tT7jf"-l u i
rucusiii;o by KuiDtn l kkciwj.
flit Viifiw'cMumi la published every Tues
day, at THREE DOLLARS per mum, payable at tb
, n.lof aix months. , 0- . ' .' ;' .'!
(&Xo piper will bt discontinued unt3 all arrcaragti
are paid, Unless at the JiscrcUon 'of the cditora. j
' "vhocVcf wlfi becoinVitaporoubl-rfor the payment of
Jnepaperi,shaH receive a tenth jro.' w
: AirtiTuivBiTt ul b uuerted on the customary
' No advertisement inserted until it ha been paid for,
of its payment aasuroed by aome person in UuYlown, or
It vicinity, f . ,A .,. v
fcJ-All letter?! mm'pitl-puJtbrXixey
will not b attended to..' ' - '
Columbia's mm, spurn t titt rugged tml
Ttvr natfm'i glory It a cultured .
jUm'CiciaIut,f Wmtriiu birthy- ;
Jnereated ht Iwrelt utile he tilled the earth t
Vc Ckitute Manarth lays the sceptre drum,
.Yer deem the task unwrthy the crrwn.
Management of FroU Trees.
The following dircctkmj for the management of Fruit
Tree, in every it ye of their growth, will be found sat-
Uactory. They are from Marshal's Rural Economy.
. A"tteJTe(J"an3 nursery ground should be kept
perfectly dean, and be double-due, from a foot
to eighteen inches deep. The seedling plant.
ought to be sorted agreeably to the strength of
xncir roots mat mey may rise evcniy logetner.
In transplanting, the tap or bottom root should
be taken off, and, at the same time, the longer
side rootlets thould be shortened. The young
pianu mould men be set in rows, three feet apart,
and from fifteen to" eighteen iucbes asunder in
the rows ; care being taken not to cramp the
I roots, but to bed them evenly and horizontally
V among the mould. In strictness of management
J they ought, two years previous to their being
transferred to the orchard, to be re-transplanted
'into unnuaurcd double-dug ground,four feet
I every way apart, In order that the reeding fibre
I may be brought so near the stem that they may
I be removed with it into the orchard," Instead of
i being they gcneraJlyarev, .eft - behind in tbr;
f nursery. ' Hence, in this second transplantation.
as m the first, the branches of the root should not
be left loo long, but ought to be shortened in
buch a manner as to induce them to form a rcg
tilar globular root, sufficiently small to be remo
ved with their plant, yet sufficiently large to give
it firmness and vigor in the plantation.
If the raiting or improving of varieties be the
object in view, the nursery-ground thould be nat
uraltu deep and well toiled, and highly manured ;
5 and the plants rcfieatcdty moved at every second,
third, or fourth year, that they may luxuriate not
only in rich but freth pasturage ; thereby doing,
periapt, a that art can do, tn this ttuge ofvn
flrovemenf,towirdi t giving 'freedom to the sap vet
and tize and richnett to the fruit .
The intervals may, while the plants are small,
be cropped with such kitchen garden produce as
will not crowd or overshadow the plants ; the
rows being kept perfectly free from weeds.
In pruning the plants, the leading shoot t should
be attended to. , If it shoot double, the weaker of
the contending branches should be taken off. If
the leader be lost, and not easily recoverable, the
plant should be cut down to within a hand's
breadth of the soil, and a fresh stem trained.
Nextlto be.leader, the stem boughs require at-tcntion.Vt-
itife undermost boughs should be taken
off by defcTees, going over the plants every win
ter ; always captiously preserving sufficient heads
to draw upvthe1 aspr thereby giving ''strength' to
the stems and vigorto the roots and branches ;
common practice, thereby drawing them up pre
maturely tall and feeble in the lower part oi the
-tems-"-'Fhe thickness of the stem ought' to be
in proportion to its hf,i;;it; a tall stalk, therefore,
requires to remain longer in the nursery than a
low one, : t . . . ......
Rett Method of Planting in the Orchard.
