miusiir.D ly kiudeu l iirxr.n.uj.
m M ,imi """ ' ' ' --' i '
,.. . . .. : , - V
in itirrttv Linotmur i published cvcry-mie.
f ly, f Tlinr.n DOLLARS per ununi,payle It the
' end of every Numofillw." ' : V
0No paper will bo diacontlnued until I1 amwagrs
Whoever will become rctnoiwible for 'die navmcht of
'L " 'II 1 - . m " . " ' ' '
v";ait rj umti wm-pc iMcrag oiMhe. customary
"tcrm, . . m-..i ,, ... . - . . . .. ,, , )
J&wtow .Inneitrd until it lut been pai4for,
r its payment atturoed by tome ptnon ui Uiia town, or
'"' CA1I letten to the editor must be ptitfxUd, or tiey
WW not be attended to. . : ;r A
i ' Ztf ' the Jint mrtali blett ilk
'" " fuiiwn team -who ploughs the toil,
3 v Whith grateful net'cficneJhtiulhn't hit.
THE FARMER'S TEXT BOOK.
. Great profits In agriculture can result only from
great lr..t movements of the soil. Great improve
' ments of tho soil can result only from unremit
V ting industry. The chief study of every fanner
l thould be vhat it utrul and what it utelctt ex
ftente in relation to hit art. The discrimination
between these is the master key of the farmer's
prosperity The firstlhoiild be inanrcJitlia
freedom, little short ol profusion. The last should
-lhunned, as the sailor shuns the rocks, where
are teen the wreck of the hopes of preceding
. manners. '
In this art, and almost in this art alone, u it is
the liberal hand, which roakcth rich "
Liberality, in providing utensils, is the saving
both of time and of labour, he more perfect lus
instruments,' the more profitable are they.
So also, is it with JyraTn'galtlo and his
atock. The most ptrfcet In theit kinds are ever
the most profitable.
Liberality, in good barns and warm s&eitcrs, is
the source of healthj strength and comfort to ani
mals ; causes them to thrive on less food and
fcurc fromTidamage all ss of cfop.
Liberality also, in the provision of food fpr do
mestic animals is the source of flesh, muscle, and
liberality tot the earth, in seed,' culture and
compost, is the source of its bounty.
Thus it is, in agriculture, as in every part of
creation, a wise and paternal Providence has in
separably connected oyr duty and our happiness.
In cultivating the earth, the condition of man's
t success is hislndustrFponitTT '
a hi llirr ia Vinli. ..Jl i ...
..... v., kiiiuiicss miiu ocnevoience to tnem.
In making the productiveness of the earth de
pend upon the diligence and wisdom of the culti
vator, thp Universal Father hj inseparably con
nected the fertility of his creation with the stron
gest intellectuaT inducements, and the highest
moral motives. -
In putting the s firutal world tinder his dominion,
he has pjacedlhe happiness of which'thclr nature
iLBlPi unOfiiui trbguistceor
jnaas interest. -
in seven weeks fewer peas br jve buthcli. than
th'e6thcr three, yet they weighed more when kil
led by two ttohc uid four fioundtapon tn aver.
aEi or six stones twelve pounds upon the whole."
From Letters ntow Washimctov
Mr. CALirbuw is a joung raan.nboue
thirtpfireyearl ofagcr Imlorm is above the
middle size, but meagre, bony arid slender :
hi facewants beauty f but his eye possesses
all the brilliancy and fire of genius. He is n
native of the south, and has, I understand,
ocen euucateu iQrJhcJar.. -It-ir iint my in
cultivator of the uround consider'his, asamonff
phlhest and happiest
since in relation to the earth, he is the instru
ment of Heaven's bounty. ;, and in relation to the
Mwior, orders of cceation, th.e almoner of prov
idence. - ' . -
The importance of the -followinK exneHment
with respecttothe treatrteHl of hitsTbblefrora
5, ..fSfJ.iI9mlh"ai induced a membeiu)f
that'it may be. published in their next collection,
for the attention of the American farmer. '
" ftc following, experiment was lately made
by a gentleman of Norfolk. Six pigl of the Nor
folk breed, and of nearly equal weight, were put
to keeping at the same time, and treated the same
as to food and litter for about seven weeks Three
ofr thern were left to shift for themselves as lo
. clcanUiics theother three were kept as cleati
s poswwc by a man employed for the purpose,
tentioa to enter into any abstract BTrerhfot 7r.n
on the influence of climate upon the human
intellect On this subject much ingenuity
and learning have been wasted, and the vis
ionary theories of Unffon. Ilnol
. .. .. m.VJ r.'Vvy!"' .- v
been laid aside as the lumber of the schools.
