North Carolina Newspapers

    r' 4
A, ii""
'V V W.-.Jw"furrU tit, to-sh-er slot the C-witW4i.,
nhhird vnct a rrr at two Julian prr
i ner
asi, ijv& tiret mnlkti or two
vrliiMVtA4lAyri'. Mo Paper will
J Jttroattaurd ntU all arrturairi art
uiilftftf 1kt"Etttori imsstlsS.o
Sj$s rptu will bt rtceittdor a fcu
, 4 Julurt to notiff tit Editor of a witk
j dttconlinut, on movn orjort in riptra
iioiof "ill bt considered at
0r rnngement.
Any prrtot procuring tit toltent tub
r.htrt to tie Carolinian, thall have
ttr'ith paper g raiii. Adverting at the
aft hunt addreited to the Editor mutt
h, paid or tiff will not or atteruten 'o.
iy llieso terms win iw pimi;
ed i. .
Of tOl'TII
) Jr VXtfur'hrr ISprotUt fanke tot
" fftoi of duties on Import ' nt j
Mr. Calhw roa mmI nlJrecJ the
Hj knr not which. h mmI, m tn'xl
-phjr tionnblr, the prorwimw of tb hill, or
tli- lumper in which iu iidupdua li&J Uwa
u.-J. "If 'he extrrtinry jxiwcm with
!iich hn bill f r"jfJ to cHHhv 4)i Li
( Uiive, to the nltbr pmMrttionof the
C-KMMuti'Kt, luul ilm nhUwftlia SlaUm,
Vrlculitedlo iiopreM our oiud with
alarm, at thn rapid prorr i of diipolmn
, j.iurcomjtr)Vtoo X'mI with wtuch ercry
cii Ttt iMUnro, caiculttcit to mwirpiwuit
or t ierut the conJuci ol CarnliiM in
tlin c-mtrovenv, wm teized hi, with
tcw etcite hwrtility ijmntt hnr, IkjI
ti. pUinlv indiratml th dc-p dny of
t)i irHhorly Celiii; wliica once xiicd
b-i."a h" Stute, Kin! to whii'h we ar
wb fa 'l fir rr bwiiittfiir PHnif t?rrmi
It irnot his lnOntum, 4w wiiH, nHrrt
In all the.inireprewiittiiMW, but there
wm fimo o wxll calculatud to mislead
. tb.jfcl, la LM. rual liawlxr 4 the
C-i-T'rtfv,'aaI holJ op the Stale. Tn a
hflit .i aJt-mM. tht be did not tor- him
tulf ii4iilS )4 in permitting them to p
lu'ueJ.- -.
" A them, one of the mnet promt
W IM Tl'V Vatntiieut, that the b-
yX if 3, Cr dmn m lo. eajpt. taewelf
jr tTi her mr the-pubue-- buruieo
' t'tita ih7 participated ia the advautawi
of in U irenmo iL If the charite.wat
" jrij If tlie'Sttte waa capable ofbeiiigac-
tuail ev onfci lowt4 enwrthy motive,'
" to tt'ier M lie "eonaiihreJ Her, he w xild
ttitHiid up on thiaflxr and vindicate her
. eanJucU A oi her fault, and fauhahe
Wjl; not dmiy ahe had. no 01 ha4 ever
':.f 4 rharirtd Iter witw that W ami- wiet
" tiHidnf vice-avartcet-fliyr conduettm'
..- ;!) rcaioa had been marked wit h the re-
ry onpnite qualitv. ' From the coiuiucooe
wut f the revolution from ita firet brea-
km? out at B rttoo, till thia hour, no Stale
bo I been more profuao of it blood in the
tau of the country t nor had any con
Inbtiied o largely to the common treasu
ly, in proportion to her wealth and popu
,.litu 8be had in that proportion -con
triiMiled more to the M porta of the Union,
tin 1 lie pxclianire of which, with the rent
-f the wirM, the ' rreater ; portion rif the
Ju'iJit burden had been rTevW,1&ahiny
Vtwitate."" N'V the ' eontrovoray " wa
0t kucIi as ha been atated; the State
dul n it sovk to participate in the aJvaula
t"" of the Government without contrihu
-tau her full aha re to the public treasury.
Her ohjort waa far different. A deep
- CiKut it.iii.inal tjtieatioo lay at the bttom of
ium(merrr I he Trat -question at
Unue h, has the Ooverninent 'a right to
- imp w burdfiia on (lie capital and iiiJuntry
Hfonfl portion of the country, not with a
View 1 1 revenue, but to benefit another?
