North Carolina Newspapers

    1 II ' 1 -, - ' '
VOL V.
ramie inn rosLiiaxn, itibi tCibt
. " . ..--
Tli terms "of the 'Western Carolinian till
hvv-'fter be m follows i 1'lirce Ihilart a year,
. Nu pper diKitntinued, (except at the option
jf tne Lditori until all arrearaircs arc naid.
A l' ertinemcnt ill be inserted at fifty centa
' pr i 'i trt tor tut first insertion, and twenty-nve
cent tit eUbjuent oua,.. -
i . . A'! Jitter dl ttiti the f.litor, must be
fnvfwirt or thtnr wiu nut be attended to.
farn.ir.im mm i i i
The Secretary of Wtr to the PreaideHt of the
tJmted States.. ;
. Department War, Dec. 182V.
.'. S!r : In compliance with your direc
ti ), 1 herewith transmit rr porta from
the various branches of the Military
"Ku.'ti'nhtn(?ot, Uttered from A to K,
winch contain a full statement of the
admuiuuaiion of that portion of the
public service which it confided to the
Dnmei.t of War. . The reports af
ford .satisfactory evidence, that a high
$e gree ofexcellence has been attained
in tne administration pf the different
brancKci of Kt Deoartmtnt. V N. an
in'ne of lr;iflauoQ, or oy has
thus far occurred, and there is every
reaon to believe that the disburse.
men. s of. the year will be made with,
out the loss of a cent to the Govern
ment. I he accounts have already been
rendered " fdirrjiearly-- all .fteTmney
I l L I .a .
wnitn nas oren arawu.rom the I na-
surJ. in the three fim quarters of the
year, on account i.f the army, f.riifi.
cationf, ord(V,ncr W Inrfia affair,
! . i . i . - . "
ana u is aim ipit- a, witn couhdence;
that the accounts of the whole of the
disaurirmerHs. these au triers, will he
rendered before tne termination of the
Tf "r '1 b.ejuld : unsettled account of
tie ,Dviinhent which, at the ttrrn.
J)ttnCrnentof the preient idmfnistf
uan.-a.muirtfd to 845.11 1.123. have
been r-Jti-. J to ZJ.l3(5.d91 a aodur.
ther accjrtmlanun is' effectually prr
vented in the Department by strict fi
delity and punctuality in expcuAiture
and settlement rf 4cc"""
In order to improve the discipline
of the artillery, eleven companies have
been collected at Pojircsi. Aloproc, at
JOIA JPfiUXt JCojttfoit hich. have been
frrm-d inti a cprps as a school qf prc
tice fortne artHery.v The dispersed
eondrttotrof -the artillery rendered the
meurc nctrssary to the improvement
of its discipline. Bv psing the
whole corp, inuccessioo, through the
scho't)t'it degree uf perfection will be
given to the discipline of the artillery,
nearly, it not quite, equal to tha whtcn
could be aitaiued, were it practicable
to collec t it into o-c bodv, i tstesid ol
in the (iiUrrrnt lortressts along tltt
arrangtm' ntintu ulltffect,willrrqnirrjani inspectionf avofficer oJlheorpa
tLjTaul of CunarcW - An-appropria-lof Ericineirsr
nffres. An appropri
tion, in pir-iciibr, will be necessary to
furni-h horsrs f'r' inHtructifon in the
light artillery exercise, which may a) o
be used in instructing the ravalry drill j
a brantb'of Act i which th,jnmy
is now witn ut fkill or instruction.
A bo.trd f officers has been, consti
tuted to revisrthr btwk of field exer-
erc'ue and manceivrrs of infantry,
which was adopted at the close of fht
late
war, in order to a new and more
correct edition i and to adapt
t, as far
st practicableVtrrthr BeTvicrof Tniittian
Ms, prppoied aUof tu add to it sys
tem of light infantry and cavalrv drill,
and to correct and enlarge the military
rules and regulation, so as 'to render
.thcuis. perfect a is practicable -with
our present experience.
