Hi Was a Ha
II Misery II
Mrs, F. M. Jones, of 111
Palmer, Okla., writes t I I
II H "From ihe time 1 en- II jl
I ■ tend into womanhood M U
I ... I looked with dread I I
I from one month to the I
I I next I suffered with my I I
I I back and bearing-down R I
|U pain, until life to me was [|| J|
I a misery. 1 would think 111
111 1 could not endure the |
H pain any longer, and I UI
IflV gradually got worse. , ..ARM
■ Nothing seemed to help |[j|
I me until, one day, . „ * 111
111 I decided to
The Woman's Tonic
I took four bottles,"
111 l '^ rs " J oneß K MS on to ||
II HI say, "and was not only 111
■ U greatly relieved, but can UfU
I truthfully say that I have I
"It has now been two HI
I | years since 1 took Cardul, I
|| and lam still in good
health. . . I would ad- HI
I vise any woman or girl 111
to use Cardul who is a 111
Hflfl sufferer from any female HHR|
If you sufferpaln caused 111
H I from womanly trouble, or I
I if you feel the need of a I
W I good strengthening tonic 111
KU fobuildupyourrun-down (fly)
■ system, take the advice HH
H of Mrs. Jones. Try Car- |
dul. It helped her. We yl
RJm| believe it will help you. BH
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THE ALAMANCE GLEANER
Report On A System of Sanitary
Sewers For The Town
of Graham, N.C.
BY SOLOMON-NORCROSS CO., CONSULTING ENGINEERS
ATLANTA, GA. _ .
To THE HONORABLE MAYOR
!■ V AND COMMISSIONERS OF THE CITY OP GRAHAM, N. C.
In conformity with your instructions, we have made a survey of
the City of Graham, and outlying section, for the purpose of determining the |
best manner for providing the City with adequate system of Sanitary Sewers.
Attached hereto is our report, with estimates of cost, and such
other information as you will need in presenting this matter to your citizens
The study of the sarvilUry and topographical features, both in the
city and surrounding country, has been th rough, and we believe tliat a sewer
system cor.eiructcd as r'.''i>mm'hded in the accompanying plans and report
will best serve the present need of the city and anticipate the probable needs
of/ihe future, as far as it is reasonably possible.
Under authorization granted by the Honorable Mayor and Commis
sioners of the city of Graham, on September 12, 1919, Surveys and Investiga
tions were made from which were prepared preliminary plans and estimates
of cost for the construction of a Sanitary Sewerage System.
The result of these investigations, together with Preliminary Plans
and Estimates, a resubmitted herewith:
CITY OF GRAHAM, N. C.:
Graham is situated in the Haw River Drainage Basin on a ridge be
teen Town Branch and Little Alamance Creek. The General elevation of the
city is between 600 and 650 feet above sea leveU It is suburban and residen
tial in character, the principal industries consist of four cotton mills, widely
separate, except for two, and these with their contiguous operatives home
for three mill centers.
The corporate limits are for the moat .part south of the Southern
Railroad and comprise an area of about 960 acres. About 60 pfer cent, of this
has been developed by streets, and the remainder is in farmland. One prin
cipal throughfare, Main Street, runs from the railroad, in a southeasterly
direction,, to the center of the city, and thence southerly to the Court House
Square and continues to the south corporate limits. Graham is the County
Seat of Alamance County and aside from tilts cotton industries is the center of
a well developed agricultural section.
Buildings as a rule are substantial and well kept, Streets are well
maintained. Natural drainage conditions are excellent, but with the excep
tion of a few individual cases, no attempt has been made to provide for the
sanitary disposal of sewage.
The City is for the most part situated on ridges dividing Town
Branch from Dye Branch and Little Alamance Creek: Main Street is located
along the crest of the main ridge, running North and South; another ridge
leading to the West along College Street, and another to the East along Har
din Street, divides the city into four seperate drainage districts.
