The Alamance gleaner !
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VOL. LVI. GRAHAM, N, C., THURSDAY NOVEMBER 27, 1930. / NO. 43.
1?Lieut Gen. Werner von Blomberg of the German army (saluting) Inspecting the cadets of the Military acad
emy at West Point. 2?First aerial view of the estate on a mountain top near Princeton. N. J., bought by Col.
Churles A. Lindbergh. 3?Larry Ritchie, one of President Hoover's secretaries, with the wild turkeys and pheasants
which he shot for the White House Thanksgiving dinner.
NEWS REVIEW OF
Farm Board's Experiment in
Stabilizing the Price of
Wheat May Succeed.
By EDWARD W. PICKARD
T T NCLE SAM, through the medium
of the farm board's stabilization
corporation, is engaged in another
noble experiment, namely, the support
of the domestic wheat market to keep
prices from experiencing unwarranted
declines. Thus far the experiment
seems to be successful, for purchases
by the corporation maintained the
price on the Chicago Board of Trade
around the 73-cent level, while wheat
in foreign markets wasvslumping far
below that point.
Before the week closed, it was esti
mated. the stabilization corporation
- ' was holding about 100,000,000 bushels,
and it was said In Washington that
the federal farm board would ask
congress In the next session for an
other appropriation of .$100,000,000 to
continue the purchasing policy. The
coarse grains committee of the board
at a session in the Capital strongly
endorsed the policy adopted by the
corporation. It pointed out that prices
of coarse grains had failed to reflect
the shortage caused by last summer's
drought, owing to the weakness in the
wheat market. A check to this decline
has been essential if coarse grain
prices are to show the strength war
ranted by the feed shortage this year,
the committee declared.
It recommended that the Treasury
safeguard the interests of domestic
producers of coarse grain "by levying
the maximum duty on all mixtures of
The government's stabilization ef
forts were at first severely condemned
by many grain men, but their success
In the admitted crisis brought about a
decided change in opinion and won
general support for the plan. How
ever, there remains the question of
the disposal of the great surplus ac
cumulated by the corporation. Wheth
er any considerable part of it can be
sold abroad is problematical, for other
countries are getting ready to prevent
this by anti-dumping legislation and
PREMIERS and bankers of the
western provinces of Canada are
doing what they can to restore wheat
prices and prevent a recurrence of the
slnmp, and with a measure of success.
On the Winnipeg grain exchange
prices were rising and greater confi
dence was manifest. The leaders up
there declared the Canadian wheat
pool would not be broken by the crisis.
The premiers of Manitoba, Alberta
and Saskatchewan were in conference
in Montreal and suggested that the
government set a temporary mlmlmum
of about 70 cents a bushel. A dollar
mlmlmum, however. Is the goal of
Saskatchewan farmers, and wheat
growers of Alberta urged a mlmlmum
of (1.15. Any plan for stabilization
by the Dominion government must
await the return of Premier Bennett
THE Immediate reason for the farm
board's action is thus set forth by
The western wheat co-operatives,
both in the United States and Canada,
have . borrowed heavily from hanks.
As wheat prices declined, and the
margin of collateral got thinner and
thinner, the co-operatives were faced
with just one thing?the forced selling
of millions of bushels of wheat. A
drop of a few cents more a bushel
might bring on a crisis of major pro
American millers have been con
tending with plenty of cancelled or
ders upon the theory that wheat can
be bought much cheaper at a later
Possibly 100,000.000 bushels of
wheat were affected in these two sit
uations. So, Mr. Legge and his ass<?
ciates of the farm board again entered
the market to stabilize prices.
WITH a stirring and optimistic
speech President Hoover opened
Wednesday night the White House
conference on child health and protec
tion which undertakes to develop into
a national welfare program the sug
gestions he made a year ago. Twelve
hundred experts have been working
on the problems he set forth at that
time and it was for this conference to
co-ordinate their solutions.
When the big gathering had been
called to order by Secretary Wilbur,
its chairman, Mr. Hoover delivered his
address in which he asked for safe
guards and services to childhood be
yond the reach of the individual parent
and which can be provided only by the
community, tl\je state or the nation.