- The onranizjti n of theLlndith De
partment has. been much improved in
tKe'cburse orib ear j tRe Tb'eneficul
ffettsrofhicslreadvTJxar
its improved administration.
The hostilities of the remote tribes
I on the Missouri still continue, and hits
extended in om terrTT t hose
I j. . ..i... ... v.. ....... . .
"ic upper Missouri and the upper
lakes..: The continued hostility amontr
pHTius-trtHes tKemselves in iKat
M m small dr gree $o the myrtjet of
ciwztns and depredattons on their
proprrty which have occurred f and
"casures have been taken to effect.ll
possible, a general pacification among
he Season was too far advanced
hen the act passed to carry into tlTect
4-.v .mtuuua oi congress in autnoriz
SALISBURY,
ing treaties to be held with the remote
tribes on the 1W issouri by Commi iston
and to be accompanied' by a military
escort .'The, Commissioners have(
however, been appointed, - (General
Atkinson and Major O'Fallin, the
agent on the Missouri,) and measures
aqypicu q carry, me. provisions oi tne
ucMuto tffect as so.njn the spring as
the season will admit. It is believed
tliatiDikhgOd-wlU leultvfrn1"the,
measure, oy giving iiicreaseu security
to our citizens and trade in that remote
region ; but is feared thpt nothing short
oi permanent military posts wiu attora
complete security to either.
The apprt.priation of the sum of 8 10,
000 annually, for the civilisation of the
Indiani, is producing very beneficial
effects, by improving the condition of
the various tnoes in our tacighorhood.
Already-32 schools are established in
the Indian nations, aiid for the most
part, avt wU conductcdf to which du
ring the present year, 916 youths of
com sextS have. hcn. tnstriu-ted in
reading, writing, nthpf and !! of
the ordinary occupations of life, ' So
large a body of well instructed youth,
of whom several hundred will annually
return to (heir homes, cannot fail to el.
fct a bentficil change in the condi.
tiuOL of . this: unh ppy race.-1" r
. The acts niakiue appropriation for
thtrrepairsof Plymouth beach, the im
j.rovements of the entrance into the
harbor of Presq Isle, on Lake Erie.
and of the gav iguoo of the Ohio and
Missisaippt, claimed the earty atten.
tioaof the Department. The execu
tion of the two first of these works was
placed under the superintendence of
mcers of the corps pf engineers. The
first Is nearly completed, and prepiu-a-
tory arrangements h4vc been made for
the early execution of the second. An
officer, also, of the enrpr, was assigned
to tne execution ot the actt r the im
provement of the navigation of the
!( ta fee mw ri) Mrtuving tile
sand-bars which obstructed the navi
gation of that river. The officer ws
prepared to. make xhe experiment, but
the river remained too lull ddringthe
fall fur a fair trial. Under thtf oihej
provisions of the act.dire ting measures
to be taken to remove the n gg, saw
yer, and planter, which obstruct the
n fixation of the Ohio and wississipp:,
a contract has been formed,, with a
gent'eman experienced in their n-viga-tionjjreejhoth
of ! those river! ironi
all Such obstructions j in conformity
with the provisions of the act, for the
sum of 5560,000, to be paid on the
e xecution ol Jbe work In the ,oo
tract, it is stipulated, that it shall be-
exeCiUed. under the superintendence
iginei
In order to carry into effect the act
of Congress, of the 30th April last,
auihrnzjne jhe JPrestdent fp caue
the necessary surveys, pl ms, and estu
mates, to-.le mdeL the.,, routes
of such roads and canals, as he may
deem of national importance in a com
tncrcial or military point of view, or
necessary to the transportation of the
public mail," a board was constituted,
consisting of General Bernard and
Colonel 1 otten, of the Engineer Corps,
and John Lr Sullivan,- an experienced
civil Engineer. It become necessary ,
in giving orders to the board, under
the act,' t i determine what routes for
roads and canals were of " national im
portance in the vieva c'tintemjilaUd
by the act, as such only as the President
might dtero to :.bc of. that description,
y crjeayAb.pri?edjto bcexmitlc'dand
surveyed In deciding this point, jt
ameseceiirf6dv6frrouru
tical system in its distribution of pow
eri and duties between the general and
state Governments. In thus regard
ing ur rt it was conceived that
all of those routes of roads and canals,
which mizht be fairly considered as
tailing witnin tne province ot any par-ticuW-atater-
however -T usitTuV they
mfght. be. iu a commercial - or politic 't
view tir tcr the transportation of the
mail, were excluded from the provi.