The Northwest district (A) slopes rapidly to the Westward and
drains into Little Alamance Creek, the Southwest district (B) slopes to the
Southwest, and drains into Dye Branch, the Southeast district (D), drains
gently to a tributary of Town Branch, and the Northeast district (C) slopes
to the Southeast and is the source of Town Branch. In general the difference
in elevation between the low points in these districts and the ridge is about
Four natural drainage districts are thus formed with Main Street
as the approximate dividing line, North'and South, and with East Hardin
and College Streets as the dividing line running East and West, respective-
Town Branch is seen, by refering to Plate No. 2, to discharge into
Haw River, about three and one half miles from the city, whereas the waters
of Little Alamance Creek flow about six miles before reaching the river.
The population of Graham in 1890 was 991, in 1900, 2052 and in 1910
2504: A very slow growth is shown: Improvements in sanitary conditions, to
gether with the development of the textile industry, should, however, add ma
terially to the population within the next few years.
Based upon census records, the population of the City in 1940 would
be less than 4000, if past rates of increase were maintained. However, after
consideration of the development of Graham in the past two years, and the
iccent general rapid increase in the Cities and Towns thruout the South, Chart
No. 2 indicates that it is reasonable to expect that the City will develop ap
proximately as shown.
In the design of the system, a growth along these lines was con-
and the>City will be amply served by the construction of the system
as shown upon the accompanying maps.
Most of the sanitary sewage is at present disposed of by cesspools
or vaults. In the business section, a sewer leading from the Court House
Westward to Dye Branch, affords some relief to that locality, and a aewer
discharging towards Town Branch, serves a few homes north of East Har
din Street. Two mills discharge their waste Tind sewage into Dye Branch,
another into Little Alamance Creek, and another to Town Branch. The dis
charge of this sewage has always been a source of trouble and of some
The discharge of raw sewage practically within the city limits forms
a menace to the health of the community, and is extremely objectionable and
.detrimental from the standpoint of the future growth and expansion of the
CStyi Under certain atmospheric conditions the odors from cesspools and
sewage are very noticeable and give rise to conditions no longer tolerated in
WATER SUPPLY: V_
Water for Graham is furnished the City by a private corporation,
The Graham Water and Electric Co. The supply is obtained from deep wells,
pumped into an elevated steel tank, and distributed by gravity thru cast and
galvanized iron mains: The Company reports at the present time a daily
consumption of approximately 300,000 gallon*.
The consumption will probably increase after the installation of
sewers, but the water should be able to meet any anticipated demand of the
near future by drilling one or more additional wells, and also adding one new
deep well pumping head. The addition of this new pumping head, and one
or more deep wells, properly equipped, would provide sufficient water for
some time. * " '
Graham, N. C. is one of the few American municipalities that can
boast of a fully metered water system. Proper maintenance will prevent
excessive waste of water, with its consequent load on the sewers. We have
assumed in our calculations an average per capita per day consumption of
100 gallons. Experience has shown that this figure is higher where water
meters arc in use.
BASIS FOR DESIGN:
With a present pcpu'a'Jon of about 3000, and an estimated popula
tion of 10,ni.0 m 1940, we nav •Ic.'igncd for a lav tmum consumption of 100
gallons per capita daily. Records of American municipalities of this charac
ter indicate that only about 75 per cent, of the total water used reaches
the Sewerage System. This would mean,with the entire City sewered, that
at hto present the daily volume of sewage would be 225,000 gallons, and
750,000 gallons daily in 1940.
GENERAL PLAN: ,
Because of the natural division of the city by ridges, practically at
right angles with each other, the collection of all sewage into one outfall by
gravity was considered too costly to be undertaken.
The general schemes were investigated which will be called Plan A
and Plan B. Plan B contemplates the collection of all sewage from the East
side of the City, that is from Districts "C" and "D" into one outfall, as shown
on Plate No. 2, this outfall to run along Town Branch to Haw River. The
sewage from the West side, Districts "A" and "B", would discharge into out
falls leading into Little Alamance Creek, and Dye Branch, respect ively.
Theee two outfalls would meet at a Sewage Disposal Plant to be located
near the mouth of Dye Branch. Here the sewage, after being treated by Set
tling Tanks, Filters and Chlorine, would be discharged into Little Alamance
GRAHAM, N. C., THURSDAY. JANUARY 15, 1920
Under this scheme the shortening of the outfall along Little Ala
mance Creek, by using a cut off, as shown on Plate No. 2, was considered.
| The Sewage Disposal Plant in this case would be located about one half mile
north of the mouth of Dye Branch, and on Little Alamance Creek.
