The Alamance gleaner
*? ?' - m
VOL. LIX. GRAHAM, N, C., THURSDAY JANUARY 4, 1934^ NO. 48.
I ' ?
of the \ Q D ^
E. W. PICKARD
Jan. 1?President Hoover's commis
sion on social trends reported.
Jan. 4?Eight hundred enraged Iowa
farmers halted farm mortgage sale.
Jan. 5?Former President Calvin
Coolidge died in Northampton. Mass..
and President Hoover ordered 30 days
cf public mourning.
Jan. 12?House passed domestic al
lotment farm aid bill.
Jan. 13?President Hoover vetoed
the Philippine independence bill, and
the house overrode the veto.
Jan. 17?Senate repassed Philippine
independence bill over President's
Jan. 21?Senator H. B. Hawes of Mis
Jan. 23?The Twentieth amendment to
the Constitution, ending "lame duck"
sessions of congress, was officially
adopted when Missouri, the 36th state
to approve, ratified It.
Jan 24?Secretary Stimson invited
all non-defaulting nations to confer
ence on war debts after March 4.
Congress voted 190,000,000 for farm
Jan. 25?Senate passed the Glass
Jan. 30?House passed bill to en
able debtors to avoid bankruptcy, and
the Glass banking bill.
Feb. 7?Senate ousted Sergeant at
Arms David S. Barry for traducing it
in magazine article.
Roosevelt called conference of all
governors In Washington March 6.
Feb. 14?Governor Comstock of Mich
igan proclaimed an eight day bank
Feb. 15?An anarchist, Giuseppe Zan
gara, fired five shots at Franklin D.
Roosevelt In Miami, missing him but
fatally wounding Mayor Cermak *f
*eD. IB?senate aaoptea resolution
for repeal of Eighteenth amendment.
Feb 20?Resolution for prohibition
repeal passed by the house.
Feb. 21?Appointment announced of
Senator Cordell Hull as secretary of
state and William H. Woodin of New
York as secretary of the treasury in
the Roosevelt cabinet.
Feb. 23?Congress passed $308,000,000
naval appropriation bill.
J. C. Stone resigned as chairman of
Feb. 24?House of representatives
Impeached Federal Judge Harold
Louderback of California for "mis
demeanors in office."
Feb, 25?President-Elect Roosevelt
announced Henry Wallace would be
secretary of agriculture and James A.
Farley postmaster general.
Feb. 27? Harold Ickes as secretary
of the interior and Claude A. Swan
son as secretary of the navy announced
March 1?Harry Byrd appointed sen
ator from Virginia to succeed Swan
Treasury-postoffice bill, conferring
reorganization powers on President,
March 3?bank nondays proclaimed
In New York and Illinois.
Homer S. Cummings named attorney
general In Roosevelt cabinet.
March 4?Franklin D. Roosevelt In
augurated President of United States.
Seventy-second congress came to a
March 5?President Roosevelt de
clared a four-day bank holiday and
called congress in session on March 9.
March 7?Theodore Roosevelt re
signed as governo general of the Phil
Lewis Douglas appointed director of
March 9?President Roosevelt ex
tended bank holiday Indefinitely.
Congress met in special session;
Rainey elected speaker of house.
March 10?President asked congress
for power to cut veterans' costs and
government salaries $500,000,000.
March 11?House passed President's
March 13?Banks reopened.
Robert W. Bingham appointed am
bassador to England; Jesse I. Straus,
ambassador to France; and Josephus
Daniels, ambassador to Mexico.
March 14?House passed 3.2 per cent
March 16?Senate passed beer bill.
March 19?Zangara. slayer of Mayor
Cermak of Chicago, electrocuted at
March 22?House passed Roosevelt
March 28?President issued order
cutting pay of 300,000 federal employ
ees 15 per cent.
?fvpru i?rresiaent signed regulations
reducing veterans' aid $400,000,000, ef
fective July 1.
April 3?Claude G. Bowers named
ambassador to Spain.
Michigan first state to vote repeal
of dry amendment.
April 5?President ordered return of
gold hoards over $100 by May 1.
April 6?President Invited nine na
tions to economic conference In Wash
April 8?Mayor Frank Murphy of De
troit named governor-general of Phil
April 12?Ruth Bryan Owen named
minister to Denmark.
April 17?Senate rejected 16 to 1 sil
ver remonetizatlon amendment to farm
House adopted resolution giving
President power to declare an arms
April 19?United States went oft
gold standard; embargo on gold ex
portationa declared; bill for "controlled
Inflation" drafted for administration.
April 20?Breckinridge Long nomi
nated for ambassador to Italy.
April 21?House passed bill providing
half a billion dollars for outright re
lief gifts to the states.
Sumner Welles nominated for am
bassador to Cuba.
April 25?House passed the Muscle
April 26?Mrs. Nellie Tayloe Ross ap
pointed director of the mint.
