. . . .J
VOL VJ NO, 2'J'J.
. t u if'
mi O I i :1 ' 1
; r!t 1,1 tJ tW-t . 4 .
' .. tr'W J 'ft I t
m T " " '
J it I -4 f"' '.v
it, nu4 I
ii t' iiu:.
Iff. ptt f, f-'-'i t"' Cwiht
, .... fttf-Wl iMUJlJ , .
Thus dcff.'y Impreiicd with the
evils cf c Cfi toll Jt ion, and looking
to the preservation of the State Gov
'eromtnts as equally necessary to the
wttl4elng cf lhc'r otro citizeos, and
i o the perpetuation of the general li!
erty, it auioot If supposed that the
; Committee hive . win iOiy proposed
, nry thing which tends to product th
evil which they deprecate with so
1 much ml iod sincerity. Still, it Is
"the epinloa ol soajf, thit the rirhu of
the States will be endangered try the
adoption of the Committee's pun of
amendment! the Commktnr think
bietn thn )w) hve commoo
chjtct la ficrf inj ta drciJ It, the
' la luue nnuit be fairly uted
Boi iiftdidly enmiard. ;itcie poicti
' 4iit,'-lTe luppoiej dmloutioii o
power ia th Mate, to thoote between
, the If eitUiif, the rrncril ticketrtad
- Id, la the luppoicd dimioutioa ol
the power of the Scott ia cooce&trtilni
fcer etrengtii la tnote eirctioni.
3d, lo the luppoied tepdencjrof the
direct rote towardathr conaoiidatioa
xf 11 the ttatct.- -' "
. -These being the pointeof otjectlon,
"the queitioa is plalolr presented,
whether, they amount, lo reslity. to
, any encroschment upoQ.the rights of
toe .states., r contaia any ot thoie
tcndeociei towards cojuoHdatioa which
I have been Imputed U .thera,Uut,
- bciare proceeUiCgto answer thia tract
Z.V'oa, it is nccenary to 6x preciie jdeat
. to aeyeral termi which are the rerj
. hinges cf the queitioa itself, " State
" "Kights Sovereignty of the Statei,w
re the teros referred to.- Dyaome,
'.who Ute theie term, the General At.
tembly of th State Is considered at
.. the statr itnctf, postesscd ef ailltts
!.'rjjht and totereign powcra by o th
en, the . Executive officers of the
Sute Goyernmeot are he! J to be the
ttate; arid to hare iha possession. da.
nag uicir tumuiuancc.in niaszt ci.tne
r ightt and sovereignty at she ttute l by
a .. 4.a m
omers again, tne senators and itepe
tentatirei in Congress frenxa.. Sute
-j-'-are aopposd"torcprcsenrthe aover-
Vignty of the state itself t and to hold
in their hawds, for the time being,
ithe , same , high rihls trd , sovereign
" powers." All these opinions are held
to be erroneous, and, without accumu
gating authorities and quotations, it
tnsybe laid dawo in brief and plain
T-langugr, "the:!qgalifitd " voter; of i
state, lo the exclusion of the Genera
Assembly, the Executive officers and
the members of Congress, constitute
the Sovereigntrof the State, and hold
hi atigms in weir nanas. Who these
qualified yote.ra shall be, dependa up
on themselves, throuch their Renre
- jenta'tives n Convention, or General
Assembly, to say but whosoever they
may be, whether freeholders, house
holders or holders of no uronertv at
.. T y .rrT,. ...... . .... ..... ......
aiirtnernoiamtneir nanas theTitrhts
ana sovereignry or the iate, and all
the public ofliceri are nothing more
r: than theif servants. The members of
the General Assembly, the members
of Congress, and the .Executive of5
eiers, are ootMnff but arents for the
-real sovereigns, confined to-the exer-
..?i:..':rjj.-:;.i ... . -.u.-i.
lTif Tei I1iirnr tf tKv nfaiim tr
--.nil my-, - .mwmb prV 'iii.Mj-' vvv W Li kl)Ulil A"
..-....... a ,j . ' ... j. a. . '
jercjtse the power of sovereignty.-
,-.tncse '"Sent may lose . a. part of their
powers, riot only without diminishing
- the BOYereignty oFa StatV, butj in real
jtjy to produce the -effect of increasing
that sovereignty by so 'much as is ta.