Under Plan "A" the sewage from the East side is collected as in
Plan "B", the sewage form District "A" is intercepted by a collecting well
•t Whitsett and North Sts and pumpted by automatic controlled electric pumps
thru a four (4) inch cast iron main to a point on Whitsett St. east of the rail
road Spur. Here it would be diacharged into the Collecting system, and flow
to the Town Creek Outfall. District "B" would be intercepted by a collect
ing well at Elm St. near Dye Branch, and pumped by uutomatically controll
ed electrically driven pumps, thru a six (6) inch cast iron main to the corner
of Maple and Elm Streets, Where It would, like District "A", be discharged
into the Town Branch Outfall:
Because of the largge volume of water in Haw River,the discharge of
Graham,s sewage would not constitute a nuisance. The dilution would be so
gre*t that this volume of sewage would not be objectionable.
From the standpoint of initial cost, and operation, the discharge of all
sewage along Town Branch into Haw River was considered best, and plans
for the proposed System were developed accordingly.
The system as disigned will permit all of tho developed sections of
the City being sewered immediately, and extensions to the undeveloped areas
may be made as conditions warrant.
Should it not be deemed expedient to construct ~ all of the proposed
system at this time, certain latrals in the sptrsely settled sections may bo
omitted without impairment of the system.
As a rule the mains will be laid along the center of the streets, so as to
afford equal service to all property. In order to avoid the tearing up of pave
ment, however, on improved streets the sewer will be placed along the side of
the road metal, and service laterals will extend to the opposite side, so
that all buildings will have easy access.
In Main Street, between Hardin and Pine Streets, and around the
Court House Square, the conduits can be laid between the curb and sidewalk.
The minimum size of pipe to be used is 8" and will range from this to
.1£". Flush tanks to insure tho flushing and cleaning of sewers will be plac
ed at the head of all lines. Manholes will be constructed at all intersections,
changes in line and grade, and at frequent intervals on long lines.
As previously stated the topography divides the city into four drain
agedistricts: The Northeast District "C" (Plate No 2) will discharge its
sewage from Albright St. and a point between Hill and Travora Sf to the
Outfall along Town Branch; District "D", or the Southeast district, will dis
charge along Mellville St. to a point midway between McAden and Pine, and
thence Northeasterly and East of the cemetery, to the Town Branch Outfall.
District "A" or the Northwest District, will drain to Whitsett and North
Street, where the sewage will be pumped to the Collecting System on Whit
sett St East of the Railroad Spur. District "B", the Southwest district,
will drain to the Dye Branch, at Elm Street, where the sewage will be pump
ed to the Collecting System at Maple and Elm Streets.
The sewage /from the entire city will, therefore, be discharged thru
one Outfall along Town Branch and into Haw River.
The Whitsett St. Pumping Station would.be called upon to pump not
in excess of 50,000 gallons per day. The total head that the pumps would be
required to operate against would be 40 feet: The sewers would empty into a
Collecting well and when this well became filled to a certain elevation an au
tomatically controlled electrically driven pump would be thrown into opera
tion and force the sewage thru a four (4) inch cast iron main to the Collect
ing System. Pumps and motors would be installed in duplicate, to insure
certain operation. It is estimated that 12 K.W. hours would constitute the
power comsumption per day for this plant: As the city grows the pumps
would be required to operate for longer periods and in proportion to the
amount of sewage received.
The Pumping Station at Elm Street and Dye Branch would receive
about 110,000 gallons per day: The general arrangement of the plant
would be the same as the Whitsett St. station except that pumps would be of
grater capacity and would be required to operate a 63" head. About 40 K.
W Hours would constitute the daily power consumption of this plant
The total powAr consumption fdr both plants, therefore, would be
about 52 K. W. Hours.
These plants would not require an operator in constant attendance: A
visit once a day by some official or employee of the city to oil and inspect
equipment would be about all the attendance required.
HAW RIVER OUTFALL:
The most direct route from the City permitting the construction of a
sewer outfall capable of intercepting the city's sewage at a minimun cost lies
along Town Branch. From its source in the city, in District "C" (Plate No.