sions of this act. The states have im
portant duties to perform, in facilita
ting, by means of roads snd -canals,
commercial and political "intercourse
Smong their citizens ; and . within the
spheres of these duties, they arc more
K. C...TUKS1) JANUARY 25, 1825.
competent to act thlj fthe General
Gfivernment and thcp lri be no ra
tional ditubt but' that, s(we population
and capital of the sever4 states in
crease, these powerful meant of develo
ping their resources will rcVtve from
their respective Legislature, due at
tention. But, as numerous as this
class of improvement is, and inportatt
j 11147-wriaxacucncrai yovcrn-
menvjn tne discharge of the vano
olirieifierDyWco
it, there are other-improvements 0
comprehended in ir, of a more gener
character,' which are more essential
connected wljth the performance of its! ted to that'on the Western waters, and
duties while thev are less intiraatelvlbothAvith the AilantV .. .u-
connected with those belouging to thelwhole intimate!y connected with the
stite gnrernmcots, " and'lesl withiii
tjieir power of execution, -It is be
t.l.r I 1 a a ...
ea mat tnis riass, ana tms only, was
comprehended in the provisions of the
act. In projecting the surveys in this
view of the subject, the whole Union
musrbeeonliderrdari&neTitfd'thear.'
tention directed, not to those oads and
canals which may facilit te iflter- v 1
owti psmof tthersamf stale, but t6
those which may bind a of the parts
together, and the whole itk the cen
tre, thereby facilitating t ironerce and
intercourse among the st tes. and ena-
bling the Gnyrrnmeiit. tV d"seminate
promptly thro',, the. mail J irJormation
t every pan, and to extcsd protection
to the whole. By cxtendug tnose
principles, the line of communication
by roads and canals, through the states,
the Gcneraf Government, instead of
interfering with the governff.ents with
in their proper spheres of at tion, will
afford (parjicularlv to those states situ
ated in the interior) .the only means of
perfecting improvements of similar
desaiptioof which properly ..belong to
'These principles being fixed, it only
remained to apply ihem to our actual
geographical position, to determine
what particular routes were of "n
ted 'to examine, in rder to cause sur-
d estimates to be pre
pared, directed Iby the'act. -::z:
1 he hrst and most important, .was
conceived to be the route for a canal
extending from the seat of government,
by the Potomac, to the Ohio river, and
thence to Lake Erie f and accordingly
as soon as the board was organized, it
was ordered to examine and cause this
important route to be surveyed, Dr.
William . Howard and Mr, James
Shriver, -both of whom were well ac
quainted with the localities of the
route, were associated as assistants
with-ibe board... . Two. ..topographical
brigades all that could be spared front
the survey of the coast i-for.thc purpose
surveyors, under Mr. amiver, were
placed under the orders of the board.
The examiuatiou of the route was
cnmpletrd in September but the sur.
vey will not be finished till the next
seasoiv- - That prt-f- it j "however,
which is most interesting, the section
ot the summit level of the Allegany,
including its eastern slope, is complet
ed, which, it is hoped, -will enable the
board to determine, during the present
winter, on the practicality ol the pro-
jrit. anouia 11 prove pracucaoie, its
execution would be of incalculable a t-
vantage to - the "country; Irwouid
bind together, by the strongest bond
of common interest and security, a ve
ry largr portion of this Union t but, in
order fully to realize its" importance
in national point of view," it will be
Accessary, to adver tW-me the-
more striking geographical features of
our country. . , .... .
1 he United States may be consider-
ed, in a geographical point of view, as
consisting of three distinct parts j of
which the portion extending along the
shoresjof the Atbftliciaftd hack to the
Alleghany mountains, constitutes one 1
I that Ivihor on' the Laltrs and the St.