April 27?L. A. Steinhardt was ap
pointed minister to Sweden and Am
bassador Hugh S. Gibson transferred
from Belgium to Brazil.
April 28?Senate passed farm bill
with credit and currency expansion
House passed $2,300,000,000 home
mortgage refinancing measure.
Warren Delano Robbins was appoint
ed minister to Canada, and Robert 11.
Gore governor of Porto Rico.
Iowa farmers rioted and attacked a
Judge at Le Mars; martial law pro
May 1?House passed the $500,000,000
emergency relief bill.
G. T. Helvering appointed commis
sioner of internal revenue; and J. F. T.
OConnor controller of the currency.
May 3?House passed Inflation rider
to farm bill.
Senate passed the Muscle Shoals bill.
May 5?House passed bill to regu
late sale of securities.
Jesse H. Jones made chairman ox
Reconstruction Finance corporation.
May 8?Rhode Island ratified pro
hibition repeal amendment.
James B. Conant elected president
of Harvard university.
Senate passed bill for federal regu
lation of securities.
May 10?Farm relief-Inflation meas
ure finally enacted by congress.
Senate confirmed appointment of
Dave H. Morris as ambassador to Bel
May 17?Administration's $3,300,000.
000 bill for public works and Indus
trial control introduced in congress.
May 24?Senate refused to impeach
Judge Harold Louderback of California.
May 25?Senate passed Glass bank
ing bill with deposit guarantee amend
May 26?Public works-industry con
trol bill passed by the house.
May 27?Senate passed railway con
A Century of Progress exposition
opened in Chicago.
May 2D?House passed bill abrogat
ing gold clause In all obligations.
May 31?Roosevelt farm credit sys
tem approved by tho house.
June 2?Senate limited reductions in
veterans' bonus payment to 25 per cent.
Prof. Harold W. Dodds elected pres
ident of Princeton university.
June 3?Senate passed the gold
clause abrogation bill.
June 4?Reconstruction Finance cor
poration granted loan of $50,000,000
to China to buy American wheat and
June 8?Roberf P. Skinner appointed
ambassador to Turkey.
June 9?Senate passed public works
Industry control bill.
June 10?President sent to congress
government reorganization orders sav
ing about $25,000,000.
Prof. William E. Dodd of University
of Chicago made ambassador to Ger
many; John Cudahy of Milwaukee am
bassador to Poland; Lincoln MacVeagh
of Connecticut minister to Greece.
June 14?Senate passed Independent
offices bill with amendment concern
ing veterans' costs opposed by Pres
June 15?Congress yielded to the
President on tho veterans' compensa
tion issue, passed the independent of
fices bill and adjourned.
June 16?President Roosevelt started
on vacation cruise to Campobello is
Joseph B. Eastman appointed federal
co-ordinator of transportation.
June J9?Annual meeting of Amer
ican Association for the Advancement
of Science opened in Chicago.
June 21?Railroads and rail labor
agreed to continue 10 per cent wage
cut to June. 1934.
July 4?President Roosevelt returned
to White House.
July 8?Secretary Ickes made gen
eral director of public work adminis
July 9?President Roosevelt signed
cotton textile industry code.
July 20?President Roosevelt Issued
a "master code" for all business, rais
ing wages and shortening hours.
Gen. Italo Balbo of Italy and officers
of his air armada received by Presi
Aug. 4?Pennsylvania coal strike
truce arranged by Gen. H. S. Johnson.
Aug. 19?Missouri voted for prohi
President Roosevelt signed oil, steel
and lumber codes.
Aug. 26?President Roosevelt ap
proved automobile code.
Aug. 27?Assistant Secretary of
State Moley resigned to conduct new
Aug. 28?Secretary Wallace set
wheat acreage reduction for 1934 at
15 per cent.
Sept. 6?President Roosevelt appoint
ed H. II. Sevier ambassador to Chile.
Sept. 15?Code for soft coal indus
try agreed upon.
Sept. 21?R. C. Martin of Los An
geles elected commander in chief of
G. A. R.
Oct. 2?President addressed Amer
ican Legion at opening of its conven
tion in Chicago.
Oct. 4?Mrs. Isabelle Greenway
elected to congress in Arizona.
Oct. 5?Edward A. Hayes of Deca
tur, 111., elected national commander
of American Legion.
Oct. 12?Senator J. J. Davis of Penn
sylvania acquitted of Moose lottery
William Green re-elected president of
A. F. of L.
Oct. 17?President Roosevelt ordered
prison and fines for violators of NRA
Oct. 19?National Farm Holiday as
sociation called a farm strike.
Oct. 23?Code for retailers signed
by the President.
Oct. 25?Government began buying
gold above market price, carrying out
President's new monetary program.
Oct. 29?President Roosevelt decided
to buy gold in the world market.
Nov. 4?Government announced plan
to buy $50,000,000 worth of pork prod
ucts for relief.
