal party were demolished on the
est ion of Louisiana. The Clay party defeit-
ed on that f Texas, and the remaining squads
disbanded on the acquisition of California. The
report of Mr Ritchie alledges that " we have
territory enough." So said the Federalists as
to Louisiana, Florida, and Texas. It will be
the great trump in the game of 1860, and no
Dalghren bomb thrown into a camp of China
men, could have produced more fluttering than
thi3 has among the opposition men, black re-
nnblicans. whisrs. and crowd. The Tribune of
r 9 a w
New York is frantic with rage. It " meets
this guzzle at the outset." " The concoctors of
this nefarious scheme are not idiots, as they
would at first seem to be." " What, then,"
exclaim our free-soil philosophers, " is the mean
ing of all this ?" " We answer, it is a dodge
of Htical jrarabiersa bold
n SQ0 frear them .
stroke for triumph
" It is not intended to acquire Cuba, but to
diffuse among the ignorant, greedy, and unprin
cipled portion of our people a notion that the
acquisition of Cuba would be a capital thing if
it could be accomplished That is enough lor
the present purpose. How Tyler tripped up
Yan Buren in 1843-44 by pressing the annex
ation of lexas how Pierce swept State after
State in 1852, through the secret organization
and machinations of ' The Order of the Lone
Star,' or whatever was the name of the fillibus-
ter organization at that time our Slidells and
Jeff. Davises understand right well. Let them
only, with the help of sundry whiffling journals
in this city and elsewhe.re, inflame the popular lust
of acquisition, and direct it toward ' the geni of
the Antilles,1 and their battle for 1860 is half
wen.
This is a fair specimen of the manner in
which the Cuba bill is received by the Black
Republicans of the North. They have the sa
gacity to see in the proposition an appeal to
the progressive heart of the country, against
which no party or politicians can stand.
Whether Congress acts on Mr Buchanan's bill
or not, at the present session, is of immaterial
moment. Tlie issue has been made up for the
country, ana tne acquisition oi tnoa nas now
mounted to the crest of questions connected
with the struggle of 1860.
I shall now for the present, leave Cuba,
promising to send you Mr branch's report as
soon as it is published, which presents the
question in all its important bearings.
Enough has transpired to prove the correct
ness of the opinion hitherto expressed to you
that tho Pacific Railroad will not pass this
session ot the foenate. mere is aouDtiess a
maiority for the principle : but the conflicting
interests will prevent anv one route beino-
I - ml
adopted now. It is reported that iq the exec
utive .session ot tne feenate on t riciay last, a
serious difficulty grew up between Mr Douglas
and Fitch. Fitch charged Douglas with nt
tering a falsehood and it is believed that he
will call Fitch out, unless explained or apolo
gized for.
The House has raised a committee to inves
tigate into matters in the Navy Department,
as regards the letting of certain contracts for
machinery, &c. But it will end in smoke.
Gov. Toucey the Secretary is too pure a man
to soil his hands with any thing wrong.
Ihe strike at the diplomatic and consular
list in the House yesterday was rather small
business likely to result in no practical re
form and only calculated to delay the action of
Congress on.the appropriation bills. We spend
less in diplomacy than any other civilized
nation on the globe of half our population, and
can well ailord to spend more than we do
Probably it would be as well for those who are
so nervous on expenditures, to aim at higher
game. Surely there is plenty of it afloat, even
for our microscopic marksmen. It is worthy of
remark, that some of the gentlemen most active
in tins crusade on the JJipIomatic bill, were the
most zealous friends the late Pension bill had
in the House " straining at gnats and swal
lowing camels." Whai a farce !
The Diplomatic service of the United States
is something as a auaint old author describes
Jtoatrmtionj r '
v". - " Marriage is such a rabble rout,
. ;r That those who are in, would fain get out'
And those who are out would fain be in."
Our Ministers and Consuls are the worst
paid men m our service. The mistortune is
that it is discovered too late. The Minister of
France or England at Washington is paid more
than our President. Our Consuls abroad get
in debt because of the deficiency of their sal
ary. It our triend Mac escaped at 1'aris :t
is remarkable. Mr locker, Consul at Liver
pool is here, and declares that the salary can
support no one who discharges its duties, jvir
Garnett of Ya., who has made this move,
should consult his brother Virginian.