L.Wie.nce : another 1 xi& that "watered
brthe-M I siissippi including
ous branches: the other.""" i r.ese aev
eral poftion's are verv"dlsinctly mark-
ed by well defined lines, and have na
turally but little connexion, particular
ly ifr a commercial point of view. 4. It
tror.lv by artihcial
nication that this natural separation
can - be'- overcome j to effect which
much has already been done. The
great canal of New-Vory rmly unites
the country of theXakea with the At
lantic through th chmnel r tht
North -River 1 and the National R,A
from Cumberland to Wheel'in. com-
menced under the administration of
Mr. Jefferson, unites, but naort im
perfectly, the Western with the Adan-
tnesa - separata parts f w hich gtogrii
PPKfuyonstuwa.iOurountryvaia
only be effected by completi'm of the
projected canal to the Ohip and Lake
lying on the Lakes will he firmlu
i.i it, uv means 01 wnicn tne country
r
centre. These considerations, ol them-
elitykelves, " ithout taking into vie w oth-
fcrs, f4irly bring this great work within
me provision ol the act directing the
surveys! but when we extend our
views, and consider the Ohio and the
M isstss IppTTwrtfuts K?eaTb7a"nch"e7.
but as a prolongation of the canaL it
tional importance, but of .the very
hiehest national interest, in a com-
merci-I, military, and a political point
of vie. Thus considered, it in
volves the completion of the improve
mcnts of .the navigation ol nom inese
1 a a a ... . l
rivers, wfitcn nas oeen cmmencta un
der the appropriation of the last ses
sion of Congress j and, aU", canals
round the falls of the Ohio at Louis
villr, and Muscle Shoals on the Ten
nessee river 1 both of which, it is be
lieved, can be executed at a moderate
expense. With these improvements,
the projected canal would not oniy
unite the three great sections of the
country together, as has been pointed
ou, but wjuuld also unite, iq the most
intimate manner, all of the states on
the Lakes and the Western waters
among themselves, and give complete
effect to whatever improvement my
be made bythOse -states individually.
jWo T)rtilr2IIgie'workTss propo
sed, would be so xtended and rami
fied throughout these great divisions
of our country, already contatmng-a.
large a portion of our population, and
destined, in a few generations, to ou
number the roost populous "states i" of
Europe, as to leave in that q iarter no
other work for the execu ion of the;
general government, excepting only
the extension of Cumberland nad from
Wheeling to St. Louis, which is also
conceived to bc of "national -import-
ance."
The route which is deemed next in
importance in a national point of view,
is the- OB-xtendingrthrugh-the'en
tire of the Atlantic states, including
those on the Gulph of Mexico. "" By ad
verting ta the division of. Pur, country
through which this route must pass, it
will be seen that there is a striking dif
ference in geographical features bt-
tween the portions which extend south
and north of the seat ot government,
including the Chesapeake bay, w ith us
various arms in the latter division.
In the northern parts of the division,
alt of the great riversjerminatc in dejLiLfMions to examine,
ana 001a navigame csitmricn, wnuc an
opposite character distinguishes the
m.iuths of the rivers in the other.
This difference gives greater advanta
ges to improvement, byncanal, in the
northern, and lesm the southern di
vision. In the former, it is conceiv
ed to be of high national importance to
unite its deep and capacious bays by
a series of canals 1 and the Board was
accordingly instructed to examinelhe
routes for canals between the Delaware
and the Rariton, between Barnstable
and Buzzard's bays, and Boston ha-
b -ur and Naraeansetay7Thefxe1
cution of the very important link, in
- v -
this line-of communication between
the Delaware and the Chesapeake, hav
lughecn already commenced, wfs tipt
comprehended in the order. 1 ne or
drawulrJit..ejttcute
before4hc-termination vWthe,aeasoa,
Che.' iroportant. - results which would
follow" from I the' com
chain, in a commeraalm arid
nolitical point of view, are so'striking.
that they fired not be dwelt on
. - . t . 1 .