Vie Utag and deep agitation, of this contro-
- twy7it was with aurprize; that TieTperT
r?d so stroni a disposition to misrepre
il real cliaratrtnr. , To enrrgnamprnn-thn Hliitft ii nnt only agaiiwt the
IiCTsajuay ja-hiuliTtWoaw' "iHwreiMiiaawiij;
tio'i were calculated to make, he would
el 00 the point under consideration for
ti few moments longer. ; , - -
The Fedoraj Government has by an
Jxiiress pn vision of the Constitution, the
"iLl'y .duties onlmpo!rtfc The Stme
?"peven ilght so doing. The Gov.
rn tfM has, hjwerer, not been content
d With 'xereiiiiig this power as ahe jiad
right 1 1 do, but had gone step beyond
yinjf rm WV, not f if le venue, Twi
S micoiistitutional exereiae of power-
?hly injurious anJ oppressive to her and
other staple States, and had accord
m!t it wit1! the Wst determined re
glance, flo did not intend to enter,, f l
uMnne, into tlnrarganient, as to the utr-
-"'uiounnaiity of the protective system-
'wwMrytJU auSsLnnLihat
A 1 . ...
0 Wer I Oil wluiM r nn tot artl I hot
.frm the jDunmlsfjftJieConvViuiiofi which
fcrtned the-G-Mrititution, it would eeem
r4thad been r-lu-wd. la smniMt ol"
j oale,, m,.bt e-t.Mh .tatem-ms partmeata of the Gernromt. It could . tt f period I The law.' war with CCat taking any part ... the Presidential can
, 'tber Aiartin, tucii had beeo alread . not b claimed for tho oucj wiihowl cj?j- JJrin &i prniflaldA wticft, f l'J V$ WWiJ tljttl U tepWlM
u "" f'om Conferring ths power on (ho
' reocrai uovcrnmnni, duh ii to ue pistes
the right to impose dutieeon imports, Willi
tii eapreaa view 01 rruillni(( (lie acvenu
.tatef to protrct Ihoir own inanufictarr.
3otwithtarMtiK tint, UiMin had awn
ttt-wrHwntny wamrffrtnfn tteCC
stitution, the right of exfrrmiii(J thia moot
important power, ami had etcrciaed it
as to iniiMMe a ruinous burden on the labor
ami capital of the State, by which her re
urce were ehauited the enjoy merit
of her ciliz"ns rurtmlml the mean of
education r fllractcd-aol all bcr inter
U sMscmially and iniuriouoly ail tlO'l,
Wa) have been aoeerinly told, she
was a atnall State ; tliat her pupulatioo did
nit much neeed hall a million of soul
and that more than one half were not ti
tne turopean race. I be met were so.
He knew she could nver be grrai state;
and that the only ilixtiwtioo to which ahe
could asinre iiiuaI bo Md on the mora
and iolelli-ctual aciivireinents of er mm.
I tw devol'ipement of these, much
her attention ha4 be directed; bur this
restrictive system, which had so unjustly
exact ml the pncccJ. .vCii? C Jbof lohe
oentoweu no 4br smcImmm, d4 su imiimm
red the rrsnurcei oftUHJ, that if tM
spwdily arrestinl,' it w iul l dry up the
nmaiM of educaiimi, ami wilh il deprive
her of the only s-Hirce through which Uo
culd aspire to duiinction
Thre was anothT mifntument a to
U Mum indebNte, aod Wf H esleulatrd
to"inil"ail, ihat'Tie full liouiid to notice it.
It has been said, thnt Aaith Caroline
daimt the right to annul the .Cotulilulion
and lawt ol the United States j and to re
but 'his. sUjipoeid cluim, the geuUeman
frim Virjpma (Mr. Uivcs,) has gravely
quote.t llie CooitilutioO ta prove, that the
Constitution and the laws made in porsu
ance thereof are the supreme lawi of the
land ; as if the Stale claimed the right to
act contrary to thia provision of the Con
stitution. Nothing can be more errone.
ous f her objnet is not to resist lawsmnde
in pnrsuance of the Const itntion, but rhoae
made without it authoritV, and which en
croach on her resnrved powers. She
j-nleiete wot eve W-egttt- f jwdgwiyef the
delegated powers ; but of those that are
reserved, and to resist the former when
they encroach upon iho, tatten . (le would
pnune to lllustrnto this impiirtaiit pimit."
