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CT'AUIcttcn.to the. editor muat be p$i-paiJ, or they
n ill not be attended to. ,
' OA FJltftT TREES,
The Poughkeepsle Herald states, that Mr. Jo
aeph Wsrdcll, of Washington, Dutchett County,
sold at the New-York market during the month
of May and June, the produce of ten apple tree,
for the alotdit Incredible aum of. three hundred
dollar they were of a species called summer
Russets, and the trees altogether in less than one
quarter of an acre of ground. In truth, with
tbis'fact before them,, we hope our farmers will
turn their attention to a more general and lm
preyed orcharding. We can giro them no bet
ter advice than the dying admonition of the laird
of Dumbcidikes to his son t ' Jockf when yehae
naething else to do ye may be aye sticking in a
tree it will be growing) Jock, when ye're slee
ping." .. . . . - . - Northern fufitr.
TUE CARBOJMM OF ITALY.
, From the National Intelligencer. "
As frequent mention has been made of the
' Carbonari in the late revolutionary intelli
f .v pence from Italy, we have taken the follow-
; ing notice of this political sect, from the work
of Theodore Lyman, ir. iust published, on the
political state of Italyf to which work we re
' ; fer our readers for further details on this sub
ject, as well as for much accurate and novel
. . information, particularly oi a statistical na-
; ' '.. tureon ihe state of Iuly in general.
Ik .;y- -"The large number of persons discontent
ed with the present government in Italy, and
iKbUed' with revolutionary principles, are
formed into associations, more or less extcn-
Wfor-their oddity. Of these denominations,
Z.Zh Carfanari, or the Charcoal-makers, has of late
t'- I i ?ccome most familiar. The Pope and the
; r Kin of Naples, on their restoration, after
v the overthrow of the French power, publish
': ed edicts against tte society of Free Alasons,
and . against all other mysterious meetings,
amongst 'which 'those of the Carbonari were
! of course included. 1 nese societies, how
ever, continue to exist, and to correspond with
each "other. Various individuals belonging
to them were arrested, from time to time
particularly in Lombardy, in January, 1819 ;
vhen thirty persons, with all their papers,
; were seized. - They were all persons of con
sideration, and among them were several no
blemen. While these arrests were making
ijnjXmbard of Carbonari
were arrested at the Gate del Popolo at Rome.
The secrecy observed made it difficult to ascertain-the
names of these persons, or the fate
V to which they were doomed; It is well
. ,known however, that numerous individuals
,: T belohging-to .these orders were tried in dif-
fcrcnt parts f Italy, and condemned to im
fprisonment ift different castles and fortresses.
In tfinter of 1818-19 the trial of Count
- liallor-arhjiiineteen other Carbonari, took
- place irrRnw. - It appearecTthat they were
in correspondence with the other similar po
litical sects that these societies were very
numerous in Lombardy, and the eastern side
of the Pontifical-and Neapolitan states ; and
that their object was the independence and
union of Italy, and the establishment of a con
stitutional croveirnment in that countrvi Thr
emwem or coat ot arms ot the Carbonari,
seized in the room in which they met at Bo-
. lujua, is two sworus unitea ; aoove tnem is
a large star, meaning that the sect is favored
l by heaven j the sS ron one; side, " dispelling
the clouds of ignorance ; the bust of Brutus,
with an altar before it j before this bust, a
.. hand holding poniard over a wolf, meaning;
by the wolf, government They had also a
... avmbolical or mystical language. The oath
of brotKerhood and secreSwas taken over a
bottle of poison and a burnjpg iron ; to mean,
if they should waver or betray jhc cause, thut
the ppls.on should be their drinfe,"kand the hot
iron burn tlieir fleshy The Carbonari were
actively employed from the autumn of the
Bologna, which was the chief camp or bar
rack, as it is termed In Italian, of the first di
vision I Ferrara being that of the second, and
Ancona that of the third. TJhc secret lan
guage used la'corrcspbndcnce, was an invrn
tion of the sect or society called Guelf. On
Dec. 17, 1816, sixty-three ptnons were ar
retted In the Pontifical states, many of whom,
on promise of pardon, afterwards made im
portant disclosures. This obliged the socle?
ties to abiuln' fora while from their meet
ings anuV coWespondence. Both, hbwevcri
were resumed in he ftifXZXf l and June 27
of that year, was led upon as the day for a
general rising. On that day, proclamations
were actually pasted on walls in different parts
of the provinces of the March and of Umbria.