or trie idle sporting of fancy ; but it has al
ways appeared to me that some climates arc
more propitious to ctnius and the ramd de.
velopement of the intellectual nowers than
others. The soft and voluptuous climate of
tonia, lor example, is Dctttr adapted to nour
ish and expand the genius of man. than the
inclement blasts and " thick Btotian air" of
northern latitudes. Be this, however, as it
may; whether Mi. Calhoun be indebted to
dimatf, to nature, or to circumstances, for
thepowers -he- possesses,- he " isUnques
tionably an extraordinary young man. He
started up, on the theatre of legislation, a
political Roscius, and astonished the vete
rans around him by the power of his mind,
and the resistlessncss of his eloquence. . He
has the .ingenuity without the sophistry of
Godwin, to whose mind I think his bears no
triflincr analogy. On all subiects. whether
abstract or ordinary, whether political or
moral, he thinks with a rapidity that no diffi
culties can resist, and with a novelty that
never fails to delight. He has the brilliancy f
without the ornament of Burke, the fire with
out the literature of Pittr- With an inven.
tion, which never abandons him, and whose
fertility; astonishes, he seems to loath the pa
rade of rhetoric, and the trUtter and decor.
tiotis of art. His stvle of efoauence rTsnr-
culiar and extraordinary ; without any appa
rent pageantry of imagination, Tor anv of the
flower-woven beauties of language, he seizes
on the mind, which, likethe unfortunate bird
under the influence" of fascination,' becomes
passive and obedient to the power it neither
can nor wishes to resist. In the u temnest
and whirlwind" of his eloquence, his argu
mentation is so rapid, im thoughts are so
novel, and his conclusions so unsxDected.vet
apparently correct; that Voti can neither :"ariti"'
. . . . a ... . r . -J I
cipaie nortninK ; tne attentwn. .LiiUted,.and4
thlininSiptel luneuflhc sufectl
wnicn ne js nandiing, and it is not until the
lascmation ot-ni manner has subsided that
you feel inclined to reason, or become capa-
Die ol detecting his errors. tvenUhen, his
witchery lingers on the imagination, and casts
a veil over the judgment which it cannot im
mediately remove, and which, in opposition
to the strongest efforts, tends to obscure" its
perceptions and weaken its energies. I have
heard gentlemen, who were associated with
him." declare that, when'he snbte. thevtr4
i .. .. K -- ..... jr-f ........ .fL.T.T- j :...i-."m. .
lor some time alter he had closed unable to
and that even by condensing ajmost to obscu-
f J vr Vinr .i.l. 1 si-A .v v.TT."i t... ...1.1. i u:.
vy, .itv v VUUIU IIUl MII3WCI IIIC tVMUIC UI Ilia
numerous arguments and ingenious deduc
tions, without occupying too much of the time
f A. l. . A f . ,
ui . mc uouse. Ana yet, .ne. nas ne ver oeen
kntwn to attempt but one f hetoricai flourish,
and in failed. His ora
torlcilatyt'e-.lias none of the embellishments
of artpor the witcheries of fancy, but is al
rnosr.to dryness, plain, unadorned arid con
ciseIIe has nothing in him poetical his
creations arc not those of imagination, in
whicht ijl hlNjn 5 som ewhat defici ent. You
tievtr Mehim emjployed in weaving garlands,
or strew ing powers on your path ; he never
strives to Ian in Elvsium." to delkht in the
rairibdw colors and eractic blaze of fancy..
llUfc IS IUC Ug'll UI IC43UII, C1C4I, UUTC-
fracted and luminous.
Betweenoratoryand poetry there is, I con
ceive, an essential difference. Conviction is
the objec of the orator, and pleasure that of
the poet. The powers of mind nccesiiry to
(HUUUI.C muse quicreni results arc not the
same: reason roverns the one. nnrl marring-
tion, the .other. -The -former is-con fined to
of happiness that to secure these rights, gov
ernments re insthuted-among .men, c'f riving
their just powers from the consent of. the gov
erncdl 'that whenevpp anr'fnrm rf tnvnmtTr
argument and Iruth, the latter to imagery and .,,ecm .destructive of these ends, it is the righ
sentiment. I hi orator analyzes arid reasons, ! . e Pt0P!e l ,,er rpfth lu and to injuiutn
compareJJna duceJ4Iw. noetfmlbmrP,e, KOMJramtnt, laying its f otmdatloiron such
and imitates Jw- ---- - ; -4 principles, and organiilng its powersin such form".