Alt mut iqiiut tiut fhefe are ikleuMed
and reorved powers.' and that the powers
jeaerveJrana reserved tu the Sutiaropoc-
tiveUr fhe ptwer -tliew of 4 lie - 0ver-
meni are divuiadbeiween th tjeocruJ and
the Stat GovaruiiwnUf and the poiiit im
mediately urvlet counderatum is. wiiuther
a State has anv right t judg9 as to tfie e-,
tent o iu renerved powers and to defend
them airainst the eocMechnwits oftlie
General " Gbveronien'. "'Vitriout goiiia
deeply intu.thia pomt aLtlii atage. f the
argftincnt, or talking, irite the hatu re and '
Vifiilu iTfte udvertHnetir, ITh W was a
simple view 0 the subject, which he -cm in-
sidored as conclumvci The viiiv idea of
a divided power, implied the right, on the
part of the Slate, for which he contended,
The expression was metaphorical when up.
plied to power. Every one readily undur
stands that the division of mattor consi4s
in the separation of the parts. Hut, iu
thisflerwej it xra not applicable to pnwer,
What then i nvart by a division of now
erf He could not' conceive if a division,
without giving' tra equal right to each to
judge of the extent oj tTie power allotted to
eaca. oucn neni ne nviu 10 ue eciiiiui
to the existence of a division ; and that to
give to either party the conclusive right of
judging not only of tne share allotted to it.
but of that allotted to the other, was to
annul the division, and would confer the
whole power on tlie "party-rested -with
sitch right. But it i contended- that the
Constitution ha conferred on the Supreme
Court the " rfglil W ludgiBg" betwNMI the
State and the General Governmwit.
Thorn who make this objection, oerljok
ed, ho concai ved..im4iortut..prQvUuui.
of (he Constitution. By turning to the
10th amended article of the" Constitution,
it will be seen that the reservation of pow
powr delegated to i Congrejia; but agauist
the United State themselves; and extends,
of course, as well to tlie judieiaryj-a to the
other department of the Government. r
The article provides that all powers, not
delegated to the United States, or prohib
ited by k to the State, are reserved to the
presents me mquiryi wnai powers nre uci
egttted to the United SuteiT "They may
be classed under four division f First,
those that are delegated b the Siate to
tution may be aJ tered or amended by three
fourt h of the States, when, wiUHXitjvhica,
it would have required the unanimous vote
of hl. Next the power conferred on
Conirfi..jai then those, on "the President 1
and, finally. those on the Judicial Depart-'
meilt all of which are partkularly -enu.
aw rated, to the pasts or. the Jonstitutioo
which nriranicM the rcenectivo deirt -
merits. ' The reservation of power to the
Siatea is, as he has aidtaginst the whole,
and is a full against the judicial, fUHt 1
ihe flviitrve ami le?isltiv d-
Wg tr firth wVoJe,' TinTw atiW,ToMheelivr yZm"iJi'pd.-f it hi I
annulling thia impirtant pmviainfl 1 the
Constitution- Agsinst (his, as it appear
ed to him, eonclunive vhw of the suhjnet,
it lias bin urgnd I lint thia jniwrr is ex
presvly conferred on the Kuitreme Court.
l,'M4irtioa ilihuatii-e - wl.H'h
proviut-s, that the jiidicml p iwer shall CI
tcixl loall row in law and equity, arising
mioer tne v imxtinition, Ihf law of the V
mted Htatgs, and treaties made under thei
authority. n believed the ssw rtion
be utterly deatitute of any fiiumlatmn.
