Western Carolinian (Salisbury, N.C.) /
Feb. 8, 1825, edition 1 /
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1 V I VI W -- -
' raism -vauiHin, irur Touoit,
Tm terms of the Wetter Carolinian will
lereitiler be M foilowti tufWiMJUirt ytmr,
wsy sble In Advance. ; t 4 rX!L3. .. j. 7; :.:
No paper discontinued, "(except at tlx option
Wf the tditor) until nil arrearages arc paid.
. Aavcruaeroenis m oe mtertea a: any tenia
per a qwe iwr jt fu insertion? tnatventyfir e
oents tor eacn subsequent one.
JkU letter addrtsacd to the- Editor.mutt b
ftu-pau, or tfiey wiU not be attended to. ..
peon tu ansa cecatt vatbiot..
ON THE CONSTRUCTION OP ROADS.
-" The proper construction tod preser-
II- - i -
vaiion oi puwic roaaa areooiectsoi toe
firii Interest, Their permanence de.
pends entirely on the manner in which
-theyirrfdraie dfand the expense of
repair is regulated oy we correct ar
erroneous principle! adopted by,thoe
who have charge of them. '
- ltoad - in our state are of three de.
ways, and tbe'towoship roadi. both "ol
which ire made and kept in order at
uuuiiKi csncnar, ou lurnpue roaas,
:.k!.k V JU-k - ..it.. '
Truivu uaiaucca cuntuunca oy private
capital, ana by large and liberal contri
butions frjfm the commonwealth.
It has Veco frequently remarked bv
our citizf ns who have visited the' eas
tern states, that in those parts of. the
Union, the town toadt which are the
same as our public highways or town-
ship roads, are tetter made, and are
always in better order than the sane
loads in Pennsylvania. Why this, is
"the case, it "will sot be difficult to show,
atad at a futute period iomef acts may
be communicated on this subject. At
present, it is, however, only intended
to invite the attention of the citizens
of thtrcommonwealth to-the known
and acknowledged fact, that our cub.
lie roada, which are under county and
township charge, are bad in their lor
tnatiooand almost entirely without
that care which is necessary to make
them paaanbU at eooa periods of the
To the turnpike roads in Pcnn
vaniajvit ia the -purpose";thU paper
particularly tu call th Public attention,
and by a statement of the erroneous
principles ' u'p6iwhichTTftey"'h'airtleeTi
made, and an exhibition of a better
mode of constructing and repairing
them it is hoped extensive benefit will
be obtained, '
In the formation of our turnpike
roads we commit four great errors ;
1. We die a trench m which to
olace the larcre stones which are the
foundation.: ...the ' road, and which
receives the water "that -percolates
Tthrgugh,and undermines and loosens
th coaVof b
the cover of the road. Those large
atones scarcely ever consolidate,
.2,. Our roads arc quite too convex,
whereby carriages are net easarily kept
in the middle, which is worn down,
and thus presents a sort of basin for
the reception-and .detection of ram
3. Our stone is not brokca small
enough, and our roads ate generally
encumbered with large stones, which
interrupt the progress of carriages,
:witBp thczwheclsand, byJLh-cjylt,
- mjutre the roads.
4. There U rarely a trench or ditch
tutat the side of our roadi,-to carry
off the Tain watery or if ut it ia very
At these errors, we are not to won
der r for; -England, with centuries . of
experience in road making, and . ten
fold the experience of turnpikes that
we have had, has until lately pursued
.at present, is continued in many parts
cf "thaTTsland. Cm a ttevr systein has
been introduced tberc within a few
years past, by Mr. J, JL. M'Adam,
- which haa stood the -test ol the . m!
1 rigorous acrutinyand received the
- most unqualified -approbations of par
iiamcni-oi uie post niasicr general'
of the proprietor of stage coaches,
"and of numbenDf the mostTnlighteft.
- d person-, in the nation, It forms no
tUghtttcommehdaliotrof thi aystew,
that Mr. M'Adam and hiH.miir. un-
eer his direction and on his system
have been and are employed in the
tonstruction and repair of different
roads to the extent "bP neatTy""?00
miles and that he is contulte J, and
- hirplawfollowedrby ""the tnajrsr
of all, 'jhliiamtwfrinaz
The ieadios: feature! of ,Mr. M.