"If we could have but one generation
of properly horn, trained, educated
and healthy children" he said, "a thou
sand other problems of government
would vanish." His solution for the
questions concerning childhood which
he said should stir a nation was
"much learning and much action."
rpOLLOWING the collapse of the In- j
" vestment banking house of Caldwell
& Co. of Nashville. Tenn., more than I
fifty banks have closed or suspended !
payment. Most of them are I Tennes
see, but some are In Arkansas. Ken
tucky and Missouri. The affairs of
Rogers Caldwell, head of the Invest
ment concern and formerly regarded as
a financial wizard, had been in parlous
state since September, when a state
bank examination of a subsidiary of
his company, the Rank of Tennessee,
caused the authorities to require a
deposit of $3,840,000 In securities to
cover liabilities. Incidentally, the at
torney general of Tennessee now an
nounces these securities are missing.
Thursday morning the Central Rank
and Trust company, largest financial
institution in Asheville, N. C.. failed to
open for business. A notice was
posted stating the hank was closed by
order of the board of directors "for
the conservation of Its assets." The
bank's latest statement of condition
showed deposits of more than $1S,
William Virgil Rell, president of the
First National bank of Horse Cave,
Ky., which closed early in the week,
committed suicide by hanging.
ENGLAND Is hearing some unpleas
ant statements concerning her rule
of India from the native delegates to
the roundtable conference In London.
And those delegates, representing the
princes, the Hindus, the Moslems, the
Brahmins and the untouchables, are
united In the demand that India be
granted at least dominion status with
Among the distinguished Indians
who voiced their country's wishes last
week were the ma ha rajah of Blknner,
noted fighting prince; Sir TeJ Rahan
dur Sapru, leader of the Nationalists;
Mr. Jayakar. a brijliant young lawyer;
Dr. B. S. Moonje. a Hindu leader;
Muharnmed All. prominent Moslem,
and the beautiful Begum Shah Nawaz.
The attitude of the Tories of Eng
land was set forth by Lord I'eel, for
mer secretary of state for India, who
surprisingly asserted that no promise
of dominion status, now or In the near
future, had been given by Great Brit
ain. After defending the British rule
in India he suggested that a beginning
be made by giving the provinces a cer
tain amount of autonomy, while main
taining a strong central government
unchanged from the present one.
There would be time enough to change
the central government after the prov
inces had proved their capacity to
rule, he said.
CTRIKKS and riots prevailed In
^ many cities of Spain for a week
and strenuous efforts were made by
the Republicans and Communists to
convert them into v. political demon
str#t Ion that would overthrow the
monarchy. Rut the government adopt
ed stern measures and succeeded In
quelling the disorders. The biggest of
the strikes was In Rarcelona. always
a center of disturbance, but after
several days its abandonment was
ordered by the labor federation that
started It. In Madrid and Salamanca
there were strikes by students, who
demanded a republic. The wiser anti
monarchists in Spain believe they will
succeed before very long in their alms
but that the time Is not yet ripe.
STENIO VINCENT, editor of the
Haiti Journal, a lawyer and for
mer diplomat, was elected President
of Haiti by the national assembly to
succeed Eugene Roy. Vincent Is one
of the most strenuous opponents of
American occupation and his victory
was rather a surprise. He Is the first
regularly elected President of the re
public since American intervention In
1010. Following the recommendation
of the Hoover commission that went
to Haiti In February, that the ofl'.ce
of American commissioner general be
terminated. Ilrig. Hen. John II. Russell
has left the island, and the new Amer
lean minister, Dann G. Munro. has ar
rived in Port Au Prince, the capital.
GKN. CHARLES P. SUMMERALL
on Thursday concluded Ills four
year term as chief of staff of the
army, and was succeeded by MnJ. Gen.
Douglas MacArthur. In his farewell
statement General Summerall spoke
enthusiastically of the reorganizations
that have given the country Its best
organized army since the armistice,
and gave high praise for the officers'
and enlisted men's intelligence, loyalty
and devotion to duty.
TO FAULTS of the prohibition refer
^ endum held hv the American Par
association show that 1.1,779 of the
members voting are In favor of repeal
of the Eighteenth amendment, while
0.340 are against repeal. Judge Orrie
L. Phillips, chairman of a subcom
mittee that handled the matter, says
that whether the association. In view
of the referendum result, will tak?*
steps toward repeal of the Eighteenth
amendment probably will not he known
until the next annual meeting In At
lantlc City next September. He also
said It was possible that no definite
action would be taken then.
