North Carolina Newspapers

    cojvGitnss.
SEVENTEENTH COXfiTtESS FIHST SESSION.
rao.n the xatioxal ixtellin excek.
Abstract of the procecdinir of the House of
Representatives, on Thursday, January 10.
On the bill for making fiartial aiirofiria
tions Jor the Military Service fur the
year 1S22.
Mr. Randolju'i remarked that, in oppo
sing the appropriation now before the
house, himself, and those who acted with
iiim, had perhaps shewn more of gallant
ry than discretion. It was, perhaps, prop
er for him to vindicate the administration
with which he had had the honor for an
honor it was, not indeed in the sense in
which that term is bandied about in this
house to act. He regretted that so
much personality had been introduced,
not only in relation to the officers of the
government, but to the members of this
house. There were two questions which
the committee had to decide, that, in his
opinion, had not been met, probably be
cause they had been misconceived. The
first and most important question was,
where does the supreme authority of this
government rest ? Does it reside in agents
or in sub-agents, or shall we find it in the
subordinates of subordinates ? He would
not consent to admit that the War De
partment was a co-ordinate or correlative
branch of this house. Should it be said
that the Executive was such a branch, he
would not deny it ; but when we approach
the Executive or Senate for information,
it is in the respectful terms of request ;
when we speak to the subalterns of the
Executive, we order and direct in lan
guage civil, if you please, but mandatory.
The doctrine of these departments being
co-ordinate branches of the government
was therefore unsound it would not hold
water a moment. And who is to be the
judge, and what the measure of judg
ment ? What is their power ? It is de
rivative ; they are the breath of the Exe
cutive nostrils. Mr. H. here adverted to
the situation and limitation of the powers
of former Secretaries, and was disposed
to do more justice to the present Screta
ry cf War than his friends seemed to
have done. The old Spanish proverb,
u save me from my friends," &c. recurred
to his mind ; and he would not take the
Secretary where he had been placed, and
for the reason that he had not placed him
self there. The Committee of Ways
and Means had hard measure dealt out to
them on both sides. They had tried to
husband the public resources, and for this
they were entitled to credit. They had
taken the only course that could effect
that object ; and he could defy the inge
nuity of gentlemen to limit the expendi
ture of the Indian department in any oth
er manner than by limiting the appropria
tions. The same course was required as
when you would teach frugality to a child
at school. As you could not define every
item of cxpeilse, the only and proper
way would be. to limit by a precise sum
the amount of his expenditure, beyond
which he should not go. There was no
other niode of retrenchment where the
expenditure was contingent. This defi
cit; said Mr. U. ccmes before us in a most
questionable shape. Last year the Sec
retary made his estimate at SI 70,000.
Only S 100,000 were appropriated) and
now he comes in for the exact balance.
Instead, therefore, of an appropriation,
the application should rather be for the
passage of a bill of indemnity to protect
him from the consequences of having
transcended the powers confided to him
by the representatives of the people.
Such an act as was resorted to by Lord
Chatham, in relation to his usurpations
on the subject of the exportation of corn.
Even that great man, who fills so large a
space in the page of history, and whose
name will be reverenced when those who
now figure upon the scene of action shall
be sunk, deeper than the plummet ever
sounded, in the unfathomable abyss of ob
livion, was obliged to seek shelter under
a protecting act, for having been guilty of
what he confessed to be a thirty day's tyr
anny. The genteleman from Pennsylva
nia (Mr. Buchanan) bad referred to the
day, even the day when be (Mr. R.) was
a "member of the Committee of Ways
and Means, to shew from the history of
that period, that then, even then, there
was a necessity to supply the deficits of
past appropriations. But, that gentleman
would remember, it is one thing to know
for what appropriations are made, and an
other thing to grant them without knowl
edge in the dark. There was but one
unaccounted deficit supplied, within his
reccollection, at the period alluded to, and
that was for the naval expenditures, which,
from the nature of the service, was most
uncertain. But another prodigious dis
covery had been made bv his colleague
(Mr. Smyth) that 100,000 dollars had been
granted for the civil list. But, though
the appropriation was not specific on the
face ol the act, yet it was necessarily so
in the progress of the disbursement. -The
salaries of the President, of the
Judges, and of ihe various officers of the
government, were limited and defined.
There was no reason to fear that they
would draw for larger amounts than they
were entitled to. It was not like the In
dian Department, where the disbursement
was contingent, and undefined by law.