Adam's systeta7are-that the: best
foundation- lor-Trqad tithe fiatura!
soil that this' foundation; 00 which
the Srpken stone ja iobeTai,ought
inches, :aJoveiwhat is usually termed
stenea should -be broken so as not to
exceed siJK: poncef weightfffrritai1
recently declared a preference Of three)
and io ' completely consolidated as to
prevent the penetration of rain-that
theitone should be as far as possible
homogeneous, as the mixture of hard
stones: with thole easily friable is high,
ly pernicious and the bed of the road
by drains er ditches. The means by
w hichto produce these effects, are de
tailed in his work at length and in his
various examinations by order of the
house of commons, and are comprised
i4ne loiiowing piainruiesi
IV" The first operation in making a
"" t - " a 1 a .
roaa snoutd oe tne reverie ct uiccring
irentn, t.ne.jroaa snouia not oe
sunx below, but raised above the or
dinary level of the adjacent ground.
Care should be taken that there be a
sufficient fall from the road to the ad-
acent ground to take off the water, so
that this ground be some inches below
that on which the road is intended to
be placed, , , Side drains, er ditches, to
cany off" the water are indispensably
2, Having secured the soil from
HflfcrjMler, the. oeiisare ja to,ecure
it from rain watef, by a solid road
made of clean; dry stone or flint, so
selected, prepared and laid, as to be
perfectly impervious to water. This
cannot be effected, unless tbe greatest
care be t-ken, that no earth, clay,
chalk, or other matter that will hold
or conduct water, be mixed with the
broken atone, which must be so pre
pared, and laid, as to unite by iu own
angles ioto a firm, compact, and im
. 3. V The large stones usually hid
at the bottom of roads as a foundation,
are not mly a useless e xpense but
posjti yelyJHorious j as being conatant-
y shaken by Heavy carriages, mey
keep the upper stratum loose, anu
open for the reception of rain water. .
4. " The stone, for as we term it,
the metal) is to be laid on, not all at
. 1 -f .1 -i
once, out in layers 01 uircc lutuca
thick ; after the first layer is laid on, it
is to be subjected to the traffic, or if
the roadis not open to tramc, a roller
of iron should be used, if the weather
be sTuIwciTlf mhTWttf j water anould.
b.hrown on it for? notOTcwill
consolidate wnerV erfec'tlyry
5. u Much has been satd and writ
ten upon the strength of roads.- -My
experieoce lead, me to the conclusion,
that six inches hickness of well brok
en stone, properly laid on, is quite suf
ficient, provided the bed of the road
be mad and k ept dry;- Of late y ear I
have made no road thicker j but on the
second year have given it an addition
of three inches, luosening a little of the
hard surface of the road, about an iuch
deepr to allow -tht new aod. the. old
materials to unite j going upon the
principle that the natural soil is the
real carrier both" of the load and "the
carriages f and that if it. could be kept
roads would be altogether uiihecessary.
6. " The thickness af a road is im
material as to its strength for carrying
weight. This object 11 already obtain
ed by . providing a dry surface over
which the road is ta beT)laced as
covering, or roof, to preserve it in that
etateyexperience having ahewathatif
water passes through a road, and nils
the native soil, the road whatever may
be its thickness, looses its support, and
falls to nieces.
I ii the., only proper method pit
brcalTu ruetvesr Doth for - effect and
economy, is by Pcnont tittmr, 1 be
stones are to be placed in small heaps t
and : women, boys or old men, past
hard &borrhoaU tUdwniihriok
thall exceed six euncet in veteht.'
8. 14 The stones should be broken
very:- small. la recommending six
ounces is the 'proper lire-,-1 "went as
far asjbe . then olrejudiceswould
uui experience nas convincca
mei:th half that site ja tore useful
and more profitable to thf country
pfopeily applied, th is no occasion
for the covering of grav.i pr ilateand
I object to it, aj preventing e toe.
9vh.uuuu hi. mc jionc oy ieeuinz tne
srwelun ueb vjheir own jintlcs: : i
LB..JiTh.4 reasak recomraenctag
me iayingon tne stone at diaeitnt
ttme, and iw:Jyerjtldtif ; pe
whole quantity be laid 00 at once, he
under part lever consolidates pronely.
but continues loose, and tends to lob-
en the upptr part so as to allow he
water to pisa through, -
1' ja ii Lr.i . r .
iu. jxoininpt 11 to oe laid on he
Broken itche will combine by iu crn
angles intd a smooth, solid surfie.
wrucn cannot be sleeted by vicii
iuucs 01 weatner, 01 aispiacca byhe
action of wheels, wUch will pass Vtt
without injury. ! '
' i 1 . u A carriagd ought al ajh as
possible to stand upTigU itreling.