Jf HL ryo.Ja fine phrtnry rollin ' ' r -both
gUnce from hcyc to cartli, from eartli to heaven'
and embodies" fdrtlVtKir fArmi fT,
iwiiug v ktllll!' 1U
known." The orator must exist in the living
wonu i tne poet may live la' a woMd 6f'his
own creation. Memory and iudcmtnt an-
ihe powers employed bv the fJnmrfTimaffina-
tjpn and invention ihosc exercisedbythe latr
mwviug ik iicart anu exciting tne
passions, thev differ onlv in the meant em
ployed to, produce this effect; and in this
alone they approximate. '1 he examples are
numerous to establish the correctness of these
positions. Cicero was a great owtor, but a
bad poet; Pope' was a great poet, but a bad
orator, xu snort, oratory and poetry have
never been united in one individual. But to
return. ,With all the excellencies I have
mentioned... Mr. Calhoun has some creat
faults : Wfi. afihartienty sava the duke At-
la Hochtfocault, "oifaux trranda hommet
(Pavcir fegrands difauti" He wants, I
thinlc, colsistency and perseverance of mind,
and sceris incapable of loner continued and
patient investigation. What he docs not see
t the itriieX4mnationvhc8eld6hi takes pains
tO Search tor : but It'll! the lirrhtninrr rrlanr..
: " (J
ol his mihd, and the rapidity with which he
anaiy .caw never tails to furnish him with all
that mayjbe necessary for his immediate nur-
poscs. la his legislative career, which,
tnougn trort, was uncommonly luminous,
his love o novelty, and his apparent solici
tude to astonish, were so great, that he has
Occasional been known to go beyond even
the dreams of political visionaries, and to pro
pose sc he ties which were in their nature im
practicable or in jurious, and which he seemed
to oflr.r merely lor the purpose of displaying
tne amuence oi cis mind, and the lertility ot
his ingenuity. Youth, and the necessary
want ol experience, may be pled as an apol
ogy for his eccentricities of conductt and. his
and a more correct and extensive acquaint
ance wiili men and things, will doubtless allav
the ardor of his mind, and lessen the fervor
ot his temperament. Like our eccentric
countryman, Darwin, he is capable of broach
ing new theories, but wants the persevering
investigation, tension oi tntught,nnd patience
oi judgment, nccess ary to bring them to matu
nty, or to render them beneficial. Men like
these are often both very serviceable and in
jurious to society. - In such a bodr-as the
v 0 , .
I. I 1 TTI I .1
congress oi -tne united States, where ihel
bled, such a man s sphere of usefulness can
not be correctly ascertained or defined.
Amidst the variety ot schemes his ingenuity
suggests, and his restless emulation urges him
to propose, many will i.o doubt be. found to
be practicable ; and though he cannot himself
pause to mature tnem, tne mass ot mind bv
which he is surrounded, and on which he
blazes, wilt reduce them to shape, and give to
his ingenious novelties a local habitation
and a name." In short, Mr. Calhoun is one
Of thoser bcinjrs whom voii can bril v trace II W
IthtJtameJby the light which he casts upon
ui yam, ui mc wiiivii ne jcavcs in nis
trainr-V-But the situation to whichrhe has re-
cently been elevated, has, I fear, abridged his
sphere of usefulness ; anjl as secretary of war,
mi, VMtuiwuii, nuu uvtupicu cvcryiqngue.
durintr the sessions of iht nai'mnal UitU.
o -j l
ture, may dwindle into obscurity, but yill
. - . .....
Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Godwin, are alike consnicuotu
for w hat I call uiircnuitv. u contradktineiiishpit from
v - ww W "rF
as to them, shall aeem mnit likielv tacnVwrt iK
safetjr and happiness. Prujencc, indeed, will
dtoe lhWverDWntiJon5 eMa.W lie.ibpuhL
not be changed for light and transient causes, and
"""KIm!! Pf jence hath shown, that roam
kind are more disposed to suffer, while evils aro.
sufferable, than to right themselves, by abolishing
the forms to which they are accustomed. But
!i5 i??lf raJn oJ abuses and usurpatioMrpur;
suing inrariably the same jcct, erinccs a design "
to reduce them' under ahsolut dtnniim. i.
their right, it is their duty, to throw off such gov
ernment, and to provide new guard for their fu
ture security. Such I mi been the patient suffer.,
ance of theso colonies ami such is now the ne
cesiiy which constrains them to alter their former
systems of government. The . histoi y of tb
present kinjr of Crcat-llrtain Is historv ftf n.
peated Injuries and usurpations, all having in ui-,
rcct object the establishment of an absolute tyr-,
anny over these states. To nnv thU. t fin
bo submitted to a candid world :
He has refused his assent to laws, the most
wholeiome and necessary for the public good.