Describe a circle about five or six feet diameter
for the hole. If the ground be in grass, remove
the sward in shallow spits, placing the sods on
one side of the hole ; the best of theloose'roould
placed by itself on the aiwther sk
earth from the bottom of the hole fin a third heap.
The depth of the holes should be regulated by
the nature of the sub soil. Where this is cold
and retentive the holes should not be made much
deeper than the cultivated soil To go lower is
to form a receptacle for water, which, by standing
among the roots, is very injurious to the plants
Un the contrary, in a dry light soil, the holes
should be made considerably deeper, as well to
obtain a degree of coolness and tioisture, as to
be able to establish tiic plants firmly in the soil.
In soils of a middle quality the hole should be
ol such depth that, when the sods are tlirown ta
me oouomot it, the plants w ill stand at the wo.
depth in the orchard ai'ilicy Mid In the nursery
bach hole, the re lore, should be oradenihacUptec;
to the particular root H-nted in it. The holes
ought, however, for particular reason to be
made previous to the day . of planungr u the
leason: of planting' Usp!figTtnd the ground and
the weather be dry, the holes should be watered
the evening before the day of planting, by throw
ing twaor three pailfuls of water-into each, a
new bureuguiTe practice.
In planting, the sods should be thrown to the
bottom of ihciolei,cbopt. with. the spade, and
covered.. with some uf the finest ot the mould-
If the hole be so deep that, with this advantage,
the bottom will not be raised high enough for the
plant) some of the worst of the mo4ld should be
returned before the sod be thrown down.
' The bottom of the hole being raised to a proper
height, and adjusted, the lowest tire of roots are
to be spread upon it ; drawing them out horizon
tally, and spreading them in different directions,
drawing out with the hand the rootlets and fibres
which severally-belong to them ; spreading them
out as a feather, pressing them evenly into t.Se
toil, and coveiing them by hand with some of the
finest of the mould : the other tires of loots are
then to be spread out and bedded in a similar
manner. I -re at care is to be taken to work the
mould well in. by hand, that no hollowness be
left to prevent which, the mould is to be trod
den hard with the foot the remainder of the
mould should be raised into a hillock round the
stem, for the triple use of affording coolness,
moisture and stability to the plant. A little dish
thould be made on thejppof. Jhe.hiil.QCk ;.ai)d
from the rim oT this the slope should be gentle
to the circumference of the hole, where the bro
ken ground should sink some few inches Lclow
the level of the orchard. All this detail may be
deemed unnecessary by those, I mean, who
have been accustomed to bury the roots ot plants
in the grave digger's manner; but I can recom
mend every part or it to those who wish to en
sure success, from my own practice
Plants which have been transplanted in the
manner here recommended, whose heads have
been judiciously lessened, and which have been
planted in the manner here described, seldom
require any other stay than their own roots. If,
however, the stems be tall, and the roots few and
short, they should be supported in the usual man
ner with stakes, or rather in the following man
ner, which is at once simple, strong, and most
agreeable to the eye t Take a large post and slit
it wuh-a- pwr amt-place the parts flat war,' ."Wrth.
the faces to the plant, one on each side of it, and
wife of fiecrflary piy the first ttstt to the wife
oft Member oiCongrcss shall the Secretaries
outrank the Senators shall clerks and the wives
of clerks vi.it the President's drawing room are
questions which' have been discussed in solemn
councihand which bavtretnployed ercrftongtie
arid every 'mind in the sublime Bagdad of Amer
ica. A little more than two hundred years have
chpsed since the first beulcnxut of this country ;
amr'aai "generation" averages but TairtytliVec,
few families hete can boabt of more than fite
generations ; and yet our i?i!L.!!!v,c,J
quarters with pane jyici o'great families, who
have come, perhaps,
fTrom Greenland, Zcmlln, or tie Iird know where.!