f have generally rbvtyfxw
inches hither in the centrfthan at the
sides,1 when they are ,ghtecn feet
wiuc. ji tne roaa oe samu ana wen
made, thn water will easy run off in
such a slope,
the track in
travellers generally foil
ie only pan
where a carriage can
which means three fuir
ra are made,
one by the horses a
two by the
wheels. ' Alxre water
ida on a very
convex road tran ono
i that is rea
13. " Ten inches of vill consolida
ted materiala are equal to bear any
kmdol carnage. j
1 do not care whether the substra
tum be soft or hard inleed I should
prefer a soft one, provided it was not
such as would not allow a man to walk
be on the higher side of the road, where
it will receive the water falling from
the high ground, and . keep the road
15." The- materials-should be
cleansed of the mud and soil, with
which they 'are mixed in their native
state, on tbe spot where they are pro
cured. If gravel be used it ought to
be cleared by screening, or, if necessa
ry by washing. Some addition will
be hereby made to the expenses in the
first instance but it will be found the
most economical mode in the end.
16 ifT.en.tv.p?r cent, of the ex
pHEWoi.f Improving 'anTwuarniig '
trees, particularly on the subnylide;
intercept'iR. the influence of the sun
. .17--.Caziuges, whatever be the
constru ti.i. of their wheels, will make
ruts in a i.evvly made riad till it con
solidattshowrver well tho materials
may be 'prepared, or howeverjodici
ouslv applied. Therefore a careful
ptiscn must attend for some time al
ter the road is opened for Use, to rake
in the track made by tbe wheels.
Jt is a curious fact thai the roads m
Sweden, which ire among the best in
the world, are made on the plan ador-
fed"bv""M tr M A damr On " these
yoads ,00 atone, js ff.crktdlarger.ban
a -walnut . .
Remarkable. k Paris paper fur-
nishes thel following remarkable, anec
dote. About 100 years ago, a man,
aged 18f was condemned to the gal
lies Tor a huMred y ear and one "day.
the man Aa$ tujered in full the sen
to Lyons in trance, where, claiming
an estate belonging to M family, the
proprietor, - M, Beftholon,-who . had
thought the purchase very fair and
afe, Pgtecd,by :iM.dvice rfjijiU!:
yer, to settle the contentious matter
by giving .the real proprietor 4000
sienini, ncany - zu,uuu.i na
wonderful old man. at the age of 118,
haslateTy offered bis hand rsOhian
MjajJip-iijrjd be married !
A jury in Chester, Eng. on the.th
last September, rave one hundred and
twentv-sia pounds stealing; fmore than
500 dollars) damsfes, iivan action Vrei-
ting offajingtr in a scufuei-
- 11 U. .244.'
Lw Critsri'U Jkhsed,
- MAUKIACE IN CULVA.
.. .Tn Miirt.l.!.. a ' . .
tjnuhed by the relatives of the parties,
end a presehluttnc made t. ttik.u.
rrnnif..'... .L- ' . .""
vu..7 ,y ujc custom ei most coun
tries, where the relatives of 4ie hrlA
are expected ? bring pwseirtTtoreir
Muaaa oay is appointedor
. 'mwwuuu iwr-
uway one. 1 the bride sets out. locked
m , acuan, preceded Wfelatioha.
: ; . 7 W,UI "SMea flambeaux
a weir .nands.althouph it h
to the house of the bridegroom;, to
whom tho V .f .1. - 1 t . , ..'
, ,V. A , -
oy tne nearest of kin4o the bridei Uzhdmbr 6 m T eB-
AS SOOn as the bride an tVn. U. I
. nan, whe,b.r . ,eed JJ.
l i . . v " M,c. me room or
naur out before the bride and bride.
groom are seated at table, they make
lour, reverences to Tien, a aunnnt-rl
pirif residinff in heaven. Wh.; ..
w ww tu ssa
ted at table, they poyr wine on the
ground before thev herin tn .
U,P "part some pf die provisions
themusuii; J"? mon?ent eathof
onaegruum iit f - .
lady to drink j upon which she rises
also, and returns him the compliment.