2.), it flows in a general southeasterly direction to the Haw River, and dis
charges into it about two thousand (2000) feet north of the Graham and Hills
Practically all of the city's drainage west of Main St. and a small area
to the east of it, finds its way to this stream.
The elevation of Haw River at the mouth of Town Branch is 480 feet
above sea level: The elevation of Town Branch at Mellville St. is 587 above
sea level. A fall of 107 feot :s therefore avuilable for sewer grades between
the city and the river. ✓
The land along tho stream presents no unusual difficulties for sewer
work. The major portion of it has been cleared and is easy of access from
| the main highways. Most land along the stream has not been brought
to a high state of cultivation and very little damage would result to crops
during construction. After the sewer is in place crops may again be plant
ed over it.
Considerable rock is evident along the stream, but by crossing the
Creek at several points most of it may be avoided:
The length of the line from Mellville St., will be about Seventeen
Thousand Seven Hundred (17,700) feot. The average grade will be about
six feet per thousand. Pipe will be 12 inches and 15 inches in diamater.
Manholes will be placed at frequent intervales along the line to permit
of inspection, and cleaning when'necessary.
The point of discharge wUI bo just south of the mouth of Town Ilranch
and will be protected by a concrete bulkhead.
The general alignment of the sewer is shown on Plate No. 2.
Under the plan contemplating the use of two, pumping stations, the
initial cost Qf the system is less than under the plan which includes a Sewage
Disposal Mple Alamance Creek. Th«» operation of the* pUQipinjf
station is aside from occasional inspections and cleanings will
require very littleMttention. The Sewage Disposal Plant would, however,
repuiru considerable attention and would have to be carefully and rigidly
maintained to the highest point of efficiency t> results.
Because of the large amount of dye stuffs being discharged into the
sowers a perfectly clear effluent could not be hoped for at nil times, and this
might const Aut« a possible source of dissatisfaction to the property owners
along Little Alamance nr.'' Great Abimance ( reel's. The discharge, however
of all sewage thru one Outfall direct to the Huw River would eliminate
all future controversy.
It is therefore recommended that, first, because of lesser cost, second,
because of easier maintenance, and third, because of eliminations of dissat
isfaction among piypcrty owners along above mentioned creeks, that nil few
age be discharged directly into Haw River, and that the pumping stations be
installed instead of a Disposal Plant and that the System lie constructed as
outlined under Plan "A".
The prices on all materials entering into the construction of a sewer
system, as well as that of labor, have increased greatly during the past three
years: There are no apparent indications of an early deciease in the cost of
labor and materials.
All prices upon which estimates are baaed are for the best
materials and workmanship of their respective classes. Vitrified pipe will be
used in sewer lines, except at creek crossings, here cast iron pipe is contem
plated. Manholes and flushtanks will be built of concrete and brick. The
most efficient type of centrifugal pumps and motors will be installed in con
rete and brick pumping stations.
The estimates included in this report are based upon current prices, j
Unless there is a material change in prices before the contract for construc
tion is let, thrv estimate .uhmi'ted should be ressonally cl»st to 'he actual
The drawings accompanying this report are three in number. Plate |
No. 1 is a chart showing the population of the city from 1890 to the present j
with an estimate for the next twenty years. Plate No. 2 is a map, showing j
the location of the proposed' Outfall Sewers and the limits of the four drain
age districts. Plate No. 3is a General Plan of the proposed collecting sys-1
tem in the city and shows the location of Pumping Stations and Drainage Dis
tricts, in detail.
NOTE—Sec maps at Mayor's office
ESTIMATES OF COST
SEWER SYSTEM FOR THE CITY OF GRAHAM. N: C:
Cut length Price per ft. Cost.
°- 4 25211 SO.BO $20,168.80
4 " 6 25211 $0:80 16,308:65
6 " 8 9373' 1.15 10,778.95
8 " 10 4373' 1.50 6,559.50
10 - J2 2188' 2.00 4,376.00
12 ' 14 220' " 2.50 550.00 .. «-»
*■*. 10" Vitrified Pipe
ut Length Price'per ft. Cost.