Nov. 7?Ohio, Pennsylvania, Ken
tucky and Utah approved of prohibi
tion repeal, and the Eighteenth amend
ment was voted out of the Constitu
tion. North and South Carolina voted
Fiorello H. La Guardia, fusion candi
date. was elected mayor of New York,
defeating McKee, recovery nominee,
and O'Brien, Democrat.
Nov. 9?Franchise granted to wom
en of the Philippines.
Nov. 12?Chicago World's fair closed.
Nov. 15?Secretary of the Treasury
Woodin took indefinite leave of ab
sence; i_.naersecreiary uean Acncson
resigned and was succeeeded by Henry
Nov. 26?Mob at San Jose. Calif.,
hanged two confessed kidnapers and
Dec. 2?International Live Stock ex
position opened in Chicago.
Dec. 5?Repeal of Eighteenth amend
ment proclaimed by the President and
national prohibition came to an end.
Dec. 11?George Peek resigned as
head of AAA and was made chief of
new organization to expand foreign
Dec. 14?President Roosevelt opened
campaign against big income tax
Minnesota ratified the child labor
amendment to the Constitution.
Dec. 30?President Roosevelt cele
brated his fifty-first birthday.
Jan. 3?Japanese troops seized Chi
nese city of Shanhaikwan after bomb
ing It from the air.
Jan. 10?Japanese captured Chlumen
kow pass and advanced into Jehol
Jan. 24?Colombia appealed to sig
natories of Kellogg pact and Peru to
the League of Nations in their dispute
Jan. 25?Secretary of State Stlmson
invoked the Kellogg pact against Peru
in the dispute with Colombia.
Jan. 30?Japanese government de
cided to quit the League of Nations.
Feb. 14?Coiornbia severed diplomatic
relations with Peru and actual war be
gan in^the Leticia region.
Feb: 2l;?Severe fighting between
Chinese and Japanese began in Jehol
Feb. 24?Japan rejected and China
accepted the League of Nations report
on Manchuria. The report was adopted
by the assembly and the Japanese dele
Feb. 25?China recalled her minister
United States Indorsed League of Na
tions policy in Sino-Japanese affair.
Feb. 27?Great Britain imposed arms
embargo against Japan and China.
Mardh 4?Jehol City occupied by the
March 7?Martial law was proclaimed
In Pelplng because of advance of the
Japanese; Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang
resigned as Chinese commander in
March 18?Mussolini offered four
power peace plan to British.
March 25?English Jewry boycotted
German goods in protest over treat
ment of Jews In Germany.
April 6?World court ruled Norway's
claim to East Greenland invalid; Den
mark won the area.
April 19?Russian court sentenced
two British engineers to prison and
three to deportation for espionage and
sabotage; Great Britain retaliated by
placing embargo on Russian exports.
April 21?Prime Minister MacDon
aid arrived In Washington and began
economic conversations with President
April 22?Soviet Russia ordered pro
hibition of all purchases in England
and other restrictive measures.
Japanese opened drive toward Pelp
Ing with eight hour battle.
April 24?President Roosevelt and M.
Herriot of France began economic
May 2?Soviet Russia and China re
sumed diplomatic relations.
May 10?President Ayala of Para
guay formally declared war on Bolivia, j
May 12?Eight leading nations
agreed on tariff truce during world j
May 16? President Roosevelt called
on 54 nations to join In agreement to
outlaw war, scrap offensive weapons
and force world peace.
.May 21?Mussolini's four power pact
agreed upon by Great Britain. France,
Italy and Germany.
May 22?United States offered to
join European security pact, abandon
ing neutrality rights.
May 28?Japanese seized control of
May 81?China and Japan signed
truce Stopping war In north China.
June 12?World economic and mone
tary conference opened In London.
Prime Minister MacDonald Interjected
the question of war debts.
June 15?Finland alone paid full war
debt Installment due United States; all
others either defaulted or paid small
June 22?American delegation 1n
London conference rejected stabiliza
tion of dollar and offered economic pro
July 1?Russia released imprisoned
British engineers, and trade war ended.
July 3?President Roosevelt rebuked
London conference for insistence on
stabilization of currency first.
July 5?Six gold nations of Europe
formed pool to protect gold standard.
July 8?Concordat between Germany
and the Holy See initialed.
July 15?Italy. Great Britain, France
and Germany signed a ten-year peace
July 22?Pact to curtail sale of silver
signed in London by United States and
seven other nations.
July 27?World economic conference
In London adjourned.
Aug. 21?Socialists opened world
conference In Paris.
Aug. 25?International agreement
for reduction of wheat acreage reached
Sept. 2?France, Great Britain and
Italy approved Austria's plan to raise
new army to protect border.
Sept. 25?Fourteenth assembly of
League of Nations opened in Geneva.
Oct. 2?Argentina, Australia and
Denmark were elected to seats in
League of Nations council.