I assure you that I feel infinitely disgusted at
this ridiculous apery of nobility. I have seen
enough to know, that the true noble is the rioMe
of nature, and that O.e really great man is the
man who standi on hU ' vn legs, not un the crutch
es of his fore-faUxm who relies cn bis own in
tellectual and moral powers, Uhout any with to
climb into consequence over the totnb-sloncs of
a venerable anccs'.rj.
14 Nam genua ct prw t ct nan fcrimus ipat
' Vlx tioatrs foco." , -
Iet me not be misunderstood, as undervaluing
the advantages of a respectable family. What 1
censure, is the absuid pretensions of little men
to resolve them.elves into great men by a species
of genealogical alchemy. It is not a little amu
sing to ate the efforts of a ttovut homo, (us styled
by the old Romans to attain the advantage ground
of honor, formerly occupied by the ancestors of
inese preicnuers ana me riuiuuous counier-ex
ertions of this factitious nobility in endeavouring
to barricade the advances of their antagonists by
a line of genealogical trees. I accidentally lit
on a rare book of five octavos in petto, styled
Jlden't Epitaph, &cc. where 1 found the lineal
and collateral consanguinities ami affinities of
some families arranged with so much precision,
and thei.- remote tamificationi laid down with
such perspicuous delineations, that I was almost
tempted to believe that 1 had stumbled on the
British Peerage. Ages, marriages, children,
names, sites, professions, offices, follow each oth
cr iu the true nobility style.
Stuck o'er with titles nnd hun j round with atring,
That thou mayst be by king or w i of kinj-t j
Bout tk pure blood of an illut'rioiii nee,
In quleOflow from Lucrcce to Lucrece i
But by your father's worth if your you rate,
Count me those only who ar good nnd great.
Go 1 if yout ancient but igmblt-lleoV -
Has crept through acoundrtU ever since the flood
Go! and pretend your family is young-,
two feet apart, and nail your rails upon the edges ! Mor' 0n your fathers have been fool, so lonir.
of the posts.
Concluded in our next.
IXTBACT TTMWt THI LXTTtftt OF HIBITIMCCS,
Pubathedin the Albany f A Y.J Statetman.
It is not a little extraordinary to observe the
strong propensity of this republican people or
titles and for claims to high distinction of family.
The foundation of their government is the equal
ity of human rights. " All men, (says their cel
ebrated declaration of independence) are created
equal," and yet we perceive a continual aspiration
after the gewgaws and "mummeries" ofaristo
cratical governments. The golden eagle which
adorns the buttonholes of the heroes of the rev
olution, is a favorite addition to their exalted mer
its. Titles abound to superfluity. Every gov
ernor is styled JZxcellcncy, whether he preside
over a state or a territory. Hit Honour, and the
Honourable, are applied to deputy governors,
Speakers of Senates and General Courts, Chan
cellors, the Members of the higher Judicatories,
Members of Congress, and .State Senators ; and
now and then you observe the Worshipful mem
bers of Corporations and County Courts drop
ping their appropriate titles, and .taking a scat
among the Honourable pi the land. Esquire is
applied to the magistracy in general, and to the
members of the bar. -.--'Sometimes Hit Rxcellcn
ey and The Honourable are invested with ibis mag'
nificcnt-appendage in-order to -lengthen out-an
Alexandrine line of mighty honors. Every man
who practices physic or surgery, or undertakes
to tinker. in any way. the human, taxhv is called
Doctor. Even the village apothecary and culler
of simples ; and theft Gentleman is most liberally
applied to the Dlt minorum of this title-loving
people, who seem to be anxious to keep constant
ly out of view the distich of old Chaucer,
When Adam dclv'd and Eve span,
Then thererwas nF gentleman."
,.Mr Ciianger inform mc, that at the first es
tablishment of the present nations! government
a strenuous attempt was made to introduce high
bounding titles. It was proposed to style the
President, Hit Serene irighHetg the Vice rresi
dent, 'Hit Highness Senators, The Pight Hon
curable Representatives, The Honourable, be.