Did any one ever hear of a nation being
ruined by the expenses cf the civil list ?
This was really saving at the spiggot, and
letting out at the two great vortices the
Army and the Navy. The gentleman
from Va (Mr. Smyth) had said hard
things of the former Secretary of War,
(General Dearborn,) and that his only
memorable act was ins sending the army
to perish and die among the marshes o
New-Orleans. Now he would say, and
he would say it without fear, that the Se
cretary of War was no more responsible
for that act of the Commanding General,
than tiic Head of Department in the late
war was for any of the blunders of the
Commanding Generals on the Niagara
frontier. TMr. S. here called Mr. II. to
order.J The Chairman having requested
Mr. R. to proceed, he rose and observed
that neither his health, nor his fondness
for debate, or rather his aversion to it",
would petmit him to extend his remarks
to all the subjects that the question pre
sented. But so long as his constituents
looked to him with so much partiality as
to send him here to espouse their rights,
he should raise his voice without fear a-
gainst any principle that compromitted
those rights. The law, he said, had not
authorized the expenditure, and he here
read and commented upon the statute that
authorizes the distribution of rations to
the Indians. It was a guarded and quali
fled permission not a peremptory re
quirement. The law of the land, there
fore, stood violated, and its supreme au
thority was disregarded by an officer of
the government.
You may be Viceroys, it is true,
IJut we'll be Viceroys over you
Was now virtually the language held to
this House. It could not excite surprise
that he (Mr. II.) should enlist under the
banner of the people. Although he had
once a connexion with the court, it was
not long enough to estrange his feelings
from their interest. His bias leaned to
the payers of taxes not to the consum
ers. Much had been said of dignity
but clicrmtv had its seat in the mind. It
might be found as often under a patched
coat, as under a flaunting robe, that might
be borrowed or stolen. True dignity
consists in acting well in that situation in
which it has pleased God to place us ;
and in a Secretary of War it consists in
not exceeding his appropriations. The
gentleman from Pennsylvania (Mr. Buc
hannan) had said that he did not believe
a single cent was unnecessarily expended
during the administration of Mr. Jeffer
son, ile (Mr. It.) could not go so far.
There were too many hungry mouths to
bo filled under all administrations ; too
many dogs that were ready to eat dirty
bread and dirty pudding. But, in order
to retain the confidence of the nation, a
watchful guard should be placed over the
people's money. Keep your money, and
your money will keep you : but go to
bed with confidence in your mouths, and
you will awake with chains on your hands.
We should not shun the law which re
quires scrutiny in the disbursement of
public moneys : nor, when we do guard
the Treasury, should we be put on our
deliverance. If we are to be thus put,
said Mr. It. I will say with the gentle
man over the way, (Mr. Floyd,) I am
ready to go to Spain ! The honorable
gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Smyth,)
under whose displeasure I have had the
misfortune to fall, has spoken favorably
of the employment of the troops in the
pursuits of agriculture that their swords,
or the use of them, were converted into
ploughshares. But I can remember, said
Mr. It. when that very preposition was
hooted out of the House. The soldiers
were likened to the barrow-men of Phila-
delphia. Their stations and dignity were
too high to be brought down to the busi
ness of making roads, as were the Roman
legions. Dealing in perfumery was re
garded as a more suitable employment.
But they were not confined to making
roads they were sent up the Missouri
as the bait to the trap for an Indian war.
He had not seen an account of the miss
ing in that war, nor the death-roll of the
army sent to St. Augustine. Mr. It. ex
pressed a hope that the dignity of the de
bate had not been interrupted by him.
His life was in that state of obscurity he
would not say of proscription in which
it began. He could now see only two
members of the House (Messrs. Smith,
of Md. and Newton) who belonged to it
at the time he entered that body. In al
luding to the events, quarum jiarsfui) he
could not but be astonished that in so
short a space of time principles were re
ceived as matters of course, which tran
cended, beyond measure, those for which
ail administration of that day was put
down, and as he then thought', put down
forever. He feared, from the past, that
whoever succeeds will find the Constitu
tion, like the horizon from the traveller,
fly from before him : that he would find
it flying before expediency and confidence.
However the republican party should bej
divided or subdivided, it would settle down j
into the paities of the court and country.
For his part, the side of the people was
his side. He was identified with them,
and God forbid, said he, that we should
causelessly thiow away that money which
they are perhaps at this moment labour
ing to earn.