nbviouoly was the intention of the Const i
Itilion limply to make the judicial power
cn.niiKMMMirale with the lew making and
treaty. ninking powers; and to vent it with
the right 4d applying the (Constitution, the
laa, and the treaties, to the cases which
might arise under them ; ami not to make
it the judges of the CViwtitutiow, the laws,
and the treaties themselves. In bet, the
power ot aptilving the laws to the fact
ihecaie, and deckling npsi such a optica
turn, ronslilute in truth the tudicuil pi
er. I ne distinctiou between uci power,
nJ tTifit of jUirging oRIifl !, Wld V
perfectly, apparent wjien we advert to hat
is 1 he acknowledged s-iwerof the Court in
rvfnrvmre to treaties vr ompWtaTbtiiweeu
suvereiiu. It was aeiieeilv swaatilswfit,
that the Courts have no right to judge i
the violation ti treaties; and thai, in re
Crcnce tu I hem, their powee is limited to
the right of judging, snuplr of the notation
of right under them; and that the right I
iutlinji of iiifntctwia MLios-Cxcluaivcly
to the partie themwjlvra, and rro to the
l.ourt4; 4 winch w bare an example In
the r rrneh treatv, which wa declared hy
CdngrcM null and Void, in consequence of
it violation bv the C eminent of France
WilhouLch.-decUraliiJiuJd. Jxcuch
citiznn sued citir.en ol this country under
the treaty, the Court could have taken no
cognisance of its infraction ; nor after such
a declaration, would it have heard any ar
jruinent or pnwf going to show that the Ires
ty had not been violated.
Die declaration of itself was conclusive
on the court. J ' But it would te atksl how
the Court obtained (lie powers lo pronounce
law or tn-aty unconstitutional, when they
come in conmci with that lustruuieiii 1 tie
t ... .at aa
did wot Jeriy that St posse sue the right.
but he could by no means conceue that it
w derived from the Constitution. It hud
its origin iu tlie necessity of t lie ease.
here there were two or mure rules estab-
ished, te from a higher, the other 'roin,
ower authority, which Aught come into
CouUictf ui ajtplving them to a particular
eesef-the jidgeeiuld not avotd pronounc
ing in favor of the superior agaluat thQ 10,
(erior. ft was from tin's iiecewily, ainl
thisalone, that the pwcr which is now sot
up to overrule the rights ol' tit States, a
gain;it an expn's provinou of the Cnustl-
tutem, was derived. 1J1 jia no other orLl
L'lii. Tliat he had traced it to its true
fluurce, would bo tnauifeat from .the fuel, J
tlmt 'fr si poir which; W fur' Trom ba-
lug coiiftri-ert"exf liwivety oh' "thriajroiile'
Oairt, as waarinstattvl; betongwl to eveiy
coui I infcruir'aiid'" aupcrlof Statejaud
Uje'riil and even to fureiu CiHirts.
Hut the Senator fanu Delaware, (Mi
Clay tr n) relics on (ttw Journals of the Coo
vcntion to prove that it was the intention
of that body to cooler on the Supreme
Court the right of deciding in the last re
sort between a Slate and the General G : V
ernuienU Ue would not follow him f hromjh
the journals, as be did not deem' thai to be
ix-ciuwcy Ui refute bis argument.," It was
sufficient fofthis hurpoae to state, that Mr.
Ilu'iedge reported a resolution providing
expressly that the United Stutea and the
Stales might 'be partie before the Supremo
Court. . if thi proposition had beeuadup
ted, he would ask the S'nator whether this
very controversy between the U. States
and South Carolina niightnHor1av"l)c6n
brought beforrthe Court t -Hrwoutd at
so ask him, whether it could be brought
bejl")rt thecmift va 'theChsU
stands! if he answers the former in the
affirmative, and the latter in the negative,
as be.mtut, is-cleax, Jila ekuurato
argument to the contrary notwithstanding,
that the report of Mr. Rutledga wa not in
ubstance adopted a he contended ? end
that thn J.inniiil.i.UQ. faf Irora Bupportin,
am ia:: rJircct3jmiton;::io ::ihff.:poaiiiuD
which he attempt to maiutain. Ho might
push the argument much further against
the power ot tlie court, but he did not deem
it necessary, at least at this stags of the
discussion. If the views which had alrea
dy been presented be correct, and he did
.-not h4w .-they ou!d Jba resisted.. Ihe
conclusion was inevitable, that the reserv
ed power were reserved equally against
every department of the Government, and
as strongly, again the Ju liciat a against
the other departmenu ; and ot course were
left under thftaicluft.wilj, of the State.
Tlwre still remained another misrepre
senUtion of the conduct of the State, which
has been made with the- ?ie 01 exciting
odium, lie alluded to the charge that
South "Carolina supported the ; Tariff of!
aSlfl.awLwiw, therefore repoiwib!t or j
ine protective system. o ocicruuuc un
"'truth of thil cha'E jtJ
to ascertain the ial haraeteef that-law
whether it waa a taruTfrr revenue or for
proteciious wnicn presema tno enuwry -y
wat waa tue eoo.liti.Hi of the couutry A
diverted a large amamt of rapital and in
uustry irH rommerce to maniiuetures,
partM alarry to theeHto ami woollen bran
cbes. riiera wa a debt at the same time
of one hundred and thirty millions of d4
fere hanging- WonrJiO.inTryTY' ffe
tM-avy war dutte were still in existence.