°" 4 970' $1.05 $ 1,018.50 ——
4 " 6 1185' 1.20 —„
6-8 400' 1.40 560.00
8 " 10 18°' 1.75 315.00 - .
10-12 210' 2.25 472.50
- -i ■ i ' t $3,788.00
Depth Numbor Price Each Cost
o * 4 65 $ 60.00 $3,300.00
4 " 6 26 75.00 1,950.00
°- 8 23 85.00 1,965.00
8 " 10 13 'loo.oo 1,300.00
10 " 12 9 115.00 1,035.00 ,«r, »
12 " 14 » 1 130.00 130.00
52 1135 % $ 7,020.00
PUMPING STATIONS WITH DISCHARGE MAINS.
Station at Whitsett St. and North St $ 0,000.00
Station at Elm St. and Dye Branch, 10,500.00
Total for Pumping Stations $16,500.00
Total for Collecting System: $95,719.00
OUTFALL FROM DISTRICT "D"
TO TOWN BRANCH OUTFALL.
8" Vitrified Pipe.
Cut Length Price per ft. Cost.
0-4 940' SO.BO $ 762.00
46 340' 0.95 $ 323.00
1280' $ 1,076.0 C
10" Vitrified Pipe ->
Cut length Price per ft. Cost.
°" 4 500' $1.05 $ 526.00
4 *o 240' 1.20 288.00
6-8 1010' 1.40 1,414i00
8-10 -120' 1.75 210.00
10-12 120' 2.26 265.00
12-14 110' 3.00 330.00 c
14-16 190' 4.00 760.00
16-18 140' 5.00 700.00 t
i $ 4,492.00
20 cu. yds. concrete $26.00 per cu. yd. , $ 500 00
Cast Iron Pipe
6 Tons $60.00 per ton, $ 360.00
Depth N'umber Price Each Cost
0-4 5 $60.00 $ 300.00 v
4-6 ' 1 70.00 70.00
6-8 1 85.00 85.00 v «
10-12 I $115.00 116.00
— $ 670.00
Total Cost Outfall, District "D", $(i,t97.00
HAW RIVER OUTFALL SEWER
8" Vitrified Pipe
Cut length Price per ft. Cost
0-4 650' $ 0.80 $520.00
12" Vitrified Pipe.
Cut length Price per ft. ' Cost
0-4 13,040' $1.20 $15,048.00
4-6 90' 1.35 121.50
6-8 30' 1.76 52.50 , k •. yvw M m
15" Vitrified Pipe ..., , u
Cut length Price per ft. Cost
0-4 rs/or St 70 $6,062.00 . w
4-6 630' 1.85 1,165.50
Depth Number Price Each Cost
0-4 16 $ 60:00 $ 960:00
4-6 26 75.00 1,950.00
6-8 6 » 85.00 510.00
8-10 2 100:00 200 00
10-12 I 116.00 116.00
ROCK EX.O\ VATION
450 cu. yds. $5.00 per cu. yd $2,250'00
10 $20.00 $ 200.00 % 200.00
CONCRETE KULKIIEAI) WALL AT HAW RIVER
3 cu. yds. of Concrete (tC $30.00 per cu yd S9O 00
5 cu yds of earth excavation ® $2 00 per yd $lO 00
% 100 00
RIGHT OF WAY
Estimated, $1 00 per rod, $l,lOO 00
Total Cost of Haw River Outfall, $30,944 50
Outfall fiom corner Whitsett St and North St to Whitsett st
Pumping Station, % 450 00
Outfall from Allbright St to Haw River Outfall, $ 1,13600
Outfall to Pumping station on Elm Street, $ 1,500 00
Engineering, Legal and Incidentals, 10 per cent $13,675,00
Total Cost of System, $156,422 00
Collecting System, same as in Estimate No 1, omitting
pumping station, $ 79,219 90
Outfall from District D, same as in Estimate No 1, $ 6,997 00
Haw River Outfall, same as in Estimate No 1 30,944 50
Outfall from corner Whitsett & North Sts to Little Alamance
Creek, Outfall, 823 00
Allbright St Outfall to Haw River Otitfall, same as in Estimate 1, 1,136 00
Sewage Disposal Plant, 18,000 00
Outfall along Dye Branch from District B to Disposal Plant, 8,268 00
Outfall along Little Alamance Creek from District A to Disposal
Plant * . 7,129 00
Contingencies, legal and engineering, 15,262 00
Grand Total, Cost c * System, Plan B, $167,770 00
NOTE: Se« maps at Mayors office
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JOHN J. HENDERSON
Attorney- a I-La w
GRAHAM. N. C.