Oct. 14?Germany withdrew from
League of Nations and disarmament
Oct. 16?Disarmament conference ad
journed to October 25.
Oct. 20?President Roosevelt an
nounced Russia had accepted his Invi
tation to discuss resumption of Inter
Nov. 5?United States denounced the
extradition treaty with Greece because
of the Insull decision in Athens.
Nov. 7?Great Britain announced its
withdrawal from world tariff truce.
Nov. 17?Recognition of Russian gov
ernment by United 8tates announced
and W. C. Bullitt selected as American
ambassador to Moscow.
Nov. 23?Disarmament conference re
cessed until January 15.
Dec. 2?Canadian court ruled Martin
Insull must return to Chicago for trial.
Dec. 3?Seventh Pan-American con
ference opened In Montevideo. Uruguay.
Dec. 11?Paraguay won great victory
over Bolivia in the Chaco war.
Dec. 15?Five nations again defaulted
In war debt payments to the United
States; five made "token" payments;
Finland paid in full.
France, Poland and the little entente
agreed on a united front against Ger
many's rearmament demands.
Dec. 16?Japanese and Manchukuo
armies Invaded Chinese province of
Dec. 18?Paraguay and Bolivia agreed
to truce in Gran Chaco war.
Jan. 2?President De Valera dis
solved Irish parliament and called gen
Chile decreed liquidation of great
Cosach nitrate combine.
Jan. 10?Uprisings in Spain resulted
in many deaths and arrests.
Jan. 24?President De Valera's party
won the Irish Free State elections.
Jan. 28?French raoinet was over
thrown in vote on the budget and re
Chancellor Von Schleicher of Her
many and his cabinet resigned.
Jan. 30?Adolf Hitler, head of Na
tional Socialists, was made chancellor
Jan. 31?Edouard Daladier formed
new government for France.
Feb. 2?General Sandlno. Nicarnguan
rebel leader, made peace with Presi
Feb. 23?Revolutionary movement
broke out In Cuba.
Feb. 27?Incendiary Are partly de
stroyed the Reichstag building in Ber
March 5?National Socialists and Na
tionalists won In German elections.
Premier Venizelos defeated in Greek
March 7?Dictatorship established In
March 8?Tsaldaris made premier of
March 9?Hitler extended control
I over all free states.
March 29?Nationwide boycott on
Jews proclaimed in Germany.
March 31?President of Uruguay
made himself dictator.
Pope inaugurated the holy year.
April 8?Western Australia voted to
secede from commonwealth.
April 19?Masonic order In Germany
dissolved and reorganized on "Christ
April 23?Spanish women voted for
first time, In municipal elections.
April 29?Revolt broke out in Cuba
with landing of two expeditions in
April 30?President Sanchez Cerro of
May 2?Hitler smashed all free trade
unions in Germany.
May 3?Irish Free Slate abolished
oath to the British king. ?
May 18?Prussian diet dissolved un
May 28?Hitlerites won election in
free city of Danzig.
June 3?Spanish government leaders
excommunicated by Pope Piu* XI.
June ??Germany agreed to end Jew
ish boycott In upper 8ilesla.
June 8?President Zamora of Spain
forced the resignation of the Azana
June 11?Zamora compelled to ask
Azana to form new Spanish cabinet.
June 19?Chancellor Dollfuss out
lawed Nazi parties In Austria.
June 22?German government dis
solved the Socialist party
July 23?German Protestants voted
to permit Naxl group to control the
July 26?Cuban government Issued
general amnesty decree.
June 27?German National party dis
solved and joined the Nazis.
Aug. 7?Bloody antl-Machado riots
In Havana quelled by troops.
Aug. 8?President Machado of Cuba
rejected Ambassador Welles' mediation
plan and refused to quit his office.
Aug. 9?State of war declared In
Aug. 11?Cuban army demanded res
ignation of President Machado.
Aug. 12?President Machado of Cuba
resigned and fled to Nassau; Dr. Car
los Manuel de Cespedes was made prov
Aug. 16?Eight hundred Assyrians
reported massacred in Iraq.
Sept. 6?Radicals of Cuba ousted
President De Cespedes and his govern
ment and assumed rule by junta.
Sept. 8?King Felsal of Iraq died In
Switzerland and was succeeded by his
Sept. 9?Alejandro Lerroux made
premier of Spain.
Sept. 10?Dr. Ramon Grau San Mar
tin was sworn In as President of Cuba.
Sept. 20?Chancellor Dollfuss estab
lished Fascist dictatorship over Aus
Oct. S?Chancellor Dollfuss of Aus
tria wounded by assassin.
Lerroux government of Spain ousted
Oct. 8?Martinez Barrios became
premier of Spain and dissolved the
Oct. 24?Government of Premier Da
ladier of France was defeated and re
Oct. 25?Albert Sarraut formed new
Oct. 28?Arab riots in Holy Land
Oct. 31?Greek court of appeals re
fused to extradite Samuel Insull to
Nov. 3?Cuban cabinet resigned.