SMUGGLING of llqior and aliens
by airplanes from Canada by two
powerful combines has been exposed
with the Indictment of fourteen men
by a federal grand Jury at Detroit.
Although the operations of the flying
rum runners were confined for the
most part to the Detroit area, plane
loads of whisky and fancy liquors oc
casionally were flown across the bor
der direct to fields In the vicinity of
the larger cities In Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois. It Is charged that aliens
sometimes were carried as extra car
go on the liquor trips, and that special
trips were occasionally made for aliens.
ABOUT a score of men. women and
children were killed and a hun
dred others injured by a tornado that
struck the little church colony of
Bethany, a few miles from Oklahoma
City. Okla. More' than two hundred
buildings were destroyed by the twist
er. The storm first struck a country
school house, where four pupils died.
(It mo. Wwtara Newspaper Vitas.)
AWRY GRAHAM BOMNER.
??~y" r Tom? t~'~ yi
Davtd'i adventures through the Liv
ing Map?the map which had come to
life so that he had been able to take
? trip all over the western hemi
sphere?were now almost over.
But he had been promised that be
would meet the General Overseer?
the one who bad planned the trip.
And now he stood beforo David.
David was sure he was the General
Overseer at once, and he was right.
He was a little taller than any of
the other Map people and yet he was
not terribly tall, nor was he awfully
fat, nor was he very thin.
He looked as though he were a lit
tle above them all, as though he were
used to giving orders and in being a
general. He did not wear the uni
form of a general though. In fact he
dressed much as Western Hemisphere
had dressed?In all sorts of colors
and his sleeves and his boots and
his cap were not finished oft neatly,
though his costume was handsome
with so glorious and Interesting a col
lection of colors. It was remarkable
that It didn't look absurd.
David had never seen such a cos
tume. The cut of It was very peculiar
tow. But It was distinguished looking
?there was no mistake about that?
He Stood Before David.
and this Living Map gentleman very,
?ery, very Important.
"You're the General Overseer, sir?"
"I am. I've seen you lots of times
though you've never had a good look
at me before."
David looked In his blue, blue eyes,
and back of his dignified expression
there was something which made Da
vid feel that the General Overseer was
an adventurer too, as though he knew
how to enjoy himself.
"I've been having a wonderful time,"
Dayid said, "and you've been great
the way you've helped. Pilot said
you'd sent him. and oh. you've done
Just heaps of things?I know."
The General Overseer smiled.
"Shall we sit at the edge of the
garden beyond yonder prairie and have
a chat?" he asked.
David felt honored to think he was
asked to have a chat with the very
head, topmost person of the Living
"I think it would be spleudid," Da
They went over by the edge of a
garden then and the General Over
seer turned to David after they were
"I hope you won't like me any the
less when you hear the name by which
you have always known me," he said.
His face was a little sad. and his
blue eyes weren't laughing now.
"I think you must be mistaken,"
David said. "I don't think I've ever
known you." Perhaps the General
Overseer had meant these adventures
to be for some one else!
"No, I'm not mistaken. I never make
mistakes." The General Overseer spoke
harshly. His voice sounded very stern
"You've known ine for some time
never liked me much, and I don't
know that I can hlarne you.
"My name is Geo. In my case It
doesn't stand for George. It's Just
"At least that is what you could
call me for short If you liked.
"I belong to the Graphy family.
It's a family of long, long standing.
We have the most excellent standing.
Our average is always perfect."
"He talks like a school book," Da
vid said half-aloud.
"I live In one!' shouted the General
Overseer. "I never, never err. I'm al
ways right, and that's a fact; you'll
find It so, young sir."
How It Looked to J?aa
"Mummy, what kind of dog Is that?"
asked Jean, who was watching a dog
chasing Its own tall.
( "Oh, that Is a watchdog:" said
"Then It must be winding Itself
af P cried Jean.
Financiers! of Freedom ;
t,? ? j
By ELMO SCOTT WATSON
I r r names of Thaddeus
Kosciusko and Ca$imir
I Pulaski, the two Polish
I soldiers who fought in the
H Revolution, are familiar to
? most citizens of the Unit
I ed States, hut it is doubt
ful if the name of another
U Pole, Haym Salomon.