Office over National Bank of AlanuM
J", S. C O©TZ „
7RAHAM, .... N.JD
OFFLOO Patterson Building
Becond FI®OT. • • « • #
OR. WILL Uoi\G, JR.
. . . DENTIST ; : ,
Graham . - - - North Carolina 1
OFFICE is SIMMONS BUILDING
A COB A. LONO. J. KLMKB LOM
LONG & LONG.
lUtomxya und CcmnMlonst Law
GRAHAM, N. 0.
Restorative, will help. Not only
givea quick, sure relief from indiges.
tion'a ills— Heartburn. Dizziness,
Sour Risings, Acid Mouth, Sleepless
ness. etc.. But build* up appetite and
jnUr. system. Thoutanda KNOW.
Follow tneir lead—*
"Th K«t to lUllal" JHI
I am Improving la health alnce I
!■*«« iHt n taking your uj«hJ|clu»-. It
iiati hHped ni«i »> much. 1 can't tell
tun bow thankful I .m. I do not
fhlnk I could r-t along wllhoat It. I
!' nv ® ™?«n«»a*»d*d It to man/ alnco
II till clone lint a (j luurli good.
WILLIS TOWNS, Manson, No. Car.
WM IMr mnuy BACK
F* t*M tbet uonouoc FACTS, M.
HAYES DRUG COMPANY,
QRAHAM, N. C.
• * Hr !
Under and by virtue of tli i *.
power of wile contained in a cer
tain deed of trust executed to the
undersigned trustee on Jan u try
2(itli, I'JIH, l»y Mrs. Sallie Stiiu
iners Harrison and husband, It. J.
Harrison, for tlie purpose of tup
curing the payment of four certain ;
bonds of even date therewith,
which deed Of trust in recorded in
the Public Registry of Alamance
county in Hook of Mortgages and
Deeds of Trust No. 73, at page
264, default having been made in
the payment of said bonds anil > ■:}
the interest thereon;- the under
sigued trustee will, on
MONDAY, FEU. 2, 1920,
at twelve o'clock, noon, offer for
sale at public auction to the high
est bidder, for cash, at the court
house door of Alamance county,
in Graham, N. G\, a certain tract
or pnrccl of land lying in Boou
Station township, Alamance coun
ty, North Carolina, on the south
west side of Haw river, and
bounded as follows:
Beginning at a locust tiro at or
near llaw driver at the bridge, a
corner between l'eter and George
Summers, and running thence
north 07i leg \V 'J chs to a stone;
thence N 87 deg W 115 chs to a
cherry tree; theuce in a direct line
to a whiteoak; thenco N S7J deg
E 13 chs and 7 links to a stake in
t he big road ; theuce S I deg Ell
c hs and 40 links to a stake; thence
M 7* deg E 22 chs to a gum on
llaw river, a corner on Mary
Walker's (formerly Abuer James'
corner); thence up said river as
it meanders to the beginning,
making by estimate one huudred
acres, more or less.'
Uuder the advanced bid placed
upon said land as allowed by law
since the. l/isUsale, bidding will
begin thereon at $47.25 per acre;
said land having been previously
sold December Ist, 11110. The
trustee reserves the right to sell
only a part of said land sufficient
to satisfy said deed of trust.
This Ist day of Jan., 1920.
Alamance Ins. & Real Kstate Co.,
E. S. VV. Dameron, Att'y.
LIVES OF CHRISTIAN MINISTERS
This book, entitled as above,
contains over 200 memoirs of Min
isters in the Christian Church
with historical references. An
interesting volume—nicely print
ed and bound. Price per copy:
cloth, $2.00; giJt top, $2.60. By
mail 20c extra. Orders may be
P. J. Kernodle,
1012 E. Marshall St.,
Orders may be leftat this office. .