Mr. Baldwin was sorry the rang of
debate had been so wide and excursive ;
nor could he see the necessity that the
transactions, twenty years ago, should be
drawn into discussion with more proprie
ty, than the wise doublings of Wouter
Van Twillcr, or the inflexible edicts of
Peter the Headstrong. Mr. B. would ful
ly concur with gentlemen in the proprie
ty of making appropriations specific ; but
it seemed to have been forgotten that the
specification must be made in this house.
The departments were not entitled to
make it ; and no information until yester
day had been asked of the Secretary of
War. In 1820 there was laid upon our
tables a detailed statement of the whole
system of policy and expenditure in the
Indian Department for a long series of
nr.. r ,
vears. i nat lniormaiion was to ut; con
sidered as before the house, and at the
last Congress no objection was made to
the system. I he appropriation ot the
last year did not apply to the policy of
the Indian Department. 1 he bill came
in blank, and he did not remember to
have heard even an intimation that it was
intended to cut down any part of the In
dian expenditure. (Mr. Smith explained,
and said the estimate was SI 70,000, and
he had moved to fill the blank with 8 100,
000 only.) This appropriation, said Mr.
B. was passed in silence ; not so that
which related to the fortifications. The
extent and policy of that expenditure was
tested by dnscussion and by vote. Mr.
B. was as little disposed as others to grant
away the public money. But what was
more common than that committees should
be mistaken in their estimates ? It hap
pened almost every year but and. error
of that kind had never before, as he be
lieved, been construed into an indication
that the source of expenditure was to be
destroyed. Mr. B. thought the Secreta
ry of War could not be said to have diso
beyed the direction of the House. He
had never been called upon to apportion
the S 100,000. That would be an act
which he had no right or power to assume.
If Congress directs that presents shall
cease, rations be discontinued, or the a
gents, interpreters, Sec. remain unpaid, it
would be the duty of the War Depart
ment to obey the mandate ; but to limit
and apportion to each, or to continue one
and discontinue another, when the laws
were in force that required them all,
would certainly be a departure from his
duty. By voting the sum now proposed,
the Department would not be exonerated
from responsibility of subsequently ac
counting for it. The public would there
fore be safe, and he thought it unwise to
depart at this time from a practice which
hacLnniformly obtained for 40 years, with
out setting up a buoy, to warn the de
partment of the course which was pre
scribed for it to take.
Mr. Stevenson' moved to rise and re
port, and intimated his intention to make
some remarks on the subject.
Mr. Smith begged the indulgence of
the House, to make a few observations in
relation to some points of the debate. If
any thing of a personal character, or de
rogatory to the dignity of the House had
occurred, the House would bear him wit
ness, that it had not fallen from him.
Mr. S. read a part of the rules of the
House, that related to personal allusions,
and remarked, that it was always unpleas
ant to speak of one's self, and, more es
pecially, under any degree of irritation :
but he could not forbear to give a short
answer to the law which had been refer
red to by his colleague (Mr. Randolph,)
as limiting the rations, such as could be
siared. The extent of the rations to be
dealt out, was, indeed, in some, degree, a
matter of discretion unless usage had
given it a measure but the obligation to
lurnish them, was still in force and unre
pealed. . The Secretary of War had no
right to refuse them. The gentlemen
says, the act of the sending the army to
perish among the marshes that surround
New Orleans, is to be ascribed to Presi
dent Jefferson. If so, why should not the
expenditure of the Indian Department,
in like manner, be ascribed to the present
Executive ? The fact is, that the Presi
dent of the United States commits these
things to the heads of the departments,
and they are responsible for their own acts.
Mr. S. could not believe, that his col
league intended to apply that to him, in
relation to the proceedings on the Niaga
ra frontier, which he repelled as a calum-
ny. isut this he wmiiu assure, both that
gentleman and the House, that no reflec
tion, however personal, should prevent
him from the performance of his duty.
It had been undertaken, and should be
performed, whatever might be the conse
quence. Mr. S. referred to two appro
priations that were made to cover deficits
at the time when his colleague contended
that they were made upon account ren
dered. One was made in December, and
the other in the January following and
both for the same object, which shewed
that the accounts or estimates could not
have been rendered when the first was
made otherwise it would have been
made sufficiently large to have prevented
the necessity of the second. His col
league had said, that he was of the party
of the people. So, also, am I, said Mr.