The weather is intensely cold.
John Woodhouse Heart, son of Mr. Heart
once of the Charleston Mercury, dui now iea-
nr at th. nnrner of G. near 15tb street, in
this city, came by his death on Thursday night
in a fearful and extraordinary manner.
It appears that Mr. neart left the house oi
his parents on Thursday afternoon, stating
that he intended to spend the night at the
house of Mrs. Walker, a relation of his, living
on Lstreet, between 4th and 5th. Unfortunately,
while on his way there, he was detained at
the house of another relative to whom he paid
a visit, and when he reached the house on L
street he found that the family had retired to
rest, and that all the doors were locked. He
then went into the alley, and endeavored to
gain admission by the stable door
Over this door there was an opening or tran-
som of sufficient width to admit his head, and
havio.2 clitnhfifl nn i n it l. ... 1
' v uuii uit juc- auu
one arm throno-h ?n vo ....--.,.,. ,..
tng the bolt
doing so his
CI - - w v . I vfjp v I UlliUO bV li.
.-- -. - - -
nibiae, ami while in the act of
feet slipned and he
under thrfchm and on the back of the neck by
a Tu OTe ancl w'ow, and was choked
to death, and remained thus suspended until
yesterday morning, when he was found bv a
servant who had occasion to go to the stable.
When the body was discovered it. woe. r..A
that a part of the clothinar had heen tnm ffu
a dog(not his own,) which attacked him while
ne was suspended. NORTH. STATE.
The Franco-Austrian Complication and
Political 'Complexion of Europe.
The cause assigned for the complications that
have arisen between J? ranee and Austria, and
the much commented upon scene between the
Emperor Napoleon and the Austrian Minister
at the New Year's levee is, as our readers al
ready know, the rejection by Austria of certain
propositions concerning reforms in Itally, and
particularly the Roman States, for which pur
pose the Yienna Cabinet had been asked to use
its influence with the Pope and the King of
Naples, France promising the withdrawal of
her troops from Rome, on condition that the
Austrians evacuate the places they hold. This
explanation, we have not the least reason to
doubt, is substantially correct so far as it goes,
but it only touches the surface of things The
traditional policy of France in reference to
Italy is well known. It was, for a time, real
ized under the first Napoleon who had conquer
ed the Peninsula, and made it a dependency of
France. His consolidation policy the Cabinet
of the Tuilleries still pursues, and, as may re
conceived the jiSjtrian ruhjn Italy is an ob
struction in its way-which the present far-see
ing and energetic ruler of France will spare no
effort to remove, peaceably if he can, or should
a favorable opportunity present itself, forcibly.
Such an opportunity would be afforded, if, for
instance, now that France has her hands free,
the Italians, who do not love the French, but
most intensely hate the Austrains and their
weak and cowardly tyrannical rule, were to re
volt against the latter. Such an event, consid
ering the state or fermentation prevailing in
the Peninsula, may be expected at any mo
ment, and Napoleon who knows this well, pre
pares himself for contingent events. The word
"reform "from the Imperial lips, though it
means nothing else in its ultimate object, than
the substitution of the Imperial absolutism of
France for that of Austria, sounds well in the
popnlar ear, and the scene at the Tuilleries,
the reproachful tone used by the Emperor to
wards Uaron Von Mubner, were evidently in
tended to surround him, in the eyes of the Ital
ian people with the halo oi a champion of the
rights of Italy. The Emperor courts popular
ity with the Italians, as the Czar with the
Christians in Turkey, and for similar reasons.
He does not intend, perhaps, to encourage
thereby the elements of discontent in Italy, so
as to precipitate an outbreak, but only means
to be ready for such a contingency. He can
hardly have expected that Austria would com
ply with his demands, and the failure of the
negotiations, which procured him the opportu
nity he sought, was probably all he cared for.
These complications do not, indeed, in them
selves portend war. They are merely the
straws showing whence the wind blows, but
even as such are full of significance. They in
dicate the great political development which,
for generations past, has been going on in the
Old World, and which must be clear enough
to the student of history and the intelligent ob
server. The tendency of things is evidently
towards consolidation of the three great domi
nant races of Europe, each having, like the
United States their "manifest destiny." Franco,
the leading power of the Romani race, pursues
a. policy which looks to the ultimate absorption
of the Spanish and Italian nationalities, related
to her by ties of blood and a common religion.