Some of these proclamations were signed by
the Count Gallo, as Consul, proposing to the
people the measures already stated as the ob
jects of these societies, with a diminution of
the price of food, and the abolition of taxes.
But only partial risings took place, owing to
the knowledge possessed, for a' long time, by
the government of the movements of the so
ciety. In Mace rata, the conspirators were
dispersed by the town guard. These trans
actions were concealed as much as possible
from the public eye, and probably were little
known out of the provinces -avherc they took
place. The signals agreed on principally, had
reference to the various projected movements
of the different members of thr Bonaparte
family. - -No. 103, however, signified "that
the American squadron had time- into the
Bay of 'Naples to assist in a g rural revolu
tion;? a circumstance apparency expected
and believed by every one oi the prisoners.
The Count Gallo, and several r.thrrs of those
taken with him, were found guilty, and sen
tenced to imprisonment for lite.
44 Although the present objtct of these so
cieties is to put down the existing govern
ment, it is well known that they were at first
set up by the partizjns of these governments,
in order to overthrow the dominion of the
French in Italy. It was discovered, on the
trial of a priest arrested at Viterbo, that he
was an agent of the Neapolitan consul. It
moreover appeared, that the numbers' asso
ciated in these fraternities are very rrrat, and
that a strong tincture of religious ththusiasm
is mingled with their political zeal. Consid
ering that many men of virtue, tah'nts, learn
ing, rank, and fortune, belong to these socie
ties, it is not difficult to believe that thev will
hereafter make a more conspicuous figure ;
and. will have as much share in altering the
present governments of Italy, as the Tugen
bund had in the Prussian revolution, in the
years 1812, 1813." The Political State of
Italy, chap, xx 1 1 1, pp. 27628 1 .
It is a confirmation of the justice of the
closing remark, that the name of the Carbo
nari appears so frequently in the late accounts
from Naples, and that they.have evidently
taken so active a part in the events that have
FAJXS OF NIAGARA. - v
Extract from the lettert of IIiBKiinrrii, pubUthed in tlie
jtv'Xork ( Jtldany J Statesman.
If belowthe ou tlet of Lai e Erie, any chasm
should be produced by earthquakes. or any
other cause which Would remove die lime
stone rocks, and enable the water to reach the
soft sand stone and red dai the fissures
would enlarge, and in course of time the whole
intervening rocks would be sivept away, and
r ........ ? i " ' -r''ij.-":-trfrrrr
juaxe crie wouta piunge imo iaac vniano.
The great plateau, or table land, below Lew
iston, would then be deluged, and the age of
Deucalion would visit this portion ot the great
western region. t "
At the feet of great falls of water; in the
bosom of sequestered ravines, the devotee of
natural science generally finds a fertile field of
investigation. 1 his cataract, however, does
not furnish-many interesting specimens of
mineralogy, but its neighbourhood is rich in
botany. The banks of the river about the
falls are lined with white pine and cedar. Orve
of the latter was pointed out to me which leans
terrifically twenty feet over the great eastern
bank, and in the crotch of which a most beau
tifuhand accomplished lady from Boston sate
andtoofeaqpicturesque viefahrfaMsV:v" "
vharlevoix tells of ten or twelve Outaways
whojinjrying to cross oyer to Goat Island in
order to avoid the pursuit of the Iroquois,
were drawn over the falls in spite of all their
efforts. ' .j. '
In the autumoof ;i810vsalt boat with four
rels of salt was upset above Conner's Island,
and drifting down the river, went over the
falls. All perished but one penon, who es
caped at fint by the rudder, and finally was
taken up by a boat from Chippewa... Next
spring a canoe with three men was carried
down the cataract. " ;t .