Nov. 8?New revolt broke out in
Cuba with heavy fighting in Havana.
Nadir Shah Ghazl, king of Afghan
istan, was assassinated and his son,
Mohammed Zahir Shah, succeeded him.
Nov. 9?Cuban revolt crushed by
Nov. 12?Chancellor Hitler scored an
overwhelming victory in the German
Nov. 24?Sarraut's French ministry
overthrown by chamber of deputies.
Nov. 27?Camilla Chantemps made
premier of France.
Dec. 8?Irish Free State government
declared unlawful the Young Ireland
association, known as the Blue Shirts.
Dec. 9?Serious anarchist revolt In
Dec. 13?Spanish revolt nffirlallv A*
clared suppressed: scores killed.
Dec. 15?Greek government decided
Samuel Insull must leave the country
Dec. 16?Alejandro Lerroux formed
new ministry for Spain.
Jan. 16?Seven French aviators flew
from St. Lpuls, western Africa, to Na
tal Brazil, in 14 hours 2 minutes.
Feb. 9?Captain Mollison flew from
Africa to Brazil.
April 3?Four Britons in two planes
crossed Mt. Everest.
April 10?Francesco Agello, Italian,
broke world's seaplane record, averag
ing 426.5 miles an hour.
May 8?Capt. S. Karzynske of Poland
flew from Senegal to Brazil.
June 2?Capt. Frank Hawks flew
from Dos Angeles to New York In ro
bot controlled plane in 13 hours, 26
June 3?Jimmy Mattern hopped off at
New York on world encircling flight.
June 4?Mattern landed on island
near Oslo. Norway.
June 11?Barberan and Collar of
Spanish army flew from Spain to Cam
June 14?Mattern missing on hop
from Khabarovsk to Nome.
June 21?Barberan and Collar lost
in flight to Mexico City.
July 1?Italian air armada began
flight to Chicago via Iceland.
July 7?Mattern found safe at Ana
July 9?Colonel and Mrs. Lindbergh
began route-planning flight to Green
land, Iceland and Europe.
July 15?Wiley Post began round
the-world flight, and Darius and Gir
enas of Chicago hopped off for Lithu
ania?all from New York.
Balbo and the Italian air fleet ar
rived in Chicago.
July 16?Post reached Berlin In rec
Darius and Glrenas killed In crash
of their plane near Soldin. Germany.
July 19?Italian air armada arrived
at New York.
July 22?Wiley Post completed flight
around world in 7 days 18 hours 49
July 23?Capt. J. A. Mollison and
his wife, Amy Johnson, flew across
Atlantic from Wales and crashed at
July 25?Italian air squadron left
New York for home.
Aug. 7?Rossi and Codos of France
made record non-Rtop flight from New
York to Kayak, Syria, 5.900 miles.
Aug. 12?Italian air fleet arrived at
Sept. 2?Gen. Francesco de PInedo.
famous Italian aviator, killed at New
Sept. 4?Florence Kllnger^smlth. no
ted pilot, killed tn plane crash at In
lernaiionai air races ?i
Sept. 25?Col. Itoscoe Turner set new
West-to-East transcontinental record
of 10 hours 5H minutes.
Sept. 30?Russian balloonlsts ascend
ed 11 miles for new record.
Nov. 20?Settle and Forrlney ascend
ed 61,237 feet In stratosphere balloon'
from Akron. Ohio.
Dec. 6?Colonel and Mrs. Lindbergh
flew across tho Atlantic from Bathurat.
Africa, to Natal. Brazil.
Dec. 12?The Lindberghs flew over
the Brazilian jungle from Manaos to
Dec. 16?The Lindberghs landed at
Jan. 2?Mrs. Belle Moskowltz, Dem
ocratic leader of New York.
Jan. 3?Dr. Wilbelm C'uno, former
Jack Plckford, American movie
actor. In Paris.
Jan. 5?Calvin Coolldge. former Pres
ident, In Northampton, Mass.
Gilbert Colgate of New York, philan
thropist and capitalist
Jan. 13?Prof. Dana Carleton Munro
Jan. 15?Mrs. Jessie Sayre, daughter
of late President Wilson.
Jan. IS?John Bundy, Indiana artist.
Jan. 31?George Moore, Irish novel
'*Jan. 23?Arthur Garford. Industrial
ist and political leader. In Elyria, Ohio.
Jan. 24?Karl of Chesterfield.
Jan. 26?Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont of
New York. In Paris
Jan. 23?George Saintsbury. English
Sara Teasdale, American poet
Jan. 30?Rear Admiral W. IL II.
Southerland. U. S. N. retired.
Jan. 31?John Galsworthy, English
novelist. _ _
Feb. 7?Dr. Lawrence F. Abbott
former editor of the Outlook.