,ken from the ; servants and jrestored to
...v iuwuii. ma ia juciievea so joe
Jhe exact ease Vh,ich is now presented
for deejsion in the point of obiection
' ' r ,, v.
rt t!i" J. II
. 1 f
r . V t I r I I f '
fUcl- ri i! 'l 1 e Kv
X I j Mr, !
r n t y (l.itricii
by agffirklitlet snd mac.f tl.tta,
wiilaut nu'.liil.iff a cU ir tir,f, et
rrtbs. O e f rii!r-t. tt 'I H
elettnrs tieroar!ves , lij the proposed
snfr. '.ncof, it ii iiTmiUrd, as atlft
if J, that tbf iterl rowtri wi.l L
ulta ff&m'ihe Le jUltture, tad tfcit
a uniform m&de of vsticig by districts
will be substituted, which they cannot
chacge.; Bjt, 19 fir from dmittln
Utst th meretfnty of the tttte bits
soy thleg by dm operation, tit direct
reverse is tns'culned i the se rtscti
only being; the lasers, while the real
sovereigns gaio. I r, it is not ta oe
questioned, biit that tha disulct iystem
gives tha fairest fJsy to erery yoter,
and the fullest effect W etery yotei
nor (in ItbdenU4 (hat it con fur mi
to the IntentWti of the present Consti
tuiion, which, la giving an Indcpta.
dent vote to every elector, Instead of
Consolidated te to the collegt of
electors, gmroed hy msjority, roso
ifestly intended that each miss of citU
tens, entitled to choose one elector,
shsnld hart the right of diipting of
one vote according so their owa sense
of their own interest. It 1 a fart, of
historical notoriety, that the general
ticket plan of election has been adopt
titutr iy r i j i - f si'ne u!f i i
' . . . . . .
sre rr., It tt - 1 1 ta It a ?i :
('a Ci i..e i-:.!s ,'. to n any c ttdcti
si weu! J have vote! J,C- rtour, to lm
press their rote s ir. t! service f the
a t I . a a
oomiunt r'iy ii me- ienrii a
ttmUr cf tix Sutr. ,ln tfis rtaert
t' .lf t wof of election, five vote of jH
5utt ii Jirrctf J. Ijr (he . msjetity ,
the State, tegulsmrtf the msjofity
itself inSaented by soene Icadiog mere
bets and the tickets thot arranged,
is ofte n made to triumph over the
whtie State, by the mere effect of di
ciplinf, ana1 ia open violatioo of the
will of the actual overtlgns, the fair
msjorlty of (lie qualified voters, It Is
cspablc of drnotitxstion, thai the gen
era ticket recti, etpeciaJiy over i
large aarfac, Is oftea no election, at
all by the t"p!e A small and or
gsaiaed bods supply the place of num
bers, by Mir of design an energv
of actlofi, Vant of concert la the
body of the jeople, will rtncVr supc
rior numbera of ao avail. Division
will deitroy tleir strength, hf scatter
tng ' their votes and anucfstioa ol
defeat wJl cniure it, by jreveotiog
f Utirri t?,5t i!
ii U. ;te hi
snj iliX ft t princi; Si
hff II l' ij Utt,
lith s.ov.!J g jir i!.a tUcta of
w.ri . ji"tifrtf, ia a free teuutry
require tint the cUlce of rreiideet
f f thfifUtntfd tates shmj?J n ton
rtr to unified w dole opt tha
uouio oi Hrnrrtrbtitiv!. IT
rpreiftiiatifi. - iiiete
principles 1st e beta suied, and en
lorcesliia tha- tourseof this Wrnort
inry iptiag irons ll dinars to
which such elections are lialle.
These danrrri are
I Ui corrapiloa among the voters.
3. Ul violence, la the heart of the
3. Of coalition i. to elect or defeat
Oppose! to these diofcre are cer.
lata rules of action, ripened Into ai
bjb, mj we i oi wuKn, every eiee-
hod, oi tst o&cer of a He public.
should ha brought. These axioms
are - . ,
f. Multiply the voters.
Keen the candidates from amoot
wem, . 1 , . .
3. Avoid pre-existing bodies of
numbers from ro'me to tie noils.
3. The Ust Ustvch T tie objection :rtTfprmnt jilstcnucrJmUtcaS
is la the supposed Unde acf to eonso tient ...
tidatioa which Is area If some la the 1 1. Sensrate the voters.