Near the British shore, and between the
Brldgewster mills and the cataract there is a
i mall grass, island about midway between the
shore and Goat Island. A deer took the wa
ter near Chippewa.au point above this island,
and fell down upon it, where he could not be
approached and after remaining there' near
ly a day and night, was not t be seen the en
suing morniog. An anecdote is told of an
old blind mare which shows superior sagaci
ty. She went into the water above the rapids
of Niagara to cool herself. She was unable
Jlnd .heTvWay out, aodjJie. had- descended
into the vicinity of a place where she would
have been inevitably carried down. Some
boys, anxious to see her swept down the cat
aract, and impatient at the delay, threw stones
kt her. This indicated the way of escape,
and she immediately returned in that direc
tion. The passage of the river 1elow the catar
act is not considered dNngerous. There is
a boat stationed there for the conveyance of
passengers, in which I have passed. During
the late war smuggling was carried on in that
direction In the night time; and before a lad
der was erected on the east bank, people fre
quently passed over from Canada to steal ap
ples at Fort Schtosser.
But I see my friend that you are not only
tired of the subject, but of the manner in which
I have handled it, A description of this
mighty cataract is the Ulyssean bow of Amer
ican tourists. I could say much more, but I
shall only trespass further on your patience
by stilting that I have been citdibly inform
ed, that Dr. Kerr, an intelligent and respect
able inhabitant of Bridgewater, who has re
sided in Upper Canada thirty years, marked
a tree at that time on each snore of the cat
aract, and now believes that there Jias been a
retro-cession of 150 feet in his time, chiefly
at the centre of the crescent. You can see
immense piles of stones thrown down at the
foot of the cataract, and masses on the bank
of the precipice, protruding from the summit
of the cataract over the yawning gulf.
rao na aiTioAL ahttk.
Withthe mass of the inhabitants of Great
Britain, Royalty must, ere now, have lost all
its intrinsic influence. It is trampled under
foot not only in newspaper articles and shop
window . caricatures, but in Parliamentary
speeches, and in out of door harangues, by
members of Parliament. At a great meet
ingin Londorf, in which severalof them took
a part, a discourse was pronounced by Mr.
Pearson, from wiich the following paragraph
is an extract.
4 The clergy are ready to join with the law
yers in declaring that "the King can do no
wrong.' Does he then hold his existence by
a tenure different from thatwhich pertains to
the rest of humanity ? ''The King can (Jo no
wrong." Strike then from the decalogue,
44 Thou shalt not commit adultery." ,'fhe
King can do no wrong Tear then from Holy
writ the leaf on which it is written, 44 Alan
shall cleave unto his wife and the twain shall
be one flesh." The - King can do no wrong !
Proud Royalty doff j&y
is prone to evil as the sparks fly upwards, and
his heart deceitful abovetll things and desper
ately wicked." The King can do no wipng !
why then did not the first Charles carry his
head to the grave? The King can do no
wrong! why then does not a.Uesccndajtof
oar second James now sit upon the throne V
FHOM TUB fiOSTOX PATRIOT. '
The Thread Lace Establishment! at: Water
townhas attracted much attention. The ladies
from the South, the Secretary at War, andothcr
strangers who have visited it this summer, have
expressed their admiration at the perfection to L
which the manufacture of this article is carried,
and at the ingenuity of the machinery, which is
more striking thin even Whittemore's Card Ma
ehinerr Latesfrom a half inchoparyaid'afid
half in breadth, of any degree Of fineness, "and
worked to any pattern, are made equally as cood
as any which are imported and the purchaser
has this advantage, that it is Warranted not to un
ravel when it is cut, and that it can be washed as
often as the wearer chooses whereas very good
imitations which wat.t these qualities, are made
Not W-jftTo im IifcgUlivtutc
On motion of Mr. Connor, the Senate pro
ceeded to the appointment of standing com
mittees. ,,, j .