Count Albert Apponyl, Hungarian
Feb. 11?John D. Ryan, copper mag
nate. In New York.
B M. Winston. Chicago financier.
Feb. 12?Field Marshal Sir William
Robertson in London.
Sir John A. Thomson, British scl
et1Feb. 14?R. N. Matson, minister-des
ignate to Greece, in Cheyenne, Wro.
Feb. 18?James J. Corbett, former
Feb. 21?Rear Admiral R. 8. Grif
fin. U. S. N. retired.
Feb. 26?Thomas W. Gregory, form
er attorney general of United States.
Grand Duke Alexander of Russia, in
March 2?Thomas J. Walsh, former
senator from Montana and named at
torney general in Roosevelt cabinet.
Rear Admiral John D. Rodgers, U.
S. N., retired.
March 6?Mayor Anton J. Cermak of
Chicago, in Miami, Fla.
March 7?Ex-Congressman Will R.
Wood of Indiana.
March 11?Senator Robert B. Howell
March 17?Brig. Gen. Charles King,
Civil war veteran, author.
March 18?Duke of Abruzzl.
March 20?Jefferson De Angells,
April 8?Wilson Mlzner, author.
April 5?Earl Derr Biggers. novelist.
April 10?Dr. Henry van Dyke,
author and educator.
April 25?Dr. Felix Adler, philoso
pher, in New York.
May 2?William E. Haskell, veteran
editor and publisher, in Salisbury, Md.
May 7?Prof. George H. Palmer of
May 8?Cardinal Cerrettl in Rome.
Col. C. E. Stanton. U. S. A., retired,
author of phrase "Lafayette, we are
May 15?Col, Fred Kilgore, com
manding Fourth regiment of marines
Ernest Torrence, veteran screen
May 16?Dr. John Grler Hlbbea,
president emeritus o* Princeton.
Prof. Lee Wilson Dodd of Yale.
May 18?Ex-Senator Porter J. Mc
Cumber of North Dakota in Washing
May 24?Admiral Lord Wemyss of
May 26?Horatio Bottoroley of Lon
May 23?Dan O'Leary, famous pedes
May 30?Prof. W. L. Elkln of Yale,
June 3?William Muldoon, veteran
. sportsman, in Purchase, N. Y.
June 5?Henry C. Rowland. Amer
June 7?Cyrus H. K. Curtis, publish
I er, In Philadelphia.
1 June 10?Winchell Smith, American
playwright and actor.
June 15?Capt. W. P. Wright of Chi
cago, national commander of G. A. IL
Harry M. Jewett of Detroit, automo
July 1?A. R. Ersklne, motor car
I official, Jn ^South Bend. Ind. __
juiy s?sir Antnony Mope MawKins.
July 12?Edwin Gould, New York
July 15?Prof. Irving: Babbitt of
July 18?Gilbert N. Haugen. former
congressman from Iowa.
July 26?Louise Closser Hale, novel
ist and actress.
Aug. 1?Chester S. Lord, veteran
Journalist of New York.
Aug. 6?J. D. Oliver of South Bend,
Ind., plow manufacturer.
Aug. 14?Dr. Frederick Starr, an
thropologist. In Japan.
Aug. 23?Marie C&hlll, American
Aug. 28?W. A. Bechtel of San Fran
cisco, head of companies building
Sept. 2?G. T. Marye, former Amer
Sept. 5?Clay M. Greene, actor and
Sept. 7?Viscount Grey of Falloden,
Sept. 8?Rev. Dr. Charles IL Park
hurst of New York.
King Feisal of Iraq.
Sept. 9?Federal Judge William S.
Kenyon of Iowa.
Capt. Paul Koenlg. commander of
German submarine Deutschland In war.
Archbishop F. E. J. Lloyd, primate
of American Catholic church.
Sept. 12?Alfred Sutro. British play
Sept. 14?Trwin H. Hoover, chief
usher of White House.
Sept. 17?F. H. Sisson, New York
Sept. 19?E. W. Kemble. artist and
Sept. 20?Dr. Annie Besant, world
leader of Theosophlsts, In Madras,
Madge Carr Cook, American actress.
Sept. 24?Horace Liverlght, New
York, retired publisher.
MaJ. Gen. W. 4. Black. U. S. A.
Mrs. A. M. Wtllia;nson, novelist. In
Sept. 25?Ring Lardner, American
humorist and playwright.
Gov. Arthur Sellgman of New Mexico.
Sept. 27?Brigham H. Roberts, pres
ident of Mormon chu-ch council. In
Salt Lake City.
Sept. 28?J. W. Collier, member U. S.
Oct. 2?Charles Piex. head of Emerg
ency Fleet corporation during the war.
Oct. 3?W. L. Stribllng, Georgia
Oct. 5?William L. Veeck, president
Chicago National League Baseball club.
Renee Adoree. Aim star.