Russia, representing the Sclavi race, labors to
extend her influence and sway over the Sclavi
provinces of Austria, and as the dominant
Greek-Catholic Power over Turkey, Greece,
etc These are the two great movements in
the East and the West, between which Ger
many is hemmed in as between two fires, and
it is therefore that the latter, which represents
the third or the movement of the Tentonic
races, embracing Denmark and Scandinavia
has, in all general European wars, as in the
seven-years' war, the Napoleon. c wars, etc., al
ways looked to an alliance with England. This
general outline gives the clue to all minor po
litical combinations, and also the present good
understanding between France and Russia, the
agitators of the one in Italy, the other in Ser
via, and other parts of Turkey. They, have
similar interests, which fact Napoleon I. spared
uo pains to imoress Alexander, of Russia, with.
When Napoleon III. allied himself with Eng
land, and threw his forces into the Crimea to
bid halt to the march of the Muscovite upon
Turkey, it was not, as has since transpired
plainly enough, to save Turkey, but rather to
show what power there was in France, with
the ultimate object of determining the condi
tions under which each Power should pursue
its own nolicvl The policy of both is hostile
to Austria, who, vulnerable on two points, and
otherwise weak, would long since have been
attacked, and would have succombed. but for
the German Powers with Prussia at their head,
and England to sustain them in case of emer
gency, and the dynastic as well as powerful
monetary interests, which have thus far man
aged to keep in check the aspirations of France
and England. Whenever a conflict should
take place between France and Austria in
Italy, or eminent danger of it should present
itself, we may look for a combination of Eng
land, Prussia, the German States and Austria;
for Prussia, thongh the successful rival of Aus-
tria for the supremacy m Germany, is compell
ed to stand by her, whenever the ascendency of
France or Russia, or Loth together, should im
peril the independence of Germany, and threat
en to disturb, what is called, the European bal
ance of power. Pennsylvanian.
A letter from Paris, in the Independence
Bel"-e represents that Prince Napoleon had
stated to Lord Cowley, the British Minister,
that the Imperial Government is ready to
abandon the present system of negro immigra
tion, provided Great JJntain will frankly un
dertake to assist France in obtaining coolies
for the French colonies from the British pos
sessions.
Great agitation still prevails in the Paris
money market, and in political circles, in re
gard to the Emperor's late remark to the Aus
trian Minister, expressive of hi3 dissatisfaction
with the Emperor of Austria. It is thought
that Europe is on the eve of a general war.
In a late debate in the Spanish Chamber of
Deputies, Marshal O'Donnell declared that
Spain would never abandon the smallest por
tion of her territory. The following resolution
was unanimously adopted: "Thft Cnno-r0c
declares that it has received with satisfaction,
the declaration of the Minister of Foreign Af
fairs, and that it is disposed to give to the Gov
ernment its constant support in order to main
tain the integrity of the Spanish dominions."
President's Message.
To tie Senate of the United States :
I transmit herewith a report from the
Secretary of State in answer to the resolu
tion of the Senate of the ISth instant, re
questing the President, if not incompatible
with the public interest, " to communicate
to the Senate any and ail correspondence
between the government of the United States
and the government of her Catholic Majesty
relating to any proposition for the purchase
of the island of Cuba, which correspondence
ha3 not been furnished to either house of
Congress." From this it appears that no
such correspondence has taken place which
has not already been communicated to Con
gress. In my late annual message I stated,
in reference to the purchase of Cuba, that
the " publicity which has been given to our
former negotiations on this subject and tho
large appropriations which may be required
to effect the purpose, render it expedient be
fore making another attempt to renew the
negotiation that I should lay the whole sub
ject before Congress." I still entertain tho
same opinion, deeming it highly important,
if not indispensable to the success of any.
negotiation which I might institute for tho
purpose, that the measure should receive tho
previous sanction of Congress.
JAMES BUCHANAN.
Washington, Jan. 21, 1859.
Washington, Jan. 24, 1S5.
Senate. Mr. Slidell, from the Committee
on Foreign Relations, reported a bill grant
ing $30,000,000 to facilitate the acquisition
of Cuba by negotiation, as recommended
by the President. Tlie report assumes that
the acquisition of Cuba is a fixed principle
of American policy, and its accomplishment
is only a question of time. Cuba might be
acquired in three ways. First by achicv
ing its own independence, in which case tho
island would soon be annexed. Second
conquest, vthich would involve oeneral war.