8cc. For the honour of the country, this ridio
tiloas. effort was overruled by 4he good sense of
the nation. Drawing rooms, levees, regulations
of rank, prescriptions of ctiqucttcj are, however,
permitted to disgrace the government ; and ques
tions of high import, and of great pith and jm
portance, with respect to precedence, are debated
with wondci fill zeal and astonishing ability. ShaH
the ifc of the fretident return viits-sball the
What ran ennoble sots, or slaves or coward?
Alas? not all the blood of all the Howards."
The fiinou Robert Gourlay,wli.o alarmed the provem-
ment of I'pper-C'anad so mucli, a sliort time hince, by
his political writing1) and schemes, and wltou as impris
oned, and finally- expelled the province, is now in Scot
land, where he haa published a statement of hia case, and
his determination to apply to Parliament for redrcas.
In reference to lus imprisonment and trial, iv.t statement
contains the fbllou ing paragraph. Richmond Enquirer.
It was reported that 1 should be tried only as to the
fact of refusing to leave the province."" A 8taie of ner
vous irritability, of which I was not then sufficiently
aware, deprived my mind of the power of reflection or
the subject. I was seized with a fit of convulsive laugh
ter revived not to defend such o suit and was, per
haps, rejoiced that I miirht be even thus :t at liberty
from my horrible situation. On being called up for trial,
the action of the fresh air, after mx week close confine
ment, produced the effect of intoxication. I had no con
trol over my conduct t no sense of consequences, ami
little other feeing' but of ridicule and disgust lor the
court which countenanced such a triuh At one moment
1 had a desire to protest against the whole procecdin.
i. . . . i . i . . .
dut, lorceiung inai i nau u wnuen proiesi m my pocxci,
I atrugined in vain to call to mind the word protest and
in another moment, the whole train of id'-as which led
to the wish had vanished from mr mind. When the ver
diet -Was returned, that I wis guilty of having rcfisrdto
leave the province, I had torjpt tor wnit I was tried, and
affronted a juryman by asking h:m if it was for seditioni"
them, are Tery much eountericted iA their Influ - ;
enco by causes which are not so rtadily per
ceived. To one removed frord hahl of daiiy
Intercourse with them, and unable, through lhe
medium of history, as vet to contemplate ihee
some explanation. '
The poor of tin state liar, ol late years, in
creased to a number which fills some rc fleet inj
men lth alarmr" Ilcforc I say any thing of the "
Inadequacy or inexpediency of the poor-laws of
tills state, it wijl be .woper Jfirit to girf yj?U au
account of thefr protisions wd leading features.
They providc,that certain persnns caIledCom-
mtssioners of the Poor,'! shall be appointed i'l
each district of the state. These commitsioners
organise themselves Into a board, nnd take into
their charge the interests and necessities of tho
poor in their respective dutricis. They arc most
generally selected I row the most rcapcctablo
citizens of the country ; they meet at stated pe
riods, to take into consideration the condition of
the poor: the times of. these meetings are al
ways known, and persons deserving the assistance
of their body are always represented to them
either by their friends or themselves. Ac con
ing to the aggregate mass of poverty and hclj -lessness
thus presented tq this body, (or board,
as they stile themselves,) will be the amount of
the poor-tax to be levied upon each' (Ustricl, and
commensurate to it they frame a draft upon tho
collector of the state taxes. The amount of tlie)
poor-tart is, however, limited by law it cannot
exceed a given proportion of the state tax. Tho
sutiLof. money so ascertained, is paid by.the col
lector into the treasury of the board of commis
sioners, and they disburse it to the best of their
judgment. The commissioners are ndt required
by law to publish their proceedings, and are irr -sponsible,
except by tedious proceedings in u
court of chancery, or an action at law to recover
certain specific penalties for enumerated acts of
malfeasance. 1 believe they arc elected annually,
and by the people.
1 his feature of the poor-laws here, as well
as many other instances of their state economy
which might he mentioned, evinces a most in
temperate and pcrnicloih propensity to place of
fices in ihe gift or the omnipotent people, , and to
secure a recurrence of the exercise of their pow
er as often as possible.