. -W ft -. 4
abolitiod of electors, aixl tl e substitn-1 The plan of election la the CosmiU
ed ia some Siatca for the avowed pur tioa of the.d'rect,yote cf the. people, heyaameadjib l0!0 Ih wd
pose of controling this intention of the This is completely and faJlr answered second election, bss beraXrought to
Contitutioo-f-and lor the purpose of ta A torrgoiog pirt pf. thi Report .to the. rof each of, these fxipms, and
subjectiag the weaker aectiona of the which it may b added, that, wheo aa found to abido thens. 7)e voters will
State to the policy of the stronger slyted, It turns smt to U aching mort coaaist ofmilltoos, and cannot hacor.
thus giving, cm a smaller scale, tad ia ooe leis than an old r.ljecti in aicw rupud jhey will be acaitertd over
reference to counties and State tJivU form, - to tho-dUtria. srem . Itself, iha terriiory c the whale coafedera
sionsaa example of that tendency of For the purposes of coasrfIdaticm,-it hioo,-and cannot hold an intercourse
the stronr ta onnress the weak, which lis berfectlv imraiterial obethr r the with the candidates t they will vote at
is one of the mala objection s tothe people vote by diitn'cU, is their owa several thousand different places, oa
coosoUdattoa of these Confederated persons, , or. through the agency . ef the same hours of the same day. and
States. ' '' ' ."'.'... electoral and, if this ayst-w is estab. can oeiihcr fight, aor coalesce they
: aoe oojeciion, inai uie raiauiiaoiiuneu, u if unaoowo im nc Vujhiuii i aic sot preeaunog waj-, jh iuv
tncot of a uniform mode of election! tee for what obiect iha ioititution afl sense of the btjectlon, for that, term
by j7friVfr, will treoch upon the rights (electors can be supposed to be want I only applies to email selected bodies.
rt thit t fr. 1.1 SPV ecrtid.
whs'i ttr. Jt U rbvifeu.
tht wKl ihtmj Snd iplrit of
the eOfiUtati O at the Vtter
as intcn lt 1 to be tYot n If electoro
frnk from the f enp!r , and that it was "
otver frtvti.pfH'i that tha'etettion
ihfjtd devolve eo t' U-yt of Jfeprrv
sentatrves, vlcept In aa estratrdiBy
and rare tsnt'p-tetr Hut. from af""
cxteasioa ia territory, which coold eot
have hero foreseen, and aa Inrreata U
wealth and population, berorid ill ei ....
pecution, the pursuits of cnt cltiseei
bsve become ao diversilied. end so
many local Interest! have sprunf up
among them, that It la almost a vai ,
hope that the election ef freiident can
ever again be effe tied on the Crtt trial,
whetbef the penple vrte direct, or
through the orenty of Intermedial
electors j and It seems to le Da longer
doubtful, that, under ordinary circuma
ttaocci, the choice mutt, hereafter,
devolve upon the House of Rrprvsee
tativci. .The provision of the consti
tution, iatendrd only (or an emerrtiu
cy, thus becoming one of ordinary op
plication, and that which the wisdom
of our faihere'drslcned as'the " medi
tin t it Httl jm tMvmav m -
only la a oaageroua cnaia) ia to U.
come ' oar in'thj brtaj, .
aa wis view oi we luwject, oe
comes a Question, which addreuea '
tklT fo the mind and he afVef 'titty '
lover of Maxountry, whether Cor tress
can lainjtfu tntttea wnh the choice i
of the" Chief Magistrate of this great "
od : growing IlrruUie, aot :aa an . . .
erect, which ia a acricicf years mcy
happtef -but -which la tba-ordiaarr
course of . lffiirt inuit inevitably and
frequently ocfur. the first ohjee
two, and the one which cannot
ail to suggest Itself to every mind, fa
the incompatible nature of the duties
which belong to g Legislative Alsenw
bly and to aa Electoral CoDege, No
Tried by the test of these axioms, I principle cnight, ia the opinion of the)
i Hoose of Represeotatives, as aa I committer, to be held more sacred, a
of the States cannot be admitted. ing.