Third by purchase, as now proposed. Tho
President wants it only by honorable means,
except in case of overruling necessity, as a
measure of self-defence. The report urges
Congress to sanction the proposed renewal
of negotiations by passing the bill.
House. Discussed the Consular Diplo
matic Bill.
Mr. Branch, from the Committee on For
eign Relations, reported a bill similar to
Slidcll's. The Committee hoped there never
would be a necessity to seize the island, but
if it should occur, it should be only on tho
basis when all other means to acquire it
otherwise had been exhausted.
The Culture and Preparation of Cotton .
At thejusual weekly meeting of the Society of
Arts, held in Loudon, on Wednesday evening,
the 22d of December, Thomas Clcgg. Esq.,
in the chair, the paper read was " The Culturo
and Preparation of Cotton in the United States
of America," by Mr Leonard Wray. The au
thor began by dwelling upon the importance
and magnitude of the cotton trade of this coun
try, and its present state of dependence on the
imports from the United States. This source
of supply might at any time, by unforeseen cir
cumstances, be cut off, and he was happy to
6nd that so much attention was now being di
rected towards providing what seemed to be
the natural remedy for such a state of things,
by the encouragement of cotton culture m the
numerous colonial possessions of Britain, in the
negro territories on the West coast of Africa,
and iu other suitable localities.
The cultivation of cotton, however, was
something new to the Brtiish colonist, aud, in
deed, to the British nation altogether; and
Mr Wray having had many opportunities of
becoming acquainted with the subject, , hat
thought that an account of it, more especially
with a view of obtaining a tolerably correct
estimate of the relative valne of free and slave
labor, would prove interesting to tho society,
and useful to the country at large. It was re
markable that the cotton plant, with its well
known product, also yields a very pure oil, sta
ted to be equal to that of tbfc olive ; an excel
lent, oil cake for feeding, and a fibre from the
bark, which might probably be found to be of
importance. The auxiliary products should
certainly be borne in mind ; but in all calcula
tions of produce from a cotton plantation, they
seemed to have been almost entirely ignorant
hitherto, although yielding, in many cases, as
!arre a monev return to the planters as that
from cotton itself.
In giving his stated account of the vanoas
processes involved in cotton cultivation in the
United" States, Mr Wray drew particnlar at
tention to the additional value which slave fa
bor required from the constant and steady
training which the negro undergoes throughout
his whole life, in all the various branches of
his employmeut, the result being that he be
comes a most handy, skillful and efficient work
man. He thought there could be no greater
error than to say, as indeed has cften been
said, that slave labor as it exists in the South
ern States, was merely that of a set of barba
rians, urged on Dy tne wnip ; labor which could
be excelled by white men in the proportion of
one of the latter to three of the former. On
the contrary, he was of the opinion that if snch
negroes could be had in our colonies, aud would
work as they do on the cotton plantations, thev
would be far more valuable than white laborers.
We might, therefore, truly say that the Amer-
can cotton planter Lad cheap labor, because
it was really so well trained and so good, so
incomparably superior to mere brute strength,
bunglingly and wastefully applied.
In reviewing the capabilities of some of the
principal British Possessions for the growth of
cotton, the author said be would abstain from
touching upon India, as that would form tho
subject of a subsequent paper, to be read be
fore the society by another gentleman ; but he
drew particular attention to the colony of Na
tal, a residence of some years in which enabled
him to say that there was hardly any other
part of the world which combined so many ad
vantages, or was so peculiarly adapted for cot
ton cultivation. In conclusion, he pointed out
the advantages which steam machinery might
afford in carrying on this culture in our own
colonies ; indeed, he thought it was principal
ly by its aid that we might be enabled to main
tain a successful competition with the trained
slave labor of the Southern States of America.
European limes.
The London Times of the 8th inst., feels
certain that the Emperor's speech was made
with a view of learning how the great Powers
would receive the project of a French interfer
ence in Italy. The result of the appeal has
been, happily, most decisive. This notion of
proposing himself as the champion of Italiau
independence is one of the greatest of his latest
failures, throngh the increasing, suspiciou with
I which the imperial policy is regarded.
    

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