After this, two cups 01 wine are ui t,
of which they drink part, and pour the
residue into another cup, out 01 wnitn
they drink alternately, and this last
part of the ceremony confirms the nup-
. rw I 1 , aw nn n tKs
tiaia. 1 ne oriae rnru ivk .
ladies and spends the day wiin mem,
.v.. kMfrnnm treating his friends at
- . . . . .1 .1
HIV IIIIVR'v.m 7 O
the same time m cp4i
In China it would be as uniasmon-
able to aDDear in white at a weaaing,
... a 1
.,t wniilrl in turooe. or America, iw
k- A,ii.A in l.lark. 1 he laws 01
Uv avw -
China do not permit any subject to have
more wives than one ; but he may keep
a manv concubines in his house as he
, . - .
leases : these, however, musi oe
1 . . . -v.-
r . . . 1
dient to his wile, ana treat ncr iu..-
tr.. The emoeror baa tnree wvi
"umber of his con-bioes Is
estimated at tnree thousand t
thev are called con-nt, or ladies of the
palace. If a wife elopes from her hus
band, she is sentenced td'be whipped,
sad thehusbanday . dispose, of her
a slave. Jf she marries another
the first husband can cause her
tp he strangled. If a man quits his
wife and family, the wile, alter an ab-
sence ot three years, on representing
the case to a mandarin, or magistrate,
is authorized to marrv another hus
band. A man may divorce his wife
for adultery, bad temper, a clamorous
at' - . a
tongue, disobedience, theft, barren-nesivw-for-any:
this iaHeldomJ rhowever, puit id fOTceV
T1BLE-TA1X AT A. B0A&DIKOII0USE.
Polly. Ma, don't you think this is
the, moat beduchiful morning, ever na
c'fiur projuced T .
Mrs. Prvudfit. lis very fine, in
deed, Poll)'t hy don't you ask the
gentlemen if their coffee is agreeable!
- f I I lf... ,.-J m.'am
uoarocrs. bWM " '
Polly. Oendemen, if you don't
find vour breakfast palatable only ex
pound your wishes, and well think
1 - ...-. ,. .......
ourselves extremely uappy 10 grant
ing them. , .
Polly. Mr. Fairchild, have you
heard of the -fuel I - Fair. . What?
Polly. Have vou heard of the juei
that was contested across the river this
morning; rair. J : 1 oeg your par-
don I did not understand vou yes,
Pa irTlotd iri fTTSrties-were- both--
1 j ,, n m.,rl
verely wounded. Polly. O, mercy I
The very thought of a jueller quite on
nihtlatet roe. Ji,..wiJLyou tiave a
churnip 7 Mrs. P. No, dear, but HI
liave a pxhatMiJzi-.
- TEA. r - -
Polly. Ma', will you hive some
iagarroTTourtea 1 Mrs-P-- No,
dcarl ;m ! don'ifaucy .wc
tea ieryou"'3o7P61Ty. PoUy.' I
confess my affection for the taccharinc
tuetr abate the animotity of the ten,
which U very inimical Iq mML
Fair. rPro-dj-giou9 ?
-rr-... - . . II J
K--r C8lleelio of eermont, which "
Kf" tTke oame i, well prfnud -
tnd, moit of thdfll ekxineut n..7
Prebjrteruii, Me.liudirfand BaDtWiZS
, " "111 '131 TV IO
pect for th.r.u5,o
uie southern states, ami. wi.k m .1.,-
cal truth, to produce a SDeed aoie. tf. u.t...
tnoua, piojii and enterprising pubfiaher hu a
The tubcrihop K, J.... -
received the unqnaliGed a
1 . . , t "i't" fcw-. vi me lllon:
lit iinniiul R.J - L ...
laiiiilinMl imNikidAM .1 ..
li.. ..""n - . ' "v "'e eacn tneir pecu--...,
ir exceUenciei, and are accompanied bt atlaaet,
a an entire new armV i s.:... .77
rather and hit ton. It an admirable work fer
r1" M,,c teacV
era wiU And mott of the defecti of ether works.
J i - w"i wneipicy'B com
the Re. Mr. Emeraoa, UWr. Rhetoric, witb
Idrtory, with notei and
vm 1 rMvtx vi caca cnapter, by Re,
una epiioroe on 111c t,iriiir-nw. ""
a . .. AlAAn Wfr
Wilkints Valpey'a uree urmmnir v v.
oeat editions of Miltofi'a psM.iL?0
per'a Tank 1 Thompaon' Scasoiw, and V Ubort
biblical Catechism. . . - .
These .works he wW Mil as low as tney can
be purchased, singly, in any or the aortaem
He ccwimieanis uiapw .f"a," .
the oW Academy, fareota ami guanuBw
h... h.;, rhiMren and wards nwtrvetea
in aucn orancne-, a y-rr-' ". T . .
common literature. JON. 0. TKEEM AN.