I means anything to more
j than one out of u thousand Americans.
, Yet his contribution to the cause of
I American liberty may in some respects
be considered infinitely greater than
j those of the other two combined.
The invaluable services of this P.v
| lish Jew, whose financial genius was
| so vital to the Revolution's success,
have always been known to the schol
ars of that struggle, but the difficulties
of obtaining reliable information have
kept this inspiring story from the pub
lic and the efforts which have been
made to pay appropriate tribute to
his memory have, foiy^some unknown
reason?unless it can be attributed to
the proverbial ingratitude of republics
which so easily forget their debts to
some who labored mightily in their
cause?been defeated for more than
a century. I
Fortunate!.' for the cause of Truth
there has appeared recently a biog
raphy of this innn which enables us
to see him In his true stature as one
of the really great figures of the Rev
olution. It Is the book "Haym Salo
mon and the Revolution." written hy
Charles Edward Russell and published
by the Cosmopolitan Rook corporation.
Salomon was born at Llssa In Ro
land In 1740. At the age of thirty he
joined in the light to resist Russian
domination of Roland, was associated
with Kosciusko and Ruluskl in their
heroic but futile effort and like those
two, was forced to flee from the coun
try. He lirst made his way to Eng
land but soon left there anil came to
America, arriving in New York in 17"g.
Salomon had had considerable training
In business before leaving Roland and
he quickly established himself ns a
broker and commission merchant In
New York city. T^ie opportunity lay
at band for him to make a great for
tune but he hindered his chances for
that by one act. For the freedom-lov
ing Pole almost Immediately allied
himself in the strongly Royalist
colony of New York with a "dls
1 reputable and discredited" organiza
tion, called the Sons of Liberty, who as
early as 1734 had banded together to
resist oppressive acts by the British
lie wu a worker la their cause at
the outbreak of the Revolution, and
late In 1776 he was one of a number
of the Sons who were imprisoned b.v
the British, accused of having started
the Ore which swept New York soon
after the defeat of Washington's army
on Long Island led to the occupation
of that city by I-ord Howe. Salomon
was lodged In the I'rovost and to be
held there meant certain death for
many a patriot during the reign of
Cunningham, the brutal master of the
British prisons in New York.
Among the British troops were thou
sands of Hessian mercenaries who
could not speak a word of Kngllsh.
When It became known that Salomon
could speak German (he was also a
' master of French, I'ollsh, Russian and
Italian), he was put In better quar
ters and used as an Interpreter to the
Hessians by the British. Eventually
he was released on parole. Even
while a prisoner he was working In
tba patriots' cause for, unknown to
the British, In his talks with the lies
| slans he was nrglng tbem to desert
and pointing ont to them the bound
less opportunities which lay In the new
i country for tbem when the war was
Lower Wall Street in 1797
over. More than that lie was taking
advantage of the fact that was regard
ed as a "trusty" by the British, pass
ing by their sentries freely and going
pretty much where he pleased, to aid
in the escape of American prisoners.
After his parole, he was able again to
engage In business, using this as well
as his Interpreter duties for the Brit
ish, as a cloak for his activity in be
half of the patriots.
For two years Salomon led a seem
ingly peaceful existence, although
there was never a moment when his
life was not in danger of being ended
before a firing squad or at the end of
a rope if the British had suspected
what he was about. Then suddenly in
August, 1778, Sir Henry Clinton re
ceived word that Washington was plot
ting to burn the city, and Salomon
was arrested as the chief agent in the
plot and returned again to the Provost.
Details of this imprisonment are lack
ing, but It is believed that he was con
demned to death but managed to es
cape from the prison shortly before
the day of his execution. How he did
it Is unknown, but It Is believed that
lie bought his way out of the prison
and then used his familiarity with
British posts and British guard meth
ods to escape from the city.
