1 II ' 1 -, - ' ' VOL V. ramie inn rosLiiaxn, itibi tCibt . " . ..-- Tli terms "of the 'Western Carolinian till hvv-'fter be m follows i 1'lirce Ihilart a year, . Nu pper diKitntinued, (except at the option jf tne Lditori until all arrearaircs arc naid. A l' ertinemcnt ill be inserted at fifty centa ' pr i 'i trt tor tut first insertion, and twenty-nve cent tit eUbjuent oua,.. - i . . A'! Jitter dl ttiti the f.litor, must be fnvfwirt or thtnr wiu nut be attended to. farn.ir.im mm i i i The Secretary of Wtr to the PreaideHt of the tJmted States.. ; . Department War, Dec. 182V. .'. S!r : In compliance with your direc ti ), 1 herewith transmit rr porta from the various branches of the Military "Ku.'ti'nhtn(?ot, Uttered from A to K, winch contain a full statement of the admuiuuaiion of that portion of the public service which it confided to the Dnmei.t of War. . The reports af ford .satisfactory evidence, that a high $e gree ofexcellence has been attained in tne administration pf the different brancKci of Kt Deoartmtnt. V N. an in'ne of lr;iflauoQ, or oy has thus far occurred, and there is every reaon to believe that the disburse. men. s of. the year will be made with, out the loss of a cent to the Govern ment. I he accounts have already been rendered " fdirrjiearly-- all .fteTmney I l L I .a . wnitn nas oren arawu.rom the I na- surJ. in the three fim quarters of the year, on account i.f the army, f.riifi. cationf, ord(V,ncr W Inrfia affair, ! . i . i . - . " ana u is aim ipit- a, witn couhdence; that the accounts of the whole of the disaurirmerHs. these au triers, will he rendered before tne termination of the Tf "r '1 b.ejuld : unsettled account of tie ,Dviinhent which, at the ttrrn. J)ttnCrnentof the preient idmfnistf uan.-a.muirtfd to 845.11 1.123. have been r-Jti-. J to ZJ.l3(5.d91 a aodur. ther accjrtmlanun is' effectually prr vented in the Department by strict fi delity and punctuality in expcuAiture and settlement rf 4cc""" In order to improve the discipline of the artillery, eleven companies have been collected at Pojircsi. Aloproc, at JOIA JPfiUXt JCojttfoit hich. have been frrm-d inti a cprps as a school qf prc tice fortne artHery.v The dispersed eondrttotrof -the artillery rendered the meurc nctrssary to the improvement of its discipline. Bv psing the whole corp, inuccessioo, through the scho't)t'it degree uf perfection will be given to the discipline of the artillery, nearly, it not quite, equal to tha whtcn could be aitaiued, were it practicable to collec t it into o-c bodv, i tstesid ol in the (iiUrrrnt lortressts along tltt arrangtm' ntintu ulltffect,willrrqnirrjani inspectionf avofficer oJlheorpa tLjTaul of CunarcW - An-appropria-lof Ericineirsr nffres. An appropri tion, in pir-iciibr, will be necessary to furni-h horsrs f'r' inHtructifon in the light artillery exercise, which may a) o be used in instructing the ravalry drill j a brantb'of Act i which th,jnmy is now witn ut fkill or instruction. A bo.trd f officers has been, consti tuted to revisrthr btwk of field exer- erc'ue and manceivrrs of infantry, which was adopted at the close of fht late war, in order to a new and more correct edition i and to adapt t, as far st practicableVtrrthr BeTvicrof Tniittian Ms, prppoied aUof tu add to it sys tem of light infantry and cavalrv drill, and to correct and enlarge the military rules and regulation, so as 'to render .thcuis. perfect a is practicable -with our present experience. - The onranizjti n of theLlndith De partment has. been much improved in tKe'cburse orib ear j tRe Tb'eneficul ffettsrofhicslreadvTJxar its improved administration. The hostilities of the remote tribes I on the Missouri still continue, and hits extended in om terrTT t hose I j. . ..i... ... v.. ....... . . "ic upper Missouri and the upper lakes..: The continued hostility amontr pHTius-trtHes tKemselves in iKat M m small dr gree $o the myrtjet of ciwztns and depredattons on their proprrty which have occurred f and "casures have been taken to effect.ll possible, a general pacification among he Season was too far advanced hen the act passed to carry into tlTect 4-.v .mtuuua oi congress in autnoriz SALISBURY, ing treaties to be held with the remote tribes on the 1W issouri by Commi iston and to be accompanied' by a military escort .'The, Commissioners have( however, been appointed, - (General Atkinson and Major O'Fallin, the agent on the Missouri,) and measures aqypicu q carry, me. provisions oi tne ucMuto tffect as so.njn the spring as the season will admit. It is believed tliatiDikhgOd-wlU leultvfrn1"the, measure, oy giving iiicreaseu security to our citizens and trade in that remote region ; but is feared thpt nothing short oi permanent military posts wiu attora complete security to either. The apprt.priation of the sum of 8 10, 000 annually, for the civilisation of the Indiani, is producing very beneficial effects, by improving the condition of the various tnoes in our tacighorhood. Already-32 schools are established in the Indian nations, aiid for the most part, avt wU conductcdf to which du ring the present year, 916 youths of com sextS have. hcn. tnstriu-ted in reading, writing, nthpf and !! of the ordinary occupations of life, ' So large a body of well instructed youth, of whom several hundred will annually return to (heir homes, cannot fail to el. fct a bentficil change in the condi. tiuOL of . this: unh ppy race.