" The leading objections I make to the pro
visions of the poor-laws as stated above, is, thit
the manner of permitting them to partake of rhr.
public bounty is: cajculated to increase their hu m-"
bcrs. So long as applicants for this state ehaiity
can remain quietly at home, undistinguished by
any mark of their dependence, they .will be w il
ling, on slight pretences, to avail themselves of
its benefit. Although the character of the pcor
man's friend has in it a cabalistic charm for tho
popular ear, yet it cannot be disguised that there
is a conceded disgrace, in a country so bountiful
to industry as this, in being enrolled on the list
of paupers. ZWilh common exertions, an indu-i
triousinan may, in a few years, lay up a suffi
ciency to secure himself against the attacks ot'
misfortune in after life.
M Poverty, with most who whimper forth
Their long eompIalntaV'ts 'setf-iinnicted woo'4
Tli' cfl'cct of laziness or sotti&h waste."
Therefore it is, that, even while the tear of com-
passion drops upon the head of the gray-hcadt !
pauper, there is, at the least, a conviction, that if
the history of his life could be unfolded, he would
be discovered to be the author of his own misery.
"On the plan of supporting the poor in this
state, the pauper remains in private, hardly known
to a;iy one, (unless, perchance, by his extreme
helplessness,) except to the very persons from
whom he receives his subsistence. It. must be
obvious, that, under such regulations, fraud must
and often will be practised on the commissioners1
iy dishonest persons,, too indolent to labor, and
too much disposed toinvent means for cprttinuinc
in idleness. . The objects of this Injudicious char
ity arc scattered in various sections of every tlis-
: 1 i l : ' ' . -f-?T;i- T
soa thi warren cazoushs.
TbcfolloYvJnscletter, written by nn ErIishinmlbpm
Quebec to an acquaintance there, delineates the palpa
ble inconvenience and ir.creasing expense of .supporting
the poor in South-Carolina, upon the present plan of that
state ; and, while it demonstrates tne utility of poor-homes,
pronounce a well merited culogium upon the: wisdom
which guided the people ot 1 to wair county m establish'
ing such a house for the reception of their poor. "
" Drar Sir : I herewith" semi ycu a copy of
the laws:w bquthnuarplina. . Lxcellent-as-you
will be disposed to pronounce these laws in the
general, nd beneficial as their slate institutions
have provert themselves in their results, you will,
no doul)t usceyef, in the perusal of their lawsi
a great inauehtton to a class of their population
comparatively small to what it is in most Euro
The poor in South-Carolina are few in num
ber. The abundance and fertility of the soil in
this, as well as all the American states, joined
wkh the thinness of their population, places the
means, ot competent livelihood within the reach
of every man, riiese barriers: to the increase o
p?.'ipen, operative as yrjt riayt,c.Tc!lr'f' t? flijok
tnct, unobserved by any one to detect them m
their innumerable pretended complaints, maims,
or other fictitious distresses. Irt this way they
isJaiqg. themselves under theJ)maii.a)idMline.
mantle. of pauperism. The prime evil, there
fore,; of the present system of poor-laws" here,
Sonsists in the facility with which paupers are
Sathv:and tht temptaUorii whtchthe system It
self holds Out to vice Ami idleness to take Tefugw
under its wings. And there can be ro doubt but
that to this cause: must be referred ..the Ja.eJ.ij-,,,
crease of the-poor .list in South Carolina.
.' Another objection to the existing system of .
poor-laws here is, that in allJcountriea thare is
amongUheir poor a mass of industry capable,
under suitable regulations, of being called into
exercise, both beneficially tothe poor themselves
and profitably to the state. This, however, can- . '""
not so fairly be said to be ah objection to the
present system as a vital recommendation to some
other system that would bring this industry into
requisition. And by way of recommending pub-r
lie poor-housesv lor the purpose ot biingmg this ; " '
mass of industry into the; most efiicient exercise;
North-Carolina anc Virginia "have, in some, of v
their cr.-misv erected them, undibtiud them, of
' '- ,:-(
' -'-f - m-