Oct. C?Porter H. Dale, senator from
Oct. 7?Hernand Behn, president of
International Telephone and Telegraph
company, in France.
x?Morris llilloult of New York.
Oct. 11?Charles II. Sabin, New York
Oct. IS?Peter A. Jay, American
oct. 23?William N. Doak, former
secretary of labor.
Oct. 25?Evelyn H. Raldwln, noted
explorer. In Washington.
Oct. 28?Edward 11. Sothern, emi
nent American actor.
Paul Palnleve, French statesman.
Oct. 30?Mary K. Lease, former lead
er of Kansas Populists.
Nov. 3?John D. Kendrlck, senator
Nov. 5?Texas Guinan, entertainer,
Nov. 12?Milton Aborn of New York,
Nov. 14?Edward N. Hurley, Chicago
financier and manufacturer.
Nov. 15?William K. Vanderbllt III
of New York.
Nov. 23?Francois Albert, French
Nov. 25?Prof. G. H. Carton, Harvard
Snv. 23?Prof. J Laurence T^aughlla
of Chicago, political economist.
Nov. 30?Sir Arthur Currle, com
mander of Canada's overseas forces In
UeC- i?Richard Mellon. Pittsburgh
Harry De Wlndt, English explorer.
Dec. 3?Alexander Legge. president
of International Harvester company.
Dec. 7?Stella Benson. English nov
Adolph Klauber, American dramatic
critic and producer.
Dec. 8?Count lamimoto, Japanese
statesman and naval hero.
jjec> 9?L)r W. O. Thompson, former
president of Ohio State university.
Dec. 10?George Lytton. Chicago
merchant and art patron.
Dec. 12?Count Ilya Tolstoy at New
Dec. 16?Robert W. Chambers, Amer
Louis Joseph \ ance, American Ac
Wlllard Spencer, opera composer, in
St. Davids. Pa.
Dec. 17-^Rev. Dr. W. 8. Ralnsford
of New Yortc. author of religious works.
The dalal lama of Tibet.
Dec. 19?Congressman James S.
Parker of New York.
tb bv Wmmtarn Nawaoaner Colo a.
Steaming Falcon island.
Pr?na r?d Hv VafUnnl R.a.r.nhl. OaaUi. ? iri . i . ? . .. ?
"withln'stinTD.' C.?CvSlT sirrlcST? '
FALCON Island, the "Island that
never stands still," Is on the move
again according to recent reports.
It Is doubtful If any land has been
built up and cut down so often with
in the recollection of man as has this
Island. Located In the southeastern
part of the Tonge, or Friendly group
of Islands in the South Pacific, It has
appeared, then disappeared from sight
at least twice. In October, 1027, an
eruption occurred which raised It high
above the level of the sea and brought
It to the attention of men the world
Since that time newspapers of many
countries have published articles con
cerning its reappearance. I-avas have
been reported flowing down Its sides
and great clouds of nsh and steam ris
ing severel thousand feet above it.
The location of Falcon Island Is
latitude 20 degrees 19 minutes S. and
longitude 175 degrees 25 minutes \V. If
one could examine a geological map
of this general region, he would End
that all the volcanic Islands lie In a
straight line which runs In a north
northeast and south-southwest direc
tion. Beginning with Mount ttunpebu,
in North Island, New Zealand, through
the Kermadec Islands, continuing
through Ata (I'ylstaart), Honga Tonga,
Falcon, Tofua, Kao, Metis, Late, and
Fanualal (Amnrgura), the volcanic
Islands of Tonga, and terminating In
Samoa, this line Includes one of the
greatest chains of active and dormant
volcanoes In the world.
It represents a line of weakness In
the earth's crust and along It from
time to time molten material Is ejected.
The world Is made aware of these
ejections only when the material
reaches the surface and forms Islands
It Is very probable, however, that In
many places along the line there are
submarine volcanoes of whose exist
ence no knowledge has ever been ob
tained. If one were to predict where
the next new Island In this part of
tb world would appear. It would be
fairly safe to say somewhere along
this line. Practically all the other
Islands of the region are of nonvol
canlc rock, chiefly limestone.
Iuronin rrum a anudi,
The island received Its name when
I ?. 51. S. Falcon visited the spot In lSGo
and reported a shoal. Twelve years
later II. 51. S. Sappho reported smoke
j to be issuing from the sea at the
same position. In 1SS5 a submarine
* volcano burst suddenly into activity
and built up a mound which, after a
j year of intermittent eruption, reached
a height of at least 290 fet.
In 1SS9, II. 51. S. Ilgerla visited the
I island and .Mr. J. J. Lister, an English
; geologist on board, made some care
ful observations, lie found that dur
ing the four years since Its formation
the action of the sea had removed a
large portion of the Island, and that
only about a third of the original
mound remained. lie calculated the
maximum height of the island at that
time to be 153 feet.
Further observations were made by
the British admiralty In August, 1S93.