11 r. has forbidden hit
of immediate and pressing importance, unles
suspended in their oneration. till his assent iKonlil
bc-ol)iained;nd, when"s6 suspended, hcTias ut-
Ucrlv neglected to attend to them.
ii e nas rciusci to pass other laws, for the ac
commodation of large districts of people, unless
those people would relinquish the right of repre
sentation in the legislature a right inestimable
to them, and formidable to tyrants only. '
He has called together legislative bodies, at
places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from
the depository of their public records, for the sola
purpose cf fatiguing them into compliance with
He bus dissolved representative houses repeat
edly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his in-
vasions on tne rights ot the people.
Hp. has refused for a long time after such dis
solutions, to cause others to be elected ; whereby
i he legislative powers incapable of annihilation,
have returned to the people at large, for their es
ercise : the state remaining, in the mean tim. rr.
posed to all tins danger of invasion rVoln-whouti
and convulsions within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population
of these states ; for that purpose obstructing tho
laws for naturalization of foreigners ; refusing to
passoiners, to encourage their migrations hither,
and raising the condition of new appropriation of
He has obstructed the administration cf jus- .:
tice, by refusing his essent to 'laws, for establish
ing judiciary powers. ........ ,
He. has made iudscs dcnendrr.t on hi will
alone, .for., thc-tenuro f their -offices, and the -w
amount and payment of their salaries. i
sent hither swarms of xifliccrs. to harrass our
people, and eat out their substance. ; ?
- He has kept amongus, in times of peace, 'tiJ '"3
cmg armies, without the consent of our legisla
He has affected to render the mllitarv indenen.
dent of, and superior to the civil power.
He has combined with others. In snhiirt n fn
a jurisdiction, foreign to our constitution, and un-
acKnowietiged by our laws ; giving his assent to
their acts of pretended legislation :
ror quartering large bcdies of Iroops among
For protectincf them, hv a mock hlaf. from
punishment for any murders which they should
; "V. . :l y.5fM.u.U!Janis. oi .incse. autewwr
ror rutilng oil our trade with all parts ot tho
For imposing taxes on us without our con
FOFdehiivIhi? iis.in manv eases; of the benefits
of trial by jury : .
'itranspotting-:m:yond'iew:to be tried
(or pretended onenceti!
A rxAffmoL's BECURATIO B TBr tinzgtCTATITIS Ot
THS USITKB rriTKtJDT AJUWCA I tOVOatHS iflSEMBLSB,
tcLj 4, 1776. .. ....... . . ....
When in the course of human events, it be
comes necessary for one people to dissolve the
nolitical bands, which have connected them with
another, and. to assume, among the powers of the
earth, the separate and equal station, to which
the laws of nature, and of nature's God. entitle
them j a decent respect to the opinions of man
kind requires,lhat they should declare the causes
which "impel-them to the senration. :
' Wr. hold these truths to c"self evident-iiha
all men are created eciual : that thev are endowed
by their creator with certain unalienable i ItHhits
For abolishine the free Svstenr of Eno-lish laws?
in a neighboring province, establishing thereia
an arbitrary Vernmentiitnd tnttring its boun
daries, so as to render it at bhec an example and
fit instrument for introducing
ruie into tnese colonics :-
" For takin? awav hur rlrflrtfiM.liliolVihfnli'' rin
I , O J . . - , r ... ......
most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally
the forms of our governments i V
For susoendiner our legislatures, and 'declaring
themselves invested With power to legislate for
us, in an cases whatsoever. .
I TV ahrllr.afrl onvprnntint tnr. k i1aiI!hm
U3 out of his protection, and Waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts,
burnt our towns, and dsstroved the lives of our
people. ,C v ;" ' ,
He iS, St this time., framnnrfincr Iaro-n irmiH
of foreign mercenaries, to complete the works of
ftw . aj,,.;:.v,Wii4ni u?.,. ,- : -- ,. -. .-r-., . ... -,:.... -
. ' ' ' . . ;" . " .. ' ' iZ'.S'. . .r. . . . r; ' 'Kis-LL- ' - .. ' T '". I ) . " ).