Finance Messrs. Wellborn, Owen, Hill,
Locke, H. Person, IL IL Johnson, Williams,
and C E,JolmstQtvxr
Walton, Fcnndf Atkinson, Connor,-ArLeod,"
Boon, Singleton, and Uaker.
ClaimM Messrs. M'Dowell, Leonard, Ho
gan. Graves, Marshall, L. D. Wilson, R. D.
Spaight, and Lindsay.
On motion of Mr. Owen, the message of
the Governor was referred as follows:
Circulating medium and treasury notes, to
Messrs. Owen, , CJv.Johuiloiv .Calloway
Glisson, and Caldwell.
Ranks and specie payments, to Messrs.
Hill, B. Person, W. V. Speight, Taylor, and
Judiciary, suspension of executions and In
solvent debtors, to Messrs. Locke, Shober,
L. D. Wilton, Wellborn, and Houze.
Internal improvements, to Messrs. Connor,
Atkinson, Black, Foscue, and Raiborn.
Medical board, to Messrs. Baker, Martin,
Williams, Ilogan, and Lindsay.
Tariff of duties, to Messrs. R. D. Spaight,
Leonard, Holt, Bethel!, and Deans.
Boundary line with Tennessee, to Messrs
Graves, Baird, Riddick, Singleton, and Wal
ton. Mr. Deans presented a bill further pointing
out the duty of guardians of minors, he
Referred to the judiciary committee.
Monday, Nov, 27. Mr. Locke, from the
judiciary committee, reported the bill point
ing out the duty ot guardians, with amend
ments, (requiring securities to be given every
three years,) which passed its second reading.
Mr. Williams,' from Pitt, who had been
appointed one of the committee to examine
the Treasurer's accounts, was excused from
acting on that committee at his request, being
a connexion of the Treasurer ; and Mr. Per
kins was appointed in his stead.
On motion of Mr. Shober, a committee of
military land warrants was appointed. It
consists of Messrs. Shober, Loftin, Pharr,
Holt, and It. D. Spaight.
. On motion of Mr. Hill, the judiciary com-y
mittee were instructed to inquire into the ex
pediency of repealing the act of 1806, rcquir-
ing guts oi siaves to oe in writing.
Tuesday, Nov. 28 Mr. Glisson, from the
committee of elections, made a report on the
case of Josiah Crudup, the member from
Wake, which was committed to a committee
of the whole, and made the order for to
morrow." Wednesday, Nov. 29. The Senate was en
gaged the most of this day, in committee of.
the whole, (Gen. Wellborn in the chair,) in
discussing the report of the committee of
elections on the resolution submitted by Mr.
Baker, from Gates, proposing that the seat of
the senator, JoslaJb Crudup, from Wake coun
ty, should be vacated, on the ground of his
being an ordained minister and preacher of
the gospel. N
After considerable debate, the committee
reported in favor of the resolution; but, at
the request of Gen. Wellborn, the decision of
the hou,sc was postponed till to-morrowr "
JThu .sday, .Nov.. 3D. The Senate took up .
theTeport on Mr. Crudups case j and atter
iome further discussion, the resolution vaca-
ting his scat was carried Yeas, 36, Nays, 15
A writ of election was then ordered, for a ;
member to supp)y his place ; the election ta
take place on Thursday next. ' '.
Mr. T. Person moved that the seat of Jesse
Adams, from Johnston county, be vacated,
on the ground of his being a preacher of the
gospel. Referred to the committee of elec-
tionv --" :" r -v '-e-
HOUSE OF CiMfMONS...Fridaj, Mv. 21.
On motion of Mr. Scott, the several parts
of the Governor's message were referred to
select committees, as follows : '
The embarrassed state of the countn. the
emission of treasury notes, and the suspen
sion of executions, to 'Messrs, Scott Brick el!,
Sla,de, W. S. Blackledge, and Carson.
Banks and specie payments, to Messrs.
Jvlebane, BarringtonGraham, Ehringhaus
and. Walker. .;. "