At any rate he next appeared in
Philadelphia and there the most im
portant part of his career began. Al
though he was penniless, he still had
his native energy and his knowledge
of commerce and finance. So he im
mediately opened an office and began
to deal In bills of exchange and other
securities. By this time France had
come Into the war on the side of the
Americans and French money was
coming into the country. Philadelphia
was not only the capital of the newly
created United States hut it became a
prosperous business and shipping cen
ter. In its prosperity Salomon shared. ]
But this prosperity was not shared !
by the infant government, for the finan
cial policy of the Continental congress
had been a blundering one from the
start. By 1770 It was having serious
financial dilflcultles. By 1780 the sit
uation was even more critical. By
1781, with a treasury deficit of $1,000.
000, it was desperate. It was desper
ate because the Revolution seemed
-near to collnose. On the first day of
the new year the entire Pennsylvania
line mutinied and started from Morrls
town for Philadelphia to force con
gress to relieve their distress. They
had not been paid for months, they
were in rags and they were half
starved. Two weeks later the New
Jersey line also revolted.
Congress managed to head off the
revolt and soon afterwards took steps
to salvage what seemed to be a lost
cause. Robert Morris, whose financial
genius Washington had discovered
early and upon whom that leader had
leaned heavily In more than one crisis,
was called to lead congress out of the
financial morass. It was a formidable
task which faced Morris In his newly
created post of superintendent of
finance and a part of our admiration
for the men who faced the bullets and
bayonets of the British on the battle
field In the struggle for liberty should
be reserved for this man who fought
Ids fight far from the firing line nnd
fought It with what must have seemed
overwhelming,odds against him.
He was "beset with a thousand dif
ficulties and perils." writes Russell.
"He used up all his own credit; always
he was at the end of his resources,
often he was at the end of his wits.
Help from abroad came In fragments
and slowly. When It arrived It wus In
the form of bills on Paris, chiefly on
the great French banking house of La
Coulteulx and company. These reached
Morris (sometimes) from various
sources, and be must needs turn them
Proposed Statue of Salomon
in New York.
into current money before they could
be of use to him. He was virtually
at the mercy of brokers and yet set
against them. The government and
the government's officers could neve*
go huckstering the government's bills
up and down the Coffee House. Uret
ers were indispensable, but they were
reputed, probably not without reason,
to be cormoranrs; all except one."
That one was Hajm Salomon. Mor
ris' unpublished Diary, upon which
Salomon's biographer draws heavily
for his information, is tilled with ref
erences to his dealings with Salomon,
and all of them reflect the highest cred
it upon him as a patriot and a man
"One thing is made by the Diary as
plain as daylight." writes KusselL
"Hayui Salomon is the pivot of the
whole business. He stands in tli<
breach; he keeps back the massed at
tacks that make for bankruptcy; ev
erything depends upon him. It is
Haym Salomon this and Haym Salo
mon that. On some days he makes six
or seven \lsits to consult with the su
ite rintendent. Forty limes, according
to the testimony of the cashier (of the
Hank of North America, which Morris
established), between August 1. 17S2. v /
and the time Morris goes out of office,
Haym Salomon comes to bat with hb
timely check. N'o matter where be
gets the money; lie gets it and it is
this money that saves the day.
It Is impossible to estimate the full
te\t of Salomon's contribution to the
cause of liberty In terms of such in
tangibles as moral support and foster
ing the will-to-win. But there is a defi
nite record of his tangible contribu
tion, great in itself but smaller in im
portance than the intangible. For the
records show that Salomon advanced
in specie to Morris at various times
and in various sums a total of $211,678,
and although it can not be proved defi
nitely that all of this was his own
money, It is probable that most of it
was. But the main fact is that he
placed that money in Morris' hands
when It was most needed and when
few others had sufficient faith in the
I cause to risk even a fraction of that
And his reward? He died January
6, 1785, when he was only forty-five
years old. There is no doubt that the
hardships he suffered In the British
prisons and In his labors for the Con
tinental government shortened his life.
He was supposed to be rich, but after
his death it was found that he was
virtually a bankrupt He left a widow
and four children facing poverty. He
had given his all to the cause of lib
erty. 14He died without formulating
any claims for reimbursement for the
suras he had advanced." writes Russell.
"In the opinion of later investigators
he had entire confidence that when the
government should be established. It
would pay Its obligations to him.
As for iiis "entire confidence" that
the government would pay Its obliga
tions to him, they were never realized.
For more than 80 years his heirs tried
to get some recomj>ense from congress
but they never succeeded. **A repub
lic soon forgets P