Liwer these cirenmstanres llm quction
wa presented, to what point the duties
wight to be reduced I That, question in
vol red another at what time the debt
ought to be paidt which wa aquestim
policy, involving m iu comurerati'in all the
eiirunMJniMicoHieiit'd uith the then con
dition of the rouutry. Among the . trvwt
prominent argunwnls in favor a an rarly
disrharge of thv.dibt, aal that the high
amies wimb it would require to rlCrt it
waiid have at tlie same time the rflVt
Mtstauung the iunul manufactures, which
hud oeeu lorced up under tlte ei t-uuiatance
to ahirh he had advefiinl. . This view of
the sulmt had a derided influence in deter-
niiuiug m fvorofan early nnvmenl of
at . 1 1 a ra - " " 1
Sie mm. 1 ne siuhiiig fund was accord,
irly ra'weif from "Wveii to leu luillioiu 'of
dollars, with the provii.i to apply the
.fVfPi!!?J?I,.BJ?,l,,L..m?.m. TrMV
ury,.aaya c-mlininot ppropriatinn to tnet
fonw fwd thn ewtie were framed tn meet
Ibis im reased expeniliture. It wa lhu
that the pdicy aod justice of protecting
the (urge aiaount of cafnial aod industry,
which had been diverted kv the measures
of the Government, into new cliAimels, as
ha huJ jUatouVwa emntned wsth-the llsHiwaioii wrthan rvenrwr ton apVff "pnMeJ;
eal action oftUGavernuieut, aod whU-b.
while it secured a prompt payment bf "the
debt, prevented the immense los-tes to the
manufacturers, which would have f tllowed
a sudden and great reduction. Still, re
vouua waa too feMMt -object, and protection
IkjI the incidental. The bill to reduce the
duties r reported by the committee of
iv ay a and Mean, and not of Manufactur
es? and it jropowd a heavy rec'urtwn on
the then existing rate of duties. But what
of itself, withiNjt other evidence, was de
cisive as lo thl character i f the hill, is the
fact thnt it frfd a much fiigbcr rate of da
lies im the unprotected than tli protected
article. II would et.umnrale a h-w lead
nig articles only ; w jollen and cot too above
the yalue" of ?3 cents" on the square yard.
tcougli they were the leading objects ol
protection, were subject -to a.ienuuieut
uuryoiouiy xu per cen .. jrrJii, anoluer
auing article auKMig the protected, had
protection of not iuore than 9 per ccut,Jas
nted by 1 he act, and of but la asfepnrtetl
w the btlL-iTbesa-rates war all below
theavcrage iatlcr ft fixed lOuc-TicllS:
uiJing tho protectail. the unprotected, and
ma'. m fl-ce artuteii. "I Air. C. said be bad
entered iuto some calculation in order to
aaoertaia the average rutr of duties in the
act There waa some uaccrtaiuty in the
daU.Jwt he felt assured that r it' was not
lens than 80 per cent, ad talortm ; show
ing an esoow of tlie average duties above
that inioout (ui'lli oro'im liH) i (ii'Taiio
uicfuted, oT MtHethan 10 per cent.,' and
liiwa elearty estaWisfiirig the Character of
tte incanQiC, ttnit it ui lor roveuue an-1
not protcctiou.
Looking bock, even at this distant peri
od, with all our e xporiouce, he perceived
but two error in the act the one in re
leronco to iron, and the other the minimum
duty oa coarse cotton. As to tho former
he conceived that the bill, a reported pro
posed a duty relatively loo low, which was
still further, reduced in its passage through
Cougresfc riTjie duty jd,jlrat.waa fixed
at acyenty five cent the hundred, jveibt J.
but, in the last stage of its postage, it wa
reduced by a sort of. caprice, occasioned
by an unfortunate motion, to forty five cts.