it
Would, at all times, in peace and war
afford f prompt cheap and -safe corned much more securer-
municatton between all of the states
north of the seat of government, and
greatly facilitate their communication
'HBAsTsTIBTifJwiwrt
NO. 212.
with the centre of the Union. Tho "
states of New Hartipshire and Malrle, "
though lying beypnd the point where V,v
these Imprivements would terminate '
would not, on that account, less pani
cipate in the advan(jgest asthey are "
no less interested than Massachuactta :
herself, in ayplding the longttd dan
gwmt7Trasground . Cape Cod, - ,
"fllafrilfabre;wiih fciv&hi
In the section yingt south of this,
none of these advantages for c"omu '
nicatioa by canals exist. A line of in- 1
land navigation extends, it is true,'
along nearly the whole line of coasts
which is susceptible of improvement,
and may be rendered highly servicea
ble, particolarly in war, and on that ac
count may be fairly , considered of
41 national importance.'!. The Dismal
Swsmp canal, from the Chesapeake Bay
to A'bemsrle Sound, which is nearly
Siy!!PMw,on3utuU:a..a- very..tmpor
tant link in this navigation. But it is
fifolf "df o4t Votfnfry WHrtbrmWrem
which would best effect the views ot
congress, would be a durable road,
extending from the seat ol government
to New Urleans, througn tne Atlantic
states: and the board will accordingly
receive instructions to examine the
route as soon as the next season will
permit. '
' The completion of this work, and
the line of canals to the north, would
unite the several Atlantic States, in
cluding those oa.ihe: fjulf, in a strong
bond of union, and connect the whole
with the centre, which would also be '
united, as has been shown, with those
on the lakes and western waters, by v
rit in that
quarter.,.., . : .. ..jixl--
These three great works, then, the k
....1 ni.:. ..I T .1. w'ltKtlif. ' . .)'
improvement of the navigation of tho
Ohm, Mississippi, and the canal round .. .
the M usde Shoal j tne series of canajs)
niiiiB n'n itur. T k
of (jo ernment, and a durable road ex- :
tending from the seat of government
to New-Orleans, uniting the wholejafi.,
the aouthern "Atlantic states, arc coo-' A -ceived
to be the most important objecta
within the provisions of the act of the -Fast
session. The beneficial effects
which would flow from such a sys
tem of improvemtnr, would extend
directly and immediately to every state
in tne- union; and tne expenditure
that would bear a fair proportion to
the wealth and population of the aev
eral sections of the country, at least,
as they will stand a few years hence.
When completed, it would greatly
facilitate--
imd-tnrfrcoiirseV"
among the states, while it would afford
to the goveramenf tne'
tnUtjog. ihJiimation through themail
promptly to every prt, and of giving?
effectual protection to every portion of
our' widely extended country.
There are several other routes which,
though not essential to the system.' are
Ldeemed of great importance in a" com
mercial and military point ot view,
and whidi the board will receive in-
Among these.
the most prominent is the connexion,
wherever it may prove practicable, of
the Eastern and Western waters,
through the principal rivers discharg
ing themselves; into the Adantic and
the -Gulph of Mexico WbrTxample,"
the AUbama and Savannah rivers with
the. Tennessee, James river with the
Kenawa, and the Susquehannah with
the Alleghany j which last will be more -particularly
adverted to in a-solie--'
queht par 4 ofth'e report. -To thesr
we may add, the route from Lake
Champlain to the St. Lawrence, and
ffonrthe-tlyer Sf. JohTcT5srFIoTl7"
da Necki to the tJulph of -Mexico. ;;
They are both deemed important) but -'
the latter particularly. Should :U.. .-.": 'T
would be great, comprehensible ana y-t.l::.
dUta1deTttwlwU
IncIAre-sttt
take in its advantages. Besides the
faciuty.w. intercourse whichlt. would
aff Vd betw eenthPtetaf ei? bur trade ;
with lexico, Guatimala, and the cen
tral parts of the continent, would not
only be greatly fciliuted,' but render-:
The board, have, besides those al- v' '
ready mentioned, examined, in.conrV
(junction with.-Ecnnsylvahia commis- j y
.
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