-1" r . The acts niakiue appropriation for thtrrepairsof Plymouth beach, the im j.rovements of the entrance into the harbor of Presq Isle, on Lake Erie. and of the gav iguoo of the Ohio and Missisaippt, claimed the earty atten. tioaof the Department. The execu tion of the two first of these works was placed under the superintendence of mcers of the corps pf engineers. The first Is nearly completed, and prepiu-a- tory arrangements h4vc been made for the early execution of the second. An officer, also, of the enrpr, was assigned to tne execution ot the actt r the im provement of the navigation of the !( ta fee mw ri) Mrtuving tile sand-bars which obstructed the navi gation of that river. The officer ws prepared to. make xhe experiment, but the river remained too lull ddringthe fall fur a fair trial. Under thtf oihej provisions of the act.dire ting measures to be taken to remove the n gg, saw yer, and planter, which obstruct the n fixation of the Ohio and wississipp:, a contract has been formed,, with a gent'eman experienced in their n-viga-tionjjreejhoth of ! those river! ironi all Such obstructions j in conformity with the provisions of the act, for the sum of 5560,000, to be paid on the e xecution ol Jbe work In the ,oo tract, it is stipulated, that it shall be- exeCiUed. under the superintendence iginei In order to carry into effect the act of Congress, of the 30th April last, auihrnzjne jhe JPrestdent fp caue the necessary surveys, pl ms, and estu mates, to-.le mdeL the.,, routes of such roads and canals, as he may deem of national importance in a com tncrcial or military point of view, or necessary to the transportation of the public mail," a board was constituted, consisting of General Bernard and Colonel 1 otten, of the Engineer Corps, and John Lr Sullivan,- an experienced civil Engineer. It become necessary , in giving orders to the board, under the act,' t i determine what routes for roads and canals were of " national im portance in the vieva c'tintemjilaUd by the act, as such only as the President might dtero to :.bc of. that description, y crjeayAb.pri?edjto bcexmitlc'dand surveyed In deciding this point, jt ameseceiirf6dv6frrouru tical system in its distribution of pow eri and duties between the general and state Governments. In thus regard ing ur rt it was conceived that all of those routes of roads and canals, which mizht be fairly considered as tailing witnin tne province ot any par-ticuW-atater- however -T usitTuV they mfght. be. iu a commercial - or politic 't view tir tcr the transportation of the mail, were excluded from the provi. sions of this act. The states have im portant duties to perform, in facilita ting, by means of roads snd -canals, commercial and political "intercourse Smong their citizens ; and . within the spheres of these duties, they arc more K. C...TUKS1) JANUARY 25, 1825. competent to act thlj fthe General Gfivernment and thcp lri be no ra tional ditubt but' that, s(we population and capital of the sever4 states in crease, these powerful meant of develo ping their resources will rcVtve from their respective Legislature, due at tention. But, as numerous as this class of improvement is, and inportatt j 11147-wriaxacucncrai yovcrn- menvjn tne discharge of the vano olirieifierDyWco it, there are other-improvements 0 comprehended in ir, of a more gener character,' which are more essential connected wljth the performance of its! ted to that'on the Western waters, and duties while thev are less intiraatelvlbothAvith the AilantV .. .u- connected with those belouging to thelwhole intimate!y connected with the stite gnrernmcots, " and'lesl withiii tjieir power of execution, -It is be t.l.r I 1 a a ... ea mat tnis riass, ana tms only, was comprehended in the provisions of the act. In projecting the surveys in this view of the subject, the whole Union musrbeeonliderrdari&neTitfd'thear.' tention directed, not to those oads and canals which may facilit te iflter- v 1 owti psmof tthersamf stale, but t6 those which may bind a of the parts together, and the whole itk the cen tre, thereby facilitating t ironerce and intercourse among the st tes. and ena- bling the Gnyrrnmeiit. tV d"seminate promptly thro',, the. mail J irJormation t every pan, and to extcsd protection to the whole. By cxtendug tnose principles, the line of communication by roads and canals, through the states, the Gcneraf Government, instead of interfering with the governff.ents with in their proper spheres of at tion, will afford (parjicularlv to those states situ ated in the interior) .the only means of perfecting improvements of similar desaiptioof which properly ..belong to 'These principles being fixed, it only remained to apply ihem to our actual geographical position, to determine what particular routes were of "n ted 'to examine, in