1 his injustice w as severely folt iu Puuiwyl
vauia, the State, above all others, most
productive of iron I and wm tho principal
wise oftharTrrearrea,fii lias
'since fhroWefhet rso deSJedryoittfieiride
of the protective policy. 'The other error
wunhuti aVio
the duty was a much too high, a that on
iron was too low. It introduced, beside,
the. xjbuuxiou uuoimura principlerwhich
has since beeo so mischievously extended;
and to thatextehtrha ivi4nTOnatraTnclt;in
candor, to acknowledge, u he wished to
iliagiaso-JiaUiuigUhe f ntf eteindplel
mm moiinma ibf iuo cj ot .ltfo. tio w.
thia was overlooked, at the lime, it is not in
his powec to say7 tt escaped observa
tiou, which he can account for only en tlie
ground that tho principle waa then new,
and that bis attention was engaged by an
other importaut subject the question of
which, as chairiuao ol the committee, he
was particularly charged. With these ex
ceptions, he again repeateVl, he saw ootb
iiijj; in ths.jbiJljojele4t). Je, it fas pa
the grodiid that the members from the
tempt is now made to bold up Carolina a
responsible for the whole system of protec
tion which has since followed, though' she
has resided iu progress in every stage,
Wa tbera ever greater injustice t And
bow was it to be accounted fur,' but u far
ming a part of that systematic misrepre
sentation and calumny, which, ha been
iuuocaQ many yearswitheulJui
rupttim, against that gallant aud generous
w7 ...... . ....
ed 1 Merely because aha abstained from
14 mere erstem qjT impntion on the
people f controlled, almost Iaively, ,y
tnoae wnoen orjeet 11 wa tu obtain the pa
tronaga of the Government J ami that,
without regard to principle er pdicy.
maiHiinf ajrt trmn what fonswr. rejj
a oooikw, m which the piiMte had no In
If rest, the ha beea assailed by both par
lies, with fury altogether unparalelled ;
but which, pursuing the course which she
believed lilierty and duly required, she ha
nvi with a nrinne equal to lb fierceness
of the asaaulU la the nuM of this attack
he had 0 t escaped. With a view of in
flicting a wiaind on the Stale, through him
he had been held up as the author of the
protective system and one of I's most
strenuous ailvaate. ti wa wilh" pain
that he allmled to himself, on so deep aod
graves snl.joct as that how ander discus
sion ; aod which, he sinrerery believed,
involved the liberty ot the country. He
nw regretted, that under the sense 4 in-'
jounce, which the remarks of a "enalnr
from Pennsylvania, f Mr. nn.Kim.letci
led fir the moment, he ' had hastily given
his pledge to" defend liimelf against the
charge which had lieen maue 10 reference
to bis course- in 118 f not that there
would be any'dilTIciifty" In " renetrTng "the
charge, but ltfu-s Be fi-lt sT tieep reluc
tance m turning the discussion, in any rtO'
gree, from a subject of so much magni
tude lo one of so little importance as the
consistency nr inconiror.f y of hiinol "
any mner irniiviauoi, particularly la Con
Out for this hssty pledge, hs would have
remalurd silent as to his" ;n"c'our7""n
this uccation J and would bave boras with
patience and caliiuw, this, with the ma
ny other niisrepnwenlalion with which
h had bwtl MltiCeiiiujn aiiantiTo so
many year.
The charge, that he was tlie author of
tun protective system, bad no other fouo-
IhIhhi but lloil, 1m, hi ciHHimm with tlie al-
uioet entire south, give his support Iu the
tariff of 1910. It is true, that hoailvoca-
led that tneaaura, f.r which ha might rest
hi defence;- without taking any other, 00
the ground that il wa a turifffor revenue,
and not for protection ; which he had es
tablished beyond the power of controversy.
tint hi speerh on theecrasion hnu tern
brought in judgment againat? huu by xm
Seuator from Pennsylviiua. 11 hud sinco
cart hi rres over theam?pfh 1 and h
would surprise, ho had no doubt, the Sou
ator by telling hiui thul, with iheexcep
tion of some htaty and initi'irdisj' exprs
aiuua, thai he-rotf acted 4nu.g he hsl u)
lered W that tiecasion - He only asked
that he might be judged In reference, to. ft,
iulhat spirit of fainies and justice which
was due lo tho irccawoa ; JakLig iulo on-
sideralion the circuuudance under a hich
it was dol'vsred,and bearing to mind that
the subject was a tariff f ir reveuu aud
not for protection 2 for roduciur and ik4
raising the revonu ' 4iut)-oetore he.