Falcon island extended 800 yards in a
northeast-southwest direction and 700
yards in a northwest-southeast direc
tion. It was nearly circular in form
and only 40 feet above water.
In July, 1S93, It was reported to
have disappeared and Its site was oc
cupied by a shoal 100 yards In extent
on which the sea broke heavily. Thus
it took the sea, the rain, and the wind
j only thirteen years to cause an island
' with a maximum diameter of about
two miles and a height of 290 feet to
j disappear completely.
There is a popular misconception
j that islands of this sort disappear by
actual sinking. Their disappearance,
; however. Is due solely to the leveling
action of the agents of erosion. Two
years later, the shoal to which Falcon
island bad been reduced was showing
about 10 feet above the water at the
northern end?probably the result of
wave action which concentrated the
material to leeward. In tills condi
tion it was subsequently piled above
sea level by the southeast trade winds
In 1913, II. 51. S. Cormoran reported
that the island had disappeared once
more. Finally the most violent erup
tion on record occurred In October,
1927. From that time until, the pres
ent, minor eruptions, separated by
? periods of quiescence, have added
?Itchtly to tba six* ef the moo?'.
iiie native name tor raicon island
Is Fonua Foo (New Place). It lies
about SO miles to tbe northwest of
Nukualofa, Tongatabu Island of the
Tonga gronup. The crater lies on
the southeast coast Its location here
is obviously determined by tbe south'
east trade winds, which during and
after eruption carry the One material
to the northwest The waves, driven
by these same trades, continue the
work and constantly eat Into tbe south
east side, shifting tbe material to the
northwest to build an extensive shoaL
Called "New Place" by Natives.
The eastern wall of the crater haa
the same profile as tbe western wall,
but Its summit rises only 200 feet
above sea level On tbe east it slopes
gently to the top of the sea cliff,
w hile on tbe west it descends more ab
ruptly to the floor of tbe crater. Tbe
bottom of the crater is elliptical in
outline and most of its surface is cov
ered by a boiling lake, shaped rongh
ly like a figure eight The waters In
the seaward loop of the figure are a
deep, milky green, but In the land
ward loop they fade to yellowish
white. Steam rises from tbe water
and clouds of it drift lazily up the
northwest walL Parts of the lake
boil Incessantly; other areas bulge
upward periodically, bringing black
sediment from below.
The crater rim is breached to the
southwest, where only a small bit of
the original wall remains. This rem
mant is about 20 feet high and is
composed of bedded scoria and ash.
On either side of it the storm waves
have free access over a low, porous
barrier of reworked scoria, through
which the lake waters rise and fall
with the tide.
Tbe lake is surrounded with ash and
sulphur fiats, dotted with steam Jets;
the latter mere abundant on tbe steep
western side of the crater than else
where. Around the fiat lsen narrow
band of gently sloping land, trenched
with V-shaped gullies and grading
above Into tbe steep walls of the
crater. These are vertically fluted,
and In the depressions many steam
vents issue. These have deposited
quantities of sulphur and other
substances, giving the walls a strange
appearance. Yellow, orange, or white
gullies alternate with the drab ridges.
What the Crater Is Like.
The crater lake and the vividly col
ored walls are the first Impression re
ceived while standing on the eastern
edge. A closer inspection shows that
there are really two cratera, a younger
one with steep sides lying within an
The crater wall Is composed largely
of fine ash and scoria, but scattered
over Its surface are numerous vol
canic bombs and blocks of solid lava.
Most of the bombs are small, but a
few reach a length of more than two
feet They are roughly spindle-shaped
and represent masses of lava that were
thrown out In liquid condition and
solidified while still In the air. Many
are exceedingly porous, owing to the
escape of Inclosed gases; others show
a concentric banding made by uni
form cooling and contraction. Some
of the solid angular blocks of lava
exceed three feet In diameter. A few
are porous, others dense.
In most places it Is Imposible to de
scend the crater walla because the
slopes of the poorly consolidated
scoria approach 80 degrees. One may,
however, without great difficulty, slip
and slide down one of the- several
steep gullies to the crater floor.
On all sides are sputtering and
whistling steam vents, which Issue
from walls that are beautifully mot
tled In many shades of yellow, orange
It Is rather a wetrd experience td
walk out on the delta that separatee
the two lobes of the lake. The-ground
Is hot beneath the feet, and off the
lake comes a withering blast of fetid
air. Each ateam jet has a hiss,
whistle, or sputter of its own. These
sounds do not carry far. and as one
walks across the flat they quickly re
place each other. A low, quietly sput
tering vent passes out of hearing and
almost between one's feet.
Tumtce and fragmenta of lava lie
scattered everywhere. One expeeta
momentarily to break through, yet the
ground aeems solid fnough. The sur
face of the delta Is lncrested with
brilliantly colored aulpburoua deposits
and tiny balls of greenish sulphur Ut
ter the surface below with a line of
nuiulce that marks high tide level.