Un'tfirmitv. ai auch. cannot be an . Finally, there ! a Dolntofvlew from I the
evifr and. if Haras, the infliction of! which to look at the aevcrsl branches I electoral collere. stands condemned! none, certainly ,is more plainly re cor-
it could not be avoided by reiectintr of all these objections, which exhibit I otoa every one of them.' -' , laited in the whole structure, of our
the 'Corami;tees plsn of atnendrttfnt. thetn ia the light of anomalous, if not , I, It :1s Mmallbodfj fAcrff than that 'which keeps
For, if ouiformity'by diitricts is notlvery. equivocal,"" pretentions to' the! ue of bcipg corrupted. -H.Jlri;Jth (Executive and Lcgistaiive' Depart-
esubllshtd by the free consent of the character of tlatt rirhts.' It is this :l i.Tt Isa ore-existina' body, 4hert-1 ments separata and distloct. Thevo
State, uniformity by general ticket or (that they present,1 it contending par lerr capable of being tampered with., (seems, iodeed. to be infused into tho
legislative ballot, must be imposed by ties, not the red era! Government on I J. It sits ia the presence. of .meiadtcrentDrancneie! our uoverflmenf.
necessity. For. when the large States one aide, and the" People of a State oa I candidates, therefore ia aubject to beKdoubtlesi for the wisest ptirposei) a
consolidate their votel to overwhelm the other, hut tht'Lerithturt of a Sute influenced by ran intercourse with I lealoua spirit, which, renerouslv ther-
the small ooea, thoae, io' their turn, Is gainst the Peopkn the samt State: them. " 'V ' ,jT . ' : ; ished and properly directed, may "bo-
must concentrate their own atreorth the aervanu atramit their mssterai the! 4. It votes ia a body, therefore it I fruitful of the greatest benefits. That
to resta't them.T 'A" few Sutei mty leading men against the mass i the few I subject to violence, and capable of coa. the Legislature ehotild elect the Exef
peracTcrc lor ooinc umc, in wnai wey icompiaiQio? wai wey wui lost wo pn-iuuons - - - - ' --r . n.MnVuiiTi i puujuutr
believe to be the fairest system butJvilege of controfing and directing tbel In addition to these objections, fo j inconsistent with the moat cherished
when thev'are tbn nnitv of rtir.n r m,n . lnirh tb fTiiT,e cf rtenreaentativea loriocinlea of our svstem. and. in rrae
which-othera derive from the ireneral i Tha Cmmitra ktA ihelrlia aubfect: in eommoa with all amalliOce,nay be found . equally fatal to tho
ticket iod ligislatiye modes of elec- plan of amendment upoa (he propoai bodies, it is yet liable to- others pe. puriiy of. one branch. the Cover-.
uon. they will eat. and. with dua re. tion, h jt the nla f th Camit Uutlan cuLar to iuelf. at A legislative depart I snent. and we . lodepenaence ol tn
gard to their own aafetv, they cannot, had failed in the election of President! ment, vin-l-.. others -
reals! the umDUtionolJTolIowinff -the and'Viea' Preaident of tha tMiedl.- 1. The anomaly of a Legislature h -The n
same clan: Hence, vnihrmitu will I States: .Tho v mImo nrYaTIuMT-aVcrai I creatldfflhe' Rieetiye.---':-- I which will call into action the atrong.
be impoted hy necessity, if it ia not indicated in Its twd leadinir features ; J. The Interruption of iu regular est, and tome of the worst, passionaof
adopted from choice, with this crest I Mir institution elEIectors and the business. s
dilEtrtace.tlatiht first uniformity will iasaiJfc
deliver up the rotes of. the State, to Houte cf Repretentptbet. tTh the in elections of members, v .
out. nature, jo a pre-existing body of
test I men. assembled at the teat of Oovero
ment,'anl,,fr6hj their 'character and
the active manartrt in the General first branch of this -rjroDosition'hasr 4. The application of a new anflu- aituation; brought into almost daily
Assembliea, while the latter would been fully demonstrated, and the besi ence to these elections, ' , t Icontact with the candidate, on whom
leave them in the hands of tho real substitute proposed which the case ad- J The creation of oppoaition . and I they can confer the Efstofliccja .iho
sovereigni,'Ue quahEed voteft rtf thejm partieain Congress. JKepublic, and who, in turn, can bea
whole State. It can hardly be said the decisiou of the Senate. The es.K6. The effect of all this upon fairltow upon them; brilliant honora and
that the Sutea would have a cho ce. tabliahment of the aecond branch, and leelslation. t u ' v ; ; rich rewards, mntr, from the very na-
when the option would be' between the demonstration of the fitness of theh-f. The further effect of all tbla up tore of things, expose them to the v.
falliocr ioio the eeneral ticket avstemJnronn.M anfiatttnte. Mmaln tAhe ai. on the minds of the people, the char, rioua influences, by which power-ancl
and inhm'ittincf to matpr'isl dminn. riMM. "'- :",Tr rrr of tbe rrovernment. and the stal Dstronace have, in every ace, seduced
n - - - - - "- i iv UJ ayitWU w ' t t . I v - c w . I S . .