phuued the thou couditiuo jof , the counUy,
lioui .wuica. ui maw argun(iili u. favor
of tuo. measure wero drawn, it was nothing
but an act ot justice; tu hnusulr, that, he
liouid state a tact in connexion with hi
speech that was nocosnary to explain what
be bad called hasty and unguarded expres
sions. Uia spoech was aa impromptu ; and,
assuch, hs apologised to the House, he
appears from Uui speech al printed, fir of
Wring h.s seutimetrt on the question with
out having duly refluiited 011 the subject.
t was-douvaroa Mtus rsquostoTa friend
when he had nt tlie lcaV iu.
tcntion of addressiiij the Hooso "ho aflu.
ded to Samuel 1).. Ingham, then and now,
as be was proud to say, a peisoiial and po
litical Irieud a mau,ol laluiits aud integ
rity with a clear. Jieud,, , and Jnn, pud
patriotic heart then among the leading
owmbers ot the 1 louse m the palmy
stats ot his political glory, though flow for
motnoul depressed depressed, did he
say oo 1 it wahi talwhich was lo'
pressed ronnsylvaiiia, which bad de
serted huu under circumstance which,
instead ol dcpresaiq, ought to huye eleya
tad hiul iu - her estiniHUimr lie came to
jgK, said Mr. C., when sitting at my desk
wpling,and suid that the tiouss wa tailing
into some confusion, accompany lug it with
iTemwkTttort kiJcrhuW iauit ir
to tatty soiargo bodrwheii once bfokeli
ou a lux bill, aa had oeeu experienced-du
ring the tale war. t laving a higher opm
ion of my tullueucs than it deserved, he
requested ma to say something to prevent
the -contusion.-! HiedrahliVl r.C,
that I was at a loss whut lo say ; that 1
had-been busirjraflgBgedtartlie; tiirretotfn
which was thea ui reat oonluaion, and
which, as 1 had stated, had been placed
particularly under my ciutrge, as the chair
man of ttieitnTtte6rw thar'iUbj'ilcf;
He repeated his request, and the speech
which the Senator from PennsyrvMiii" ha
complimented so highly was the result.
He(MK C.) would ask, s whether the
facts stated ought not iu, justice, to bo
borne in mind by those who would hold
hjm accountable, not only for the general
scope of the speech, but for every word
and sentence which it contained. But,
r t 1 -1 ' -f . f
said ir. ..r in suiting uus question, it
was not his Interaiou, "toreputo
speech All he asked was, that lie miizht
be judged by the rulea Which', Injustice','
U ivHied to the case, u-tiloe rccoilee-
V-'d tlft t,bf hjlj was re,vyaa 'hj and,
VOL Mil-... Ml
of tourse, that it wa coniitulioos . "I
need not remind the Senate, wheii the
measure is constitutional, that all arru.
ment calculated lo show it beneficial op
sratMMi may be legitimately pressed lute)
"rrttff, wiUvaiLJakingoiuo ovlerstiHt .
whether the subject, to which the argu. ' N
events refer be within the sphere of th
constitution or not. - If, for instance, 4
questiiai were before the body to Iny a du
ty is biUJes, and a uwKiou be made lo re.
dura the duly, or admit bibles duly fn-s, -
whoeiwlddouU that the argument in fa
ver of the motion that the increased circu
lation of the biWes would be in favor of
I ha morality and religion of the country,
wisild be strictly protierf Or, who wouli -
supms that ha who had adduced it hai
committed himself, on the coctstitutimiali
ty nf taking the religion or morals the
caiutry unoVr the charge of tls- Federal
government r Again I bppw the- que.
lion to be le raise the dirty 00 silk, or anjr
other article of luxury, dt'that it should bs
supported u lb ground thai it was ail
article mainly ftisutned by tfm rkh ani
extravagiuit, could it be fairly inferred
that, in the opinion of the speaker, Con.
tress had the right In pvs sumptuary
U'ssT lis" tinty 'Hedtlut th.s plain Tutnxt
bnappjied tu bis argutntaU ntan tantf of .
elO. They turned almost entirely
the benefit which tnauufaclure cotifi rrej
onlhscsnnlry in time of war 1 aud winch,
00 one could doubt. The country had r.
eently passed thn ugh such a state. Tiis
World ws,H tlinniiiie;' doeplyaliiiuiej
by lbs etibcta of the great conllict, whicb)
liaJ soliaig njfA in Europe, and which us - :
one could tell how sooa again might re- -
turn, uonanarte had but recently fcnen
Qboo.aoMtjeri part .. '.i
this contuioni wa in a stats of revolution. '
and wa threatened with the inti-rfl renew
of iImi Holy Alliance, which, bad it occur.
red, must almost necrftsnrily have involved
this ciamlry in n most dangeruus coollict.