S. 1 belong not to the court ; and when will
it be found that I was ever wanting in my
duty to the cause of the people ? I have
an interest in the people, and in posterity.
there are those to whom my existence j
is important but even that existence
shall never stand in the way of my duty.
The question was then taken on Mr.
Stevenson's motion to rise and report,
and carried.
And the House adjourned.
TUESDAY, XZ.V. 29, 1822.
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.
Governoa Clinton, in his message to the Le
gislature of New-York, now in session, speaks of
the beneficial effects of Agricultural Societies
in the following terms :
44 The labors of agriculture have for the last
season been crowned with abundance, and the
institutions which have been founded for the en
couragement of this important pursuit, continue
to produce the most beneficial effects. A great
amelioration, within a few years, is observable
in all the departments of rural economy. The
rapid improvement of live stock, the judicious
application of manures, the increased production
of the various kinds of grain, and other vegeta
bles, the introduction of new objects of cultiva
tion, the invention and adoption of excellent im
plements of husbandry, and a growing attention
to the promotion of horticulture, have unques
tionably originated in a great degree from insti
tutions which concentrate the fruits of experi
ence, which apply the discoveries of science and
the inventions of art, and which excite into ac
tivity all the generous principles of emulation,
and all the latent powers of improvement."
This is the language of experience from high
authority ; and we hope it may tend to encour
age the farmers of our own state to adopt the
same means, if they desire the same results.
Every county in the state of New-York has its
Agricultural Society ; and the Legislature of that
state, convinced of the good effects of these in
stitutions, have appropriated $$20,000, to enable
them to encourage agricultural enterprize and"
industry, by the bestowment of prizes and pre
miums. Such a measure need not soon be cx
pected from our Legislature ; but the farmers
themselves have it in their power to do much in
the work of improvement, by forming Societies
in the different counties. This we cannot for
bear recommending in a spirit of great earnest
ness. We have witnessed the wonderful effects
of associations of this kind ; and none but those
who have seen, can duly appreciate them.
In the last Raleigh Register the publication of
the debates on Mr. Fisher's resolutions respect
ing a Convention, is commenced. We shall
translate them into our columns as soon as prac
ticable, so that the whole subject maybe fairly
laid before the people. They will then decide for
themselves ; and if their decision shall be in uni
son with that of the Legislature, it will be final;
the question will be settled : but if not, it rests
with them to say what other mode shall be re
sorted to, to obtain an equal representation and
a just distribution of rights and privileges. Let
them speak out. Vox pofndi vox Dei.
A correspondent informs us, that about the
first of October last, the wife of Jacob Iuinter,
of Lincoln county, was delivered cf three fine
children, all females. The mother and chil
dren have all done well ; and at the last account
of them, were in perfect health.
Jacob Painter is a poor, hard-working man
and fond of his bottle. Ile lives near the Little
Mountain, about five miles from Gen. Graham's
Furnace. His wife had twins tvice,'before this
birth of three. They have now eleven children
at seven births. Jacob is highly delighted with
his patriotism, in furnishing, if not defenders of
his country, yet the sweetest and best rewards
of the soldier and the patriot, smiling and rosv
faced damsels : for
44 Without the smile from partial beauty won,
44 O -what ii'ere man P....A world without a sun
Moreover, Jacob says he will make ladies of all
his daughters.
The Southern Evangelical Intelligencer, prin
ted in Charleston, S. C. has changed its name
and form, as well as its plan ; although 44 its pri
manj object will always be to promote the cause
of evangelical religion." It is now published
under tne title of the Southern Intelligencer, on
a super royal sheet, folio. Its former editors are
44 to be joined by a number of gentlemen of pi
ety and learning, who will use not only their in
fluence, but their talents, for its circulation and
improvement ; and its particular management
will be under the control of an Editor of com
petent talents, who will devote his labors in ma
king it useful to the cause of relisnon, accepta
ble to men of taste, and a faithful advocate of
sound learning." It will be principally devoted
to literature, morals, and religion ; but a part of
it will no appropriated to important state pa
pers, and to a condensed view of political intel
ligence. We have received the first two num
bers on the improved plan : they are handsomely
executed, and interesting in their contents. The
editors deserve, and will doubtless receive, a lib
eral patronage.