tion of their relative weight io the elec- That itwaa the intenticmof the Con- bility of eur republican institutions. 1 meo from th pth of dotjftradteyi.ri.4
tiod. -The question, then. turna upon stitution, in ", giving to the States, in There is one point, however, aod ed them to betray tho most sacred
the relative, advantages of the general the House of Representatives, . an the committee are proud to atate it, in trusta.- When we uke into view tho
fjrV mnA A'tttrirt mnil.i nf ntin. ...i.i'.. .r 1.... .-.:: I wK5-h tin ! I mi n( remvaentAtives. aa firreat and increasinir DatrunJse of ' tho
one or the other of which must aopn crease the weight and respectability of an electoraLcollege, must forever b fcxecutive, and ot me various ue
nhirersallv tirevail t nd it mattera nolth ifftnii.-firt m 5t tn tK .tnJentkled taorefereoca over any other partmenuunderJili control, Ind per.
wing to mc sovereignly or ne aute7TaieinnabceTT0TicranBiCienr
whether one shall he eatihUahtd bv th I'm .K-iL ;. a.,hv vur Tmm Utltnted : it is in the elevation of its er to cause the influence of his office to
. . " j w iiu vat vaaa i v w wnu iv , " a - - m . .
Constitution; of the other imposed bv the Conititution Itaelf. snd from all character in the talenta which distio. be felt, we must shut our eyet to the
necessity j and, as the while point of the eotemnoraneous exftositiohs of that euish, and the integrity.which. eono lights of wisdom and experience, if
this objection is conHned to the mere instrument. : Upori these grounda the bles U; and which the pride, virtue, w do not perceive, that the peviod is
rirht of thoieeli anrl f ehnir-.n th. u ..V.itU. a. r..n A and Intellnreace of the'oeoDle must ba not far distant, when the office of Pres.
w-. w - - iivwi ww uuvviifH "'asar -va a D - - - - r...., , . - , . , ...,.
ivRfmt from t?m a U ..., It. I j.j . :r ii,. l.!.. l ' ik fnrfvr nxiniii to nreatrve and exalt. Jident will be conferred as the reward
that thisVigWcan be afnovabe where Consritution haa which. have heed of open tntngyci and the depeit cor.
IISZ 1IIC ICta,lv aa-i f wj''e,, , a o "aw w
. . r
chojcc ia jrapossioic, ana cnange not ttates have not realized we cnance i taeq agamM uiiugi
deeirable Xi.-U1li.L,,k l this House, are of
' " !. The Second'noinf in the 'ohTeetTnn 1 1? f.n nf l?Vnr,Vrttiiiv h" derived I in he-otinton Oi ther
islheuppdseir AnmihUtionrwi no adaluonarwem ;rocf:henidsmfi6oir 'A?xriTWwfc
power ofthe,inthat tendency to from acting at u4 hetweetf Presi- andwhen their weiglif aoTimpu
acattcr the votes which the district syir dw tance are duly estimated, it can hard- of honorable ambition, will always be "v,
tcmlradmittedWposseasn:!:" evl1,h"thTHo5s ly':Pe? believe J thaf thIlramera of IiaMe'lM&M
'Amittinfr that k naitv f ' v- k-i,- su.U. fnn4 tn .ip eonatitution if the could have of office t and. though they may net
auch a character, I acts of open and palpable corruption,
, this continrent powerUf foreseen the frequent occurrence of be seduced from iheir curse, by the
will be produced by, the district sys- election i then there can be no Teasoo that event, would have consented ; to treasures which may be tB.r9wn.1n wieif
inc a part of the tonstitu-renaanger we puniy w - -1
. O" - C. - ' v1. . . I ' S 1' a ' a! a..'. I L JituiiaiHA(4fiAa MftivaMnnain.
may be desirable to a State 1 that? unity I result from ,
will be produced by, the district sys-lelection t th
tem. as often as tbe ttnte VWire'a i, lfr 1
If the majorities ia all the districta are tibn which has failed of
f. - ... - j a .1 . -ia ' a'" ' . . . " j a .. 1 ii a a evxivjv tAi ar. .xrvrasaFnas--ia,v ent "---
at the same onmlnn. thir viIl--raf ln'rM. 0n"!av1 nf frnort. . The It ons. l)V consenting Vt lairy nrwrsi wniw , "-