rder to cause sur- d estimates to be pre pared, directed Iby the'act. -::z: 1 he hrst and most important, .was conceived to be the route for a canal extending from the seat of government, by the Potomac, to the Ohio river, and thence to Lake Erie f and accordingly as soon as the board was organized, it was ordered to examine and cause this important route to be surveyed, Dr. William . Howard and Mr, James Shriver, -both of whom were well ac quainted with the localities of the route, were associated as assistants with-ibe board... . Two. ..topographical brigades all that could be spared front the survey of the coast i-for.thc purpose surveyors, under Mr. amiver, were placed under the orders of the board. The examiuatiou of the route was cnmpletrd in September but the sur. vey will not be finished till the next seasoiv- - That prt-f- it j "however, which is most interesting, the section ot the summit level of the Allegany, including its eastern slope, is complet ed, which, it is hoped, -will enable the board to determine, during the present winter, on the practicality ol the pro- jrit. anouia 11 prove pracucaoie, its execution would be of incalculable a t- vantage to - the "country; Irwouid bind together, by the strongest bond of common interest and security, a ve ry largr portion of this Union t but, in order fully to realize its" importance in national point of view," it will be Accessary, to adver tW-me the- more striking geographical features of our country. . , .... . 1 he United States may be consider- ed, in a geographical point of view, as consisting of three distinct parts j of which the portion extending along the shoresjof the Atbftliciaftd hack to the Alleghany mountains, constitutes one 1 I that Ivihor on' the Laltrs and the St. L.Wie.nce : another 1 xi& that "watered brthe-M I siissippi including ous branches: the other.""" i r.ese aev eral poftion's are verv"dlsinctly mark- ed by well defined lines, and have na turally but little connexion, particular ly ifr a commercial point of view. 4. It tror.lv by artihcial nication that this natural separation can - be'- overcome j to effect which much has already been done. The great canal of New-Vory rmly unites the country of theXakea with the At lantic through th chmnel r tht North -River 1 and the National R,A from Cumberland to Wheel'in. com- menced under the administration of Mr. Jefferson, unites, but naort im perfectly, the Western with the Adan- tnesa - separata parts f w hich gtogrii PPKfuyonstuwa.iOurountryvaia only be effected by completi'm of the projected canal to the Ohip and Lake lying on the Lakes will he firmlu i.i it, uv means 01 wnicn tne country r centre. These considerations, ol them- elitykelves, " ithout taking into vie w oth- fcrs, f4irly bring this great work within me provision ol the act directing the surveys! but when we extend our views, and consider the Ohio and the M isstss IppTTwrtfuts K?eaTb7a"nch"e7. but as a prolongation of the canaL it tional importance, but of .the very hiehest national interest, in a com- merci-I, military, and a political point of vie. Thus considered, it in volves the completion of the improve mcnts of .the navigation ol nom inese 1 a a a ... . l rivers, wfitcn nas oeen cmmencta un der the appropriation of the last ses sion of Congress j and, aU", canals round the falls of the Ohio at Louis villr, and Muscle Shoals on the Ten nessee river 1 both of which, it is be lieved, can be executed at a moderate expense. With these improvements, the projected canal would not oniy unite the three great sections of the country together, as has been pointed ou, but wjuuld also unite, iq the most intimate manner, all of the states on the Lakes and the Western waters among themselves, and give complete effect to whatever improvement my be made bythOse -states individually. jWo T)rtilr2IIgie'workTss propo sed, would be so xtended and rami fied throughout these great divisions of our country, already contatmng-a. large a portion of our population, and destined, in a few generations, to ou number the roost populous "states i" of Europe, as to leave in that q iarter no other work for the execu ion of the; general government, excepting only the extension of Cumberland nad from Wheeling to St. Louis, which is also conceived to bc of "national -import- ance." The route which is deemed next in importance in a national point of view, is the- OB-xtendingrthrugh-the'en tire of the Atlantic states, including those on the Gulph of Mexico. "" By ad verting ta the division of. Pur, country through which this route must pass, it will be seen that there is a striking dif ference in geographical features bt- tween the portions which extend south and north of the seat ot government, including the Chesapeake bay, w ith us various arms in the latter division. In the northern parts of the division, alt of the great riversjerminatc in dejLiLfMions to examine, ana 001a navigame csitmricn, wnuc an opposite character distinguishes the m.iuths of the rivers in the other. This difference gives greater advanta ges to improvement, byncanal, in the northern, and lesm the southern di vision. In the former, it is conceiv ed to be of high national importance to unite its deep and capacious bays by a series of canals 1 and the Board was accordingly instructed to examinelhe routes for canals between the Delaware and the Rariton, between Barnstable and Buzzard's bays, and Boston ha- b -ur and Naraeansetay7Thefxe1 cution of the very important link, in - v - this line-of communication between the Delaware and the Chesapeake, hav lughecn already commenced, wfs tipt comprehended in the order. 