' . 1 .1 . nf rluiinl AT
'irVavirfrmji'. 7v la- ..J. -4
The fine, young, thorough hred Horse
DECIDEDLY the finest
locking hone of his age.
ever produced in the western
.part of the state, will stand
i7t iuinirieiiton at my stable, in Rowan county.
ten miles north east from Salitburv, and Seven)
aouth-weit from Islington, at ntteen qonaiw
the season 1 ten dollan, can, me wngw kv v
and snecial contracTa wui e a sor inauranoe,
in ,lt W partianUj ruH mmd circumstances.
The seuon will commence on the lath ot Feb
ruary and continue until the let of August. Hw
will be found constantly at bit station, eseepe
wHen taken to he showa at publio places and
especially during the terns of tbe Superior and
County Courts at Salisbury and Lexington, at
which placet he will stand several days each
term, ifi eonvehfenCTorflie"" SMomodattoa of
gentlemen who have not seen him.
fefxiMiri.....Aeroiuut it a beautiful mahog
any bay, with btack legs, mane and tail, a Mar
and blase in his face, four yeara old next spring,
nearly sixteen hands high, remarkably hoary
niaae, uniung in a uign aqprer ue use, eia-
nce and grandeur ot hut aire, the imported
ret Eagle 1 with the great lubatance, symme
try and compactness of his grand-tire, the im
ported hone Dion. The great strength: and"
weight of body which he will acquire at full
age, will entitle him to stand higher ss a horso
of power, taan.any imported bone that ever
stood in the eounty, except the imported horso
Clown,,and to em. ui'tfiat f(Bifceatr
leant equal. ... -. -.
He had a few mares last. Mason, from whicli.
X srn'flTI Thtl hw nrmlfs Mr 17 attain the
renutation of a sure foaleetteri and TroVBTfiTt-
youth, the excellence of hu conrtitution, the fine
aize, figure and performancca of the stock from
which he descended, he cannot well fail to pro
duce as fine colts at any hone in America.
J'EDlGJrEE-JkervTmit was get by. th
imported haraa.Eagle 1 hit dam by the Imported
horte Dion 1 eran-dam by Ksnectation, one of
the best torn of tbe imported hone Diomede,
out of a Medley marc, uniting the blood of the
imported horses Medley, Fearnought and James,
and tbe thorough bred horse Celer, from which
it spprsrs that he mutt be very nearly, if not
entirely, thorough brad, and deacended from an. -ancestry,
the moat renowned of any horse thai
. , . .
nat ever tppesrea in Miritna or America, aa
will be teen by the' following statement i
Eagle Wu considered the Ancat and fleetest
hone in limrUnd. since the dayi of Childers,
and ak wimungs amwned;o. Wnety-Ailiotts---
taod dollani be wu got by VbUintoeri volun
teer by Eclipse, Eclip by ataiwnie and Manqu
by the Deronthire or Flying Childers, the fleet
eat hurse ever known in Engtand. . Ragle's darn
was rot by HitHiflyer, a hone little, if any. bv
fcrior to the above celebrated Eclipse, gener
ally admitted to be the best bom that ever was
bv tbe itatement made m hit recommendation
in Lnminik or pcrni 111 m wwiu, ipp
grutmawm m? porri'ijonai' rnnn
bv Enquirer, bx. Dion was got by 8padlle,
onc rfthe Kmof u,e lebrated
Highflyer i his dam by the Pacniet, 8u. He was
fumed for bit great speed and bottom, having
Nirwltlrsocll wmrwat koweaty as 4e-win sour
mile bests twice in one week j he was the sir oT
Cattalin, Don. qulxotte, and many other capital
raoera, all of which united w'rtb die blood or (h .
above famous borers in America, vis : Diomede,
Medley, James, Fearnought and Ccler, conttL
tute s pedigree litfem tu few, if any, horaea
mvr breil in America.
-AH reaauMbU owaanm.triR bt ditteted
prevent unfortunate accidenia, but no xetponsi.
binty will be admitted for any tliat may occur.
. jw so."ii 5
DT.T.mloT land sold by Sheriffs fin smew
of 7eares,fer sale at tUX'aroJkjlaa' efflgfi,
Western Carolinian (Salisbury, N.C.)
groups preceding, succeeding, and alternate titles together.
Feb. 8, 1825, edition 1
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