It i? calculated that the number of deaths In
the U. S. produced directly by intemperance
amounts to about 30,000 annually ; but the num
ber whom it destroys, indirectly, is much greater.
fob. iue wxsixns1 clbolijxas,-
To ihe Board of Internal Improvement
Gentlemen : This number, designed
as the precursor of a series, if the occu
pations of life shall leave tr.e leisure to
complete my design, will embrace such
preliminary observations as may occur to
me. You are called from the body of the
state, selected for your superior knowl
edge and integrity, by an enlightened
legislature, and are entrusted with impor
tant interests. This state possesses many
advantages and many inconveniences. For
the greater part it is as healthy as any part
of the Union. There is a great variety
of soil adapted to the culture of almost
every article of use or of convenience ;
and no part of this world abounds more
with that necessary article, water. But
the mouths of all our rivers are choked
with sand bars ; and numerous obstruc
tions, more or less serious, impede their
navigation, so that however much our
waters may conduce-to the health and
cleanliness of the inhabitants, they are
very illy adapted to the purposes of com
merce. Our surplus produce is obliged
to seek a market in some of the neigh
boring states, and we draw from thence
those articles cf necessity, of convenience,
or of luxury, that the wants or the fan
cies of our citizens may demand. From,
so much as I have been able in my retire
ment to learn of the matter, you have
been instituted for the purpose of coun
teracting this state of things, and by giv
ing a more proper direction to the trade,
of the state, to divert our trade, which
now goes to enrich the merchants of Pe
tersburg, and New-York, and Charleston,
to some place or places within North-Carolina
itself. This is certainly an object
worthy of you and of those who appoint
ee you. Another great desideratum is so
to improve the rivers and roads in the
state, that the transportation of produce
to Piarket may cost less labour, which, if
practicable, would act as a bounty on agri
culture, and of course as a stimulus to
S industry.
Before I venture to suggest any thing
that may seem to me advisable for the
furtherance of those objects, of confess
edly high importance, permit me to make
a few observations on the course that has
hitherto been pursued, and which the le
gislature, by publishing your last report,
has placed in the power of every man to
examine for himself. I am glad to find
you honestly declaring in the report, (page
25) that there has been an-" improvident
expenditure of money in many instances.'
I anticipate from this declaration that the
board will apply a suitable corrective to
abuses so detrimental to the public inter
est, and endeavor to remove from com
mon people, who, like me, have but little
opportunity of informing themselves,
the opinion that the whole mass of stock
holders, and contractors, and agents, with
a few honourable exceptions, are siecula
io7Sj much more concerned for their pri
vate emolument than for the public bene
fit. This is an opinion which, whether
it be well founded or ill founded, is cal
culated to do immense injury to the cause
of internal improvement, as it operates so
as to prevent honest undesigning men
from venturing their money in schemes
conducted by sharpers. Another impor
tant advantage that we seriously hope to
reap from the appointment of the board
and the employment of a Civil Engineev
and an assistant, at great public expense
is, that money will no longer be expend
ed on visionary schemes of improvement.
We hope you will effectually discounte
nance cmixotic experiments, the making
embankments of tree tops and meed to
be swept away by freshets, and the rais
ing of logs long imbodied in sand, and
permitting them to sink and imbed them
selves anew, and bv that means making
the navigation much more uncertain and
dangerous after their operations are per
formed than before they began. And last
ly, permit me to hope, that you will ex
ercise a correcting influence on the tolls
imposed by Navigation Companies, You
speak of the funds of the state in the
Cape Fear Company yielding a dividend
of 8 per cent, per annum ; and I am in
formed that the Treasurer, in his report
to the late session of the General Assem
bly, informed that body that such a divi
dend had been declared and paid for the
last year. All this sounds very well.
But, gentlemen, give me leave to say;
that you ought to be well convinced that
the Company deserve as well as receive
the tolls upon which those dividends are
declared. If, indeed, the navigation of
the Cape Fear is rendered so much more
safe and expeditious than formerly, as to
compensate the community for the pay
ment of tolls to the amount'of S 10,000 cr
S 12,000 per annum, then, indeed, has a
great public benefit been achieved. But
if this sum has been collected, and is ex
pected hereafter to be annually collected
from tolls imposed on the navigation of a
river, navigable as high before the com
pany commenced its operations as it is ai
this day, notwithstanding the immense
sums that have been expended in digging
a canal to breed musquetoes and endan
ger the health of the town, then it will
ollow that this company draws this im
mense profit without any public benefit.
And on this supposition, these tolls be-
    

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