It was under these circumstances that
had delivered the speech, in which he nr.
ged the lluusot that, io tlie . adjustment jof vr.r
los UiUi, relartxtce wight to bo had to
state of war, as. sell as pears; and thai
its provisions ought to be fixed on the com
paind views of the two jMriods mnkinj
suinujsacruice in peace tu order - ttan Ui
les might . b mads, in warr- IV a ?hil t.
principle false I aud, in urging it, did ha. -CwMMVMt
hiwewlf'ts-that system ;of eppres,
sion since growu up, aud which ba h t .. . .
rtTuliject the enriching ous portion of ' - .""""
thssountry at the rxpmse of the other f -.
ZM T;. Pur'itf the plaiu . r ula JttlHiucS .TjITl .'Ll
cases was, that wheu a meeeu'rs wa pro'."i-:l", -posed,
the fimt .thing, is ,to asfceil in . itt , - -
Co'uslilutiouality t aud,. that -bsiofl 'i"'T''.T
tamed, the next was it ei(sdient,j,t wMfc r-r.-,:;-,rrT.:
latoMined the whole field (if aiumaut -
for aud agaiust. Every lHrifl mav beur - - '
ged calculated to prove it wi or uuwiss)
so in a mil to raise imports. It ioutt
first be,acwiaiurthaLtli. bill, tahuttai
on the enncipes if revenue, and. Jhat'lllif.-ii;-",
money ratwd is necessary Tor the wants
of thoouniryi''Tliese Wirig'awertaiiicd
every argument, direct ami indirect,-may
ue luirly ollersd, which may go to show
that, under all the circumstances, the pro.
vision of the bill are proper or improper
Hud this p ain and simple rule been auher
eel to, we siiiHild never have hoard of tuo
complaint of Carolina. Her objection i
o4 against the improper modificaiiou of aj
bill acknowledged to be for- rtvenue : but
that under lite imine of iutpiwds.-.a power.
tsseiitially drtlernt from-the taxing poww
: .... j .i.:.- !'"'
,ivwu jniiuiMMg uiucn more ot
tho character of a penally Hum a tax. No.
thing ia more common than that things
clisHily resembling in appearance should
widely and essentially ihllor in their char . -
acter. Areentcrfor inntauce, "
fi"""! yet one is deadly poison, aud tha tu. -I, -
ther lltat which Constitutes the ta(l of hie,-
So, duties imposed, whether (or n veniii -- '
prpteel ion niuy ho callediliifwslii Un, ufcav
uonuiially aud appnrontly the anwt y:t
dillcr essentially in their real uharacter. "
Mr. C. said he should now re 1 um to Ins
spaxh.tif4th Ta-iiTtrclC f,"" '"
mine what his opiui'MM really were on IIk.
sul.ject-ef protection, it that time, if a 'u
he proimr to advert to his sentiments 1
jure aiidaflnrlhat perioJ. .". ,
piuciJeuig.lB16',.oo ihia subject, is UMt .. 4"!
ter of recruvuilacanie wito Congress 40
1813, a devoted friend aod supporter of
the then administration yet one of hi ;
first etfurta was t' brave .thn adnii nisi ra
tion, by imposing jts favorite meajiuru tho . . .
reslrictive. sysieiiitinharo, nou inter'
xourseafldiU -wraAd that Jipnn the.ptiou-
pie of tree trade. The ay stem remained
in fashion for a time ; but after the over
throw of Bonaparte, he ( Mr, C.) had re
ported a lull 4jpoutb CtMinien J-Vt- -v.p
eign Relations, to repeal the whole svs- ,
IWMJum-lMmMe, W bin th)- - -bill
was under consideration, a worthy -
man, then a member of the House, (Mt.-
Ale Mm, ot tiaiiimorc,) moved to except
the noii-impoi talion act, which he suppor
ted on the ground of encnurageim nt te -
manufacture, .Hq (Mr, C.l nai.ied the
tnotico oa the very ground oo which il r.
that tha manufacturers were th ti 'eceiv
ihg too niuch " pTuTwiuuhtiidarwNf ii -
friends that the withdrawal of, the prott
tioo which the wnf and the high dutu-a
theh-a!n.rded, would cause great enjbar
fasAinuQt I tad 1 hat the Una policy in ttd

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