1 ne or drawulrJit..ejttcute before4hc-termination vWthe,aeasoa, Che.' iroportant. - results which would follow" from I the' com chain, in a commeraalm arid nolitical point of view, are so'striking. that they fired not be dwelt on . - . t . 1 . it Would, at all times, in peace and war afford f prompt cheap and -safe corned much more securer- municatton between all of the states north of the seat of government, and greatly facilitate their communication 'HBAsTsTIBTifJwiwrt NO. 212. with the centre of the Union. Tho " states of New Hartipshire and Malrle, " though lying beypnd the point where V,v these Imprivements would terminate ' would not, on that account, less pani cipate in the advan(jgest asthey are " no less interested than Massachuactta : herself, in ayplding the longttd dan gwmt7Trasground . Cape Cod, - , "fllafrilfabre;wiih fciv&hi In the section yingt south of this, none of these advantages for c"omu ' nicatioa by canals exist. A line of in- 1 land navigation extends, it is true,' along nearly the whole line of coasts which is susceptible of improvement, and may be rendered highly servicea ble, particolarly in war, and on that ac count may be fairly , considered of 41 national importance.'!. The Dismal Swsmp canal, from the Chesapeake Bay to A'bemsrle Sound, which is nearly Siy!!PMw,on3utuU:a..a- very..tmpor tant link in this navigation. But it is fifolf "df o4t Votfnfry WHrtbrmWrem which would best effect the views ot congress, would be a durable road, extending from the seat ol government to New Urleans, througn tne Atlantic states: and the board will accordingly receive instructions to examine the route as soon as the next season will permit. ' ' The completion of this work, and the line of canals to the north, would unite the several Atlantic States, in cluding those oa.ihe: fjulf, in a strong bond of union, and connect the whole with the centre, which would also be ' united, as has been shown, with those on the lakes and western waters, by v rit in that quarter.,.., . : .. ..jixl-- These three great works, then, the k ....1 ni.:. ..I T .1. w'ltKtlif. ' . .)' improvement of the navigation of tho Ohm, Mississippi, and the canal round .. . the M usde Shoal j tne series of canajs) niiiiB n'n itur. T k of (jo ernment, and a durable road ex- : tending from the seat of government to New-Orleans, uniting the wholejafi., the aouthern "Atlantic states, arc coo-' A -ceived to be the most important objecta within the provisions of the act of the -Fast session. The beneficial effects which would flow from such a sys tem of improvemtnr, would extend directly and immediately to every state in tne- union; and tne expenditure that would bear a fair proportion to the wealth and population of the aev eral sections of the country, at least, as they will stand a few years hence. When completed, it would greatly facilitate-- imd-tnrfrcoiirseV" among the states, while it would afford to the goveramenf tne' tnUtjog. ihJiimation through themail promptly to every prt, and of giving? effectual protection to every portion of our' widely extended country. There are several other routes which, though not essential to the system.' are Ldeemed of great importance in a" com mercial and military point ot view, and whidi the board will receive in- Among these. the most prominent is the connexion, wherever it may prove practicable, of the Eastern and Western waters, through the principal rivers discharg ing themselves; into the Adantic and the -Gulph of Mexico WbrTxample," the AUbama and Savannah rivers with the. Tennessee, James river with the Kenawa, and the Susquehannah with the Alleghany j which last will be more -particularly adverted to in a-solie--' queht par 4 ofth'e report. -To thesr we may add, the route from Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence, and ffonrthe-tlyer Sf. JohTcT5srFIoTl7" da Necki to the tJulph of -Mexico. ;; They are both deemed important) but -' the latter particularly. Should :U.. .-.": 'T would be great, comprehensible ana y-t.l::. dUta1deTttwlwU IncIAre-sttt take in its advantages. Besides the faciuty.w. intercourse whichlt. would aff Vd betw eenthPtetaf ei? bur trade ; with lexico, Guatimala, and the cen tral parts of the continent, would not only be greatly fciliuted,' but render-: The board, have, besides those al- v' ' ready mentioned, examined, in.conrV (junction with.-Ecnnsylvahia commis- j y . I: 'V r -I .-I f I- -1, n- ill r V y i I.. i- ,-v. ...ij r ' mi -m ... f 'v .. ... - j i. :;vl'' 1 i I, 11 ; ii"""""'""'""'' '''' '